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  • Warringer, Jonas, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Evolutionary constraints on yeast protein size
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Bmc Evolutionary Biology. - 1471-2148. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Despite a strong evolutionary pressure to reduce genome size, proteins vary in length over a surprisingly wide range also in very compact genomes. Here we investigated the evolutionary forces that act on protein size in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing a system-wide bioinformatics approach. Data on yeast protein size was compared to global experimental data on protein expression, phenotypic pleiotropy, protein-protein interactions, protein evolutionary rate and biochemical classification. Results Comparing the experimentally determined abundance of individual proteins, highly expressed proteins were found to be consistently smaller than lowly expressed proteins, in accordance with the biosynthetic cost minimization hypothesis. Yeast proteins able to maintain a high expression level despite a large size tended to belong to a very distinct set of protein families, notably nuclear transport and translation initiation/elongation. Large proteins have significantly more protein-protein interactions than small proteins, suggesting that a requirement for multiple interaction domains may constitute a positive selective pressure for large protein size in yeast. The higher frequency of protein-protein interactions in large proteins was not accompanied by a higher phenotypic pleiotropy. Hence, the increase in interactions may not reflect an increase in function differentiation. Proteins of different sizes also evolved at similar rates. Finally, whereas the biological process involved was found to have little influence on protein size the biochemical activity exerted by the protein represented a dominant factor. More than one third of all biochemical activity classes were enriched in one or more size intervals. Conclusion In yeast, there is an inverse relationship between protein size and protein expression such that highly expressed proteins tend to be of smaller size. Also, protein size is moderately affected by protein connectivity and strongly affected by biochemical activity. Phenotypic pleiotropy does not seem to affect protein size.
  • Conflicting Phylogenetic Signals in the SlX1/Y1 Gene in Silene.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMC evolutionary biology. - 1471-2148. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence from DNA sequence data has revealed that phylogenies based on different genes may drastically differ from each other. This may be due to either inter- or intralineage processes, or to methodological or stochastic errors. Here we investigate a spectacular case where two parts of the same gene (SlX1/Y1) show conflicting phylogenies within Silene (Caryophyllaceae). SlX1 and SlY1 are sex-linked genes on the sex chromosomes of dioecious members of Silene sect. Elisanthe. RESULTS: We sequenced the homologues of the SlX1/Y1 genes in several Sileneae species. We demonstrate that different parts of the SlX1/Y1 region give different phylogenetic signals. The major discrepancy is that Silene vulgaris and S. sect. Conoimorpha (S. conica and relatives) exchange positions. To determine whether gene duplication followed by recombination (an intralineage process) may explain the phylogenetic conflict in the Silene SlX1/Y1 gene, we use a novel probabilistic, multiple primer-pair PCR approach. We did not find any evidence supporting gene duplication/loss as explanation to the phylogenetic conflict. CONCLUSIONS: The phylogenetic conflict in the Silene SlX1/Y1 gene cannot be explained by paralogy or artefacts, such as in vitro recombination during PCR. The support for the conflict is strong enough to exclude methodological or stochastic errors as likely sources. Instead, the phylogenetic incongruence may have been caused by recombination of two divergent alleles following ancient interspecific hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting. These events probably took place several million years ago. This example clearly demonstrates that different parts of the genome may have different evolutionary histories and stresses the importance of using multiple genes in reconstruction of taxonomic relationships.
  • Ericson, Per G P, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Dating the diversification of the major lineages of Passeriformes (Aves)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2148 .- 1471-2148. ; 14:8, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The avian Order Passeriformes is an enormously species-rich group, which comprises almost 60% ofall living bird species. This diverse order is believed to have originated before the break-up of Gondwana in the lateCretaceous. However, previous molecular dating studies have relied heavily on the geological split between NewZealand and Antarctica, assumed to have occurred 85–82 Mya, for calibrating the molecular clock and might thusbe circular in their argument.Results: This study provides a time-scale for the evolution of the major clades of passerines using seven nuclearmarkers, five taxonomically well-determined passerine fossils, and an updated interpretation of the New Zealandsplit from Antarctica 85–52 Mya in a Bayesian relaxed-clock approach. We also assess how different interpretationsof the New Zealand–Antarctica vicariance event influence our age estimates. Our results suggest that thediversification of Passeriformes began in the late Cretaceous or early Cenozoic. Removing the root calibration forthe New Zealand–Antarctica vicariance event (85–52 Mya) dramatically increases the 95% credibility intervals andleads to unrealistically old age estimates. We assess the individual characteristics of the seven nuclear genesanalyzed in our study. Our analyses provide estimates of divergence times for the major groups of passerines,which can be used as secondary calibration points in future molecular studies.Conclusions: Our analysis takes recent paleontological and geological findings into account and provides the bestestimate of the passerine evolutionary time-scale currently available. This time-scale provides a temporalframework for further biogeographical, ecological, and co-evolutionary studies of the largest bird radiation, andadds to the growing support for a Cretaceous origin of Passeriformes.
  • Guy, Lionel, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide study of recombination rate variation in Bartonella henselae
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - 1471-2148 .- 1471-2148. ; 12, s. 65-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Rates of recombination vary by three orders of magnitude in bacteria but the reasons for this variation is unclear. We performed a genome-wide study of recombination rate variation among genes in the intracellular bacterium Bartonella henselae, which has among the lowest estimated ratio of recombination relative to mutation in prokaryotes. Results: The 1.9 Mb genomes of B. henselae strains IC11, UGA10 and Houston-1 genomes showed only minor gene content variation. Nucleotide sequence divergence levels were less than 1% and the relative rate of recombination to mutation was estimated to 1.1 for the genome overall. Four to eight segments per genome presented significantly enhanced divergences, the most pronounced of which were the virB and trw gene clusters for type IV secretion systems that play essential roles in the infection process. Consistently, multiple recombination events were identified inside these gene clusters. High recombination frequencies were also observed for a gene putatively involved in iron metabolism. A phylogenetic study of this gene in 80 strains of Bartonella quintana, B. henselae and B. grahamii indicated different population structures for each species and revealed horizontal gene transfers across Bartonella species with different host preferences. Conclusions: Our analysis has shown little novel gene acquisition in B. henselae, indicative of a closed pan-genome, but higher recombination frequencies within the population than previously estimated. We propose that the dramatically increased fixation rate for recombination events at gene clusters for type IV secretion systems is driven by selection for sequence variability.
  • Lundin, Daniel, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Ribonucleotide reduction : horizontal transfer of a required function spans all three domains
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - 1471-2148 .- 1471-2148. ; 10:383
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background Ribonucleotide reduction is the only de novo pathway for synthesis ofdeoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. The reaction is catalysed byribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), an ancient enzyme family comprised of threeclasses. Each class has distinct operational constraints, and are broadly distributedacross organisms from all three domains, though few class I RNRs have beenidentified in archaeal genomes, and classes II and III likewise appear rare acrosseukaryotes. In this study, we examine whether this distribution is best explained bypresence of all three classes in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA), or byhorizontal gene transfer (HGT) of RNR genes. We also examine to what extentenvironmental factors may have impacted the distribution of RNR classes. Results Our phylogenies show that the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) possesseda class I RNR, but that the eukaryotic class I enzymes are not directly descended fromclass I RNRs in archaea. Instead, our results indicate that archaeal class I RNR geneshave been independently transferred from bacteria on two occasions. While LECApossessed a class I RNR, our trees indicate that this is ultimately bacterial in origin.We also find convincing evidence that eukaryotic class I RNR has been transferred tothe bacteroidetes, providing a stunning example of HGT from eukaryotes back tobacteria. Based on our phylogenies and available genetic and genomic evidence, classII and III RNRs in eukaryotes also appear to have been transferred from bacteria, with subsequent within-domain transfer between distantly-related eukaryotes. Under the three-domains hypothesis the RNR present in the last common ancestor of archaeaand eukaryotes appears, through a process of elimination, to have been a dimeric classII RNR, though limited sampling of eukaryotes precludes a firm conclusion as the data may be equally well accounted for by HGT. Conclusions Horizontal gene transfer has clearly played an important role in the evolution of theRNR repertoire of organisms from all three domains of life. Our results clearly showthat class I RNRs have spread to archaea and eukaryotes via transfers from thebacterial domain, indicating that class I likely evolved in the bacteria. We find noclear evolutionary trace placing either class II or III RNRs in the LUCA, despite thefact that ribonucleotide reduction is an essential cellular reaction and was pivotal tothe transition from RNA to DNA genomes. Instead, a general pattern emerges whereenvironmental and enzyme operational constraints, especially the presence or absenceof oxygen, coupled with horizontal transmission are major determinants of the RNR repertoire of genomes.
  • Pauliny, Angela, 1972, et al. (författare)
  • Telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird, the barnacle goose
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2148. ; 12:257
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Theories of ageing predict a trade-off between metabolism, reproduction, and maintenance. Species with low investment in early reproduction are thus expected to be able to evolve more efficient maintenance and repair mechanisms, allowing for a longer potential life span (intrinsic longevity). The erosion of telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of linear chromosomes, plays an important role in cellular and organismal senescence, signalling the onset of age-related disease due to accumulation of unrepaired somatic damage. Using extensive longitudinal data from a long-term study of a natural population of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis, we investigated individual rates of telomere length changes over two years in 34 birds between 0 and 22 years of age, covering almost 80% of the species’ lifespan. RESULTS: We show that telomeres in this long-lived bird are very well maintained, as theoretically expected, with an average loss rate of only 5 base pairs per year among adults. We thus found no significant relationship between change in telomere length and age. However, telomeres tended to shorten at a faster pace in juveniles compared to adults. For the first time, we demonstrate a faster telomere attrition rate in females compared to males. We found no correlation between telomere loss rate and adult survival or change in body mass. CONCLUSIONS: Our results add further support for a link between longevity and telomere maintenance, and highlight the complexities of telomere dynamics in natural populations.
  • Pereyra, Ricardo T., 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Bmc Evolutionary Biology. - 1471-2148. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Theory predicts that speciation can be quite rapid. Previous examples comprise a wide range of organisms such as sockeye salmon, polyploid hybrid plants, fruit flies and cichlid fishes. However, few studies have shown natural examples of rapid evolution giving rise to new species in marine environments. Results Using microsatellite markers, we show the evolution of a new species of brown macroalga (Fucus radicans) in the Baltic Sea in the last 400 years, well after the formation of this brackish water body ~8–10 thousand years ago. Sympatric individuals of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (bladder wrack) show significant reproductive isolation. Fucus radicans, which is endemic to the Baltic, is most closely related to Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus among north Atlantic populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent divergence. Fucus radicans exhibits considerable clonal reproduction, probably induced by the extreme conditions of the Baltic. This reproductive mode is likely to have facilitated the rapid foundation of the new taxon. Conclusion This study represents an unparalleled example of rapid speciation in a species-poor open marine ecosystem and highlights the importance of increasing our understanding on the role of these habitats in species formation. This observation also challenges presumptions that rapid speciation takes place only in hybrid plants or in relatively confined geographical places such as postglacial or crater lakes, oceanic islands or rivers.
  • Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro, et al. (författare)
  • Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - 1471-2148 .- 1471-2148. ; 9, s. 238-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    •  Background: The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids.Results: Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate.Conclusion: Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain structures are evolving in a modular fashion, with a small but non-negligible influence of concerted evolution in cichlid fishes. Interestingly, one of the structures presenting distinct evolutionary patterns within cichlids, the olfactory bulbs, has also been shown to evolve differently from other structures in mammals. Hence, our results for a basal vertebrate clade also point towards a conserved developmental plan for all vertebrates.
  • Anderberg, Hanna, et al. (författare)
  • Algal MIPs, high diversity and conserved motifs
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2148. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) also named aquaporins form channels facilitating the passive transport of water and other small polar molecules across membranes. MIPs are particularly abundant and diverse in terrestrial plants but little is known about their evolutionary history. In an attempt to investigate the origin of the plant MIP subfamilies, genomes of chlorophyte algae, the sister group of charophyte algae and land plants, were searched for MIP encoding genes. Results: A total of 22 MIPs were identified in the nine analysed genomes and phylogenetic analyses classified them into seven subfamilies. Two of these, Plasma membrane Intrinsic Proteins (PIPs) and GlpF-like Intrinsic Proteins (GIPs), are also present in land plants and divergence dating support a common origin of these algal and land plant MIPs, predating the evolution of terrestrial plants. The subfamilies unique to algae were named MIPA to MIPE to facilitate the use of a common nomenclature for plant MIPs reflecting phylogenetically stable groups. All of the investigated genomes contained at least one MIP gene but only a few species encoded MIPs belonging to more than one subfamily. Conclusions: Our results suggest that at least two of the seven subfamilies found in land plants were present already in an algal ancestor. The total variation of MIPs and the number of different subfamilies in chlorophyte algae is likely to be even higher than that found in land plants. Our analyses indicate that genetic exchanges between several of the algal subfamilies have occurred. The PIP1 and PIP2 groups and the Ca2+ gating appear to be specific to land plants whereas the pH gating is a more ancient characteristic shared by all PIPs. Further studies are needed to discern the function of the algal specific subfamilies MIPA-E and to fully understand the evolutionary relationship of algal and terrestrial plant MIPs.
  • Atkinson, Gemma C., et al. (författare)
  • An evolutionary ratchet leading to loss of elongation factors in eukaryotes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2148 .- 1471-2148. ; 14, s. 35-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The GTPase eEF1A is the eukaryotic factor responsible for the essential, universal function of aminoacyl-tRNA delivery to the ribosome. Surprisingly, eEF1A is not universally present in eukaryotes, being replaced by the paralog EFL independently in multiple lineages. The driving force behind this unusually frequent replacement is poorly understood. Results: Through sequence searching of genomic and EST databases, we find a striking association of eEF1A replacement by EFL and loss of eEF1A's guanine exchange factor, eEF1Ba, suggesting that EFL is able to spontaneously recharge with GTP. Sequence conservation and homology modeling analyses indicate several sequence regions that may be responsible for EFL's lack of requirement for eEF1Ba. Conclusions: We propose that the unusual pattern of eEF1A, eEF1Ba and EFL presence and absence can be explained by a ratchet-like process: if either eEF1A or eEF1Ba diverges beyond functionality in the presence of EFL, the system is unable to return to the ancestral, eEF1A:eEFBa-driven state.
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