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  • Karlsson, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression variation to predict 10-year survival in lymph-node-negative breast cancer
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2407 .- 1471-2407. ; 8, s. 254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: It is of great significance to find better markers to correctly distinguish between high-risk and low-risk breast cancer patients since the majority of breast cancer cases are at present being overtreated. Methods: 46 tumours from node-negative breast cancer patients were studied with gene expression microarrays. A t-test was carried out in order to find a set of genes where the expression might predict clinical outcome. Two classifiers were used for evaluation of the gene lists, a correlation-based classifier and a Voting Features Interval (VFI) classifier. We then evaluated the predictive accuracy of this expression signature on tumour sets from two similar studies on lymph-node negative patients. They had both developed gene expression signatures superior to current methods in classifying node-negative breast tumours. These two signatures were also tested on our material. Results: A list of 51 genes whose expression profiles could predict clinical outcome with high accuracy in our material (96% or 89% accuracy in cross-validation, depending on type of classifier) was developed. When tested on two independent data sets, the expression signature based on the 51 identified genes had good predictive qualities in one of the data sets (74% accuracy), whereas their predictive value on the other data set were poor, presumably due to the fact that only 23 of the 51 genes were found in that material. We also found that previously developed expression signatures could predict clinical outcome well to moderately well in our material (72% and 61%, respectively). Conclusion: The list of 51 genes derived in this study might have potential for clinical utility as a prognostic gene set, and may include candidate genes of potential relevance for clinical outcome in breast cancer. According to the predictions by this expression signature, 30 of the 46 patients may have benefited from different adjuvant treatment than they recieved. Trial registration: The research on these tumours was approved by the Medical Faculty Research Ethics Committee (Medicinska fakultetens forskningsetikkommitte, Goteborg, Sweden (S164-02)).</p>
  • Zhang, Hong, et al. (författare)
  • WRAP53 is an independent prognostic factor in rectal cancer- a study of Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2407 .- 1471-2407. ; 12, s. 294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Expression of WRAP53 protein has oncogenic properties and it is up regulated in several types of tumors. Methods: We examined expression of WRAP53 protein in rectal cancers and analyzed its relationship to the response to preoperative radiotherapy and patient survival. The WRAP53 protein was examined by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa, primary tumors and lymph node metastases from 143 rectal cancer patients participated in a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Frequency of WRAP53 protein expression was increased in primary rectal cancer compared to the normal mucosa (p &lt; 0.05). In non-radiotherapy group positive WRAP53 in primary tumors (p = 0.03, RR, 3.73, 95% CI, 1.13-11.89) or metastases (p = 0.01, RR, 4.11, 95% CI, 1.25-13.14), was associated with poor prognosis independently of stages and differentiations. In radiotherapy group, positive WRAP53 in the metastasis correlated with better survival (p = 0.04). An interaction analysis showed that the correlations of WRAP53 with the prognostic significance with and without radiotherapy in the metastasis differed (p = 0.01). In the radiotherapy group, expression of WRAP53 in metastases gave a better outcome (p = 0.02, RR, 0.32, 95% CI, 0.13-0.84), and an interaction analysis showed significance between the two groups (p = 0.01). Conclusion: WRAP53 may be a new biomarker used to predict prognosis and to select suitable patients for preoperative radiotherapy.</p>
  • Kjersem, Janne B, et al. (författare)
  • Let-7 miRNA-binding site polymorphism in the KRAS 3`UTR; colorectal cancer screening population prevalence and influence on clinical outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin +/- cetuximab.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - 1471-2407 .- 1471-2407. ; 12:1, s. 534
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported associations between a variant allele in a let-7 microRNA complementary site (LCS6) within the 3 untranslated region (3 UTR) of KRAS (rs61764370) and clinical outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients receiving cetuximab. The variant allele has also been associated with increased cancer risk. We aimed to reveal the incidence of the variant allele in a colorectal cancer screening population and to investigate the clinical relevance of the variant allele in mCRC patients treated with 1st line 5-fluorouracil-oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) +/- cetuximab.</p><p>METHODS: The feasibility of the variant allele as a risk factor for CRC was investigated by comparing the LCS6 gene frequencies in 197 CRC patients, 1060 individuals with colorectal polyps, and 358 healthy controls. The relationship between clinical outcome and LCS6 genotype was analyzed in 180 mCRC patients receiving Nordic FLOX and 355 patients receiving Nordic FLOX + cetuximab in the NORDIC-VII trial (NCT00145314). RESULTS: LCS6 frequencies did not vary between CRC patients (23%), individuals with polyps (20%), and healthy controls (20%) (P=0.50). No statistically significant differences were demonstrated in the NORDIC-VII cohort even if numerically increased progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were found in patients with the LCS6 variant allele (8.5 (95% CI: 7.3-9.7 months) versus 7.8 months (95% CI: 7.4-8.3 months), P=0.16 and 23.5 (95% CI: 21.6-25.4 months) versus 19.5 months (95% CI: 17.8-21.2 months), P=0.31, respectively). Addition of cetuximab seemed to improve response rate more in variant carriers than in wild-type carriers (from 35% to 57% versus 44% to 47%), however the difference was not statistically significant (interaction P = 0.16).</p><p>CONCLUSIONS: The LCS6 variant allele does not seem to be a risk factor for development of colorectal polyps or CRC. No statistically significant effect of the LCS6 variant allele on response rate, PFS or OS was found in mCRC patients treated with 1st line 5-fluorouracil-oxaliplatin +/- cetuximab.</p>
  • Stratmann, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • Dicer and miRNA in relation to clinicopathological variables in colorectal cancer patients
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2407 .- 1471-2407. ; 11, s. 345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dicer is aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers. Applying real-time PCR, we detected the expression of Dicer mRNA in normal mucosa (n = 162), primary colorectal cancer (CRC) (n = 162) and liver metastasis (n = 37), and analysed the relationship between Dicer expression and clinicopathological features. We also correlated the expression of Dicer mRNA to the miRNA expression of miR-141, miR-200a, miR-200b, mir-200c and miR-429 in liver metastases.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: RT-PCR and qPCR were used to analyse the Dicer expression in normal mucosa, primary tumour and liver metastasis by using the High Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit and TaqMan™® Gene Expression assays for <em>Dicer</em> and <em>GAPDH</em>. RT-PCR and qPCR were used to detect miRNA expression in liver metastases by utilizing TaqMan® MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit and TaqMan® miRNA Assays. Statistical analyses were performed with STATISTICA.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: Dicer expression in rectal cancer (3.146 ± 0.953) was higher than in colon cancer (2.703 ± 1.204, P = 0.018). Furthermore the Dicer expression was increased in primary tumours (3.146 ± 0.952) in comparison to that in normal mucosa from rectal cancer patients (2.816 ± 1.009, P = 0.034) but this is not evident in colon cancer patients. Dicer expression in liver metastases was decreased in comparison to that of either normal mucosa or primary tumour in both colon and rectal cancers (P &lt; 0.05). Patients with a high Dicer expression in normal mucosa had a worse prognosis compared to those with a low Dicer expression, independently of gender, age, tumour site, stage and differentiation (P &lt; 0.001, RR 3.682, 95% CI 1.749 - 7.750). In liver metastases, Dicer was positively related to miR-141 (R = 0.419, P = 0.015).</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Dicer is up-regulated in the early development of rectal cancers. An increased expression of Dicer mRNA in normal mucosa from CRC patients is significantly related to poor survival independently of gender, age, tumour site, stage and differentiation.</p>
  • Põlajeva, Jelena, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • miRNA-21 is developmentally regulated in mouse brain and is co-expressed with SOX2 in glioma
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - 1471-2407 .- 1471-2407. ; 12, s. 378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong></p><p>MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and their role during tumor development have been studied in greatdetail during the last decade, albeit their expression pattern and regulation during normaldevelopment are however not so well established. Previous studies have shown that miRNAsare differentially expressed in solid human tumors. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)signaling is known to be involved in normal development of the brain as well as in malignantprimary brain tumors, gliomas, but the complete mechanism is still lacking. We decided toinvestigate the expression of the oncogenic miR-21 during normal mouse development andglioma, focusing on PDGF signaling as a potential regulator of miR-21.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong></p><p>We generated mouse glioma using the RCAS/tv-a system for driving PDGF-BB expression ina cell-specific manner. Expression of miR-21 in mouse cell cultures and mouse brain wereassessed using Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemistry andWestern blot analysis were used to investigate SOX2 expression. LNA-modified siRNA wasused for irreversible depletion of miR-21. For inhibition of PDGF signaling Gleevec(imatinib mesylate), Rapamycin and U0126, as well as siRNA were used. Statisticalsignificance was calculated using double-sided unpaired Student´s t-test.</p><p><strong>Results</strong></p><p>We identified miR-21 to be highly expressed during embryonic and newborn braindevelopment followed by a gradual decrease until undetectable at postnatal day 7 (P7), thiscorrelated with SOX2 expression. Furthermore, miR-21 and SOX2 showed up-regulation andoverlapping expression pattern in RCAS/tv-a generated mouse brain tumor specimens. Uponirreversible depletion of miR-21 the expression of SOX2 was strongly diminished in bothmouse primary glioma cultures and human glioma cell lines. Interestingly, in normalfibroblasts the expression of miR-21 was induced by PDGF-BB, and inhibition of PDGFsignaling in mouse glioma primary cultures resulted in suppression of miR-21 suggesting thatmiR-21 is indeed regulated by PDGF signaling.</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p><p>Our data show that miR-21 and SOX2 are tightly regulated already during embryogenesisand define a distinct population with putative tumor cell of origin characteristics. We believethat miR-21 is a mediator of PDGF-driven brain tumors, which suggests miR-21 as apromising target for treatment of glioma.</p>
  • Elmula, Imad, et al. (författare)
  • Chromosomal aberrations in benign and malignant Bilharzia-associated bladder lesions analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2407. ; 2:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Bilharzia-associated bladder cancer (BAC) is a major health problem in countries where urinary schistosomiasis is endemic. Characterization of the genetic alterations in this cancer might enhance our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease but, in contrast to nonbilharzia bladder cancer, BAC has rarely been the object of such scrutiny. In the present study, we aimed to characterize chromosomal imbalances in benign and malignant post-bilharzial lesions, and to determine whether their unique etiology yields a distinct cytogenetic profile as compared to chemically induced bladder tumors. METHODS: DNAs from 20 archival paraffin-embedded post-bilharzial bladder lesions (6 benign and 14 malignant) obtained from Sudanese patients (12 males and 8 females) with a history of urinary bilharziasis were investigated for chromosomal imbalances using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Subsequent FISH analysis with pericentromeric probes was performed on paraffin sections of the same cases to confirm the CGH results. RESULTS: Seven of the 20 lesions (6 carcinomas and one granuloma) showed chromosomal imbalances varying from 1 to 6 changes. The most common chromosomal imbalances detected were losses of 1p21-31, 8p21-pter, and 9p and gain of 19p material, seen in three cases each, including the benign lesion. CONCLUSION: Most of the detected imbalances have been repeatedly reported in non-bilharzial bladder carcinomas, suggesting that the cytogenetic profiles of chemical- and bilharzia-induced carcinomas are largely similar. However, loss of 9p seems to be more ubiquitous in BAC than in bladder cancer in industrialized countries.
  • Svensson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • A protein kinase Cbeta inhibitor attenuates multidrug resistance of neuroblastoma cells.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2407. ; 3:1, s. 10-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The acquisition of drug resistance is a major reason for poor outcome of neuroblastoma. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been suggested to influence drug resistance in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether inhibition of PKCbeta isoforms influences drug-resistance of neuroblastoma cells. METHODS: The effect of the PKCbeta inhibitor LY379196 on the growth-suppressing effects of different chemotherapeutics on neuroblastoma cells was analyzed with MTT assays. The effect of LY379196 on the accumulation of [3H]vincristine was also investigated RESULTS: The PKCbeta inhibitor LY379196 suppressed the growth of three neuroblastoma cell lines. LY379196 also augmented the growth-suppressive effect of doxorubicin, etoposide, paclitaxel, and vincristine, but not of carboplatin. The effect was most marked for vincristine and for the cell-line (SK-N-BE(2)) that was least sensitive to vincristine. No effect was observed on the non-resistant IMR-32 cells. Two other PKC inhibitors, Go6976 and GF109203X, also enhanced the vincristine effect. The PKC inhibitors caused an increased accumulation of [3H]vincristine in SK-N-BE(2) cells. CONCLUSIONS: This indicates that inhibition of PKCbeta could attenuate multidrug resistance in neuroblastoma cells by augmenting the levels of natural product anticancer drugs in resistant cells.
  • Loof, Jasmine, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of PINCH expression on survival in colorectal cancer patients
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC CANCER. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2407. ; 11:103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: The adaptor protein PINCH is overexpressed in the stroma of several types of cancer, and is an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. In this study we further investigate the relationship of PINCH and survival regarding the response to chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. Results: Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 251 primary adenocarcinomas, 149 samples of adjacent normal mucosa, 57 samples of distant normal mucosa and 75 lymph node metastases were used for immunohistochemical staining. Stromal staining for PINCH increased from normal mucosa to primary tumour to metastasis. Strong staining in adjacent normal mucosa was related to worse survival independently of sex, age, tumour location, differentiation and stage (p = 0.044, HR, 1.60, 95% Cl, 1.01-2.52). PINCH staining at the invasive margin tended to be related to survival (p = 0.051). In poorly differentiated tumours PINCH staining at the invasive margin was related to survival independently of sex, age and stage (p = 0.013, HR, 1.90, 95% Cl, 1.14-3.16), while in better differentiated tumours it was not. In patients with weak staining, adjuvant chemotherapy was related to survival (p = 0.010, 0.013 and 0.013 in entire tumour area, invasive margin and inner tumour area, respectively), but not in patients with strong staining. However, in the multivariate analysis no such relationship was seen. Conclusions: PINCH staining in normal adjacent mucosa was related to survival. Further, PINCH staining at the tumour invasive margin was related to survival in poorly differentiated tumours but not in better differentiated tumours, indicating that the impact of PINCH on prognosis was dependent on differentiation status.</p>
  • Zhang, Zhiyong, et al. (författare)
  • Endosialin expression in relation to clinicopathological and biological variables in rectal cancers with a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC CANCER. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2407. ; 11:89
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: The importance of changes in tumour-associated stroma for tumour initiation and progression has been established. Endosialin is expressed in fibroblasts and pericytes of blood vessels in several types of tumours, and is involved in the progression of colorectal cancer. In order to see whether endosialin was related to radiotherapy (RT) response, and clinicopathological and biological variables, we investigated endosialin expression in rectal cancers from the patients who participated in a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative RT. Methods: Endosialin was immunohistochemically examined in normal mucosa, including distant (n = 72) and adjacent (n = 112) normal mucosa, and primary tumours (n = 135). Seventy-three of 135 patients received surgery alone and 62 received additional preoperative RT. Results: Endosialin expression in the stroma increased from normal mucosa to tumour (p andlt; 0.0001) both in RT and non-RT group. In the RT group, endosialin expression in the stroma was positively associated with expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) (p = 0.03), p73 (p = 0.01) and phosphates of regenerating liver (PRL) (p = 0.002). Endosialin expression in the tumour cells of both in the RT group (p = 0.01) and the non-RT group (p = 0.06) was observed more often in tumours with an infiltrative growth pattern than in tumours with an expansive growth pattern. In the RT group, endosialin expression in tumour cells was positively related to PRL expression (p = 0.02), whereas in the non-RT group, endosialin expression in tumour cells was positively related to p73 expression (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Endosialin expression may be involved in the progression of rectal cancers, and was related to Cox-2, p73 and PRL expression. However, a direct relationship between endosialin expression and RT responses in patients was not found.</p>
  • Wang, Chaojie, et al. (författare)
  • Suppression of microRNA-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT-116 colon cancer cells
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC CANCER. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2407. ; 10:616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs with important biological and pathological functions. Although several studies have shown that microRNA-31 (miR-31) is obviously up-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC), there is no study on the functional roles of miR-31 in CRC. Methods: Anti-miR (TM) miRNA 31 inhibitor (anti-miR-31) is a sequence-specific and chemically modified oligonucleotide to specifically target and knockdown miR-31 molecule. The effect of anti-miR-31 transfection was investigated by real-time PCR. HCT-116(p53+/+) and HCT-116(p53-/-)colon cancer cells were treated by anti-miR-31 with or without 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was detected by DAPI staining; cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry; colony formation, migration and invasion assays were performed to investigate the effect of suppression of miR-31 on the cell lines. Results: Real-time PCR results showed that anti-miR-31 was efficiently introduced into the cells and reduced miR-31 levels to 44.1% in HCT-116(p53+/+) and 67.8% in HCT-116p(53-/-)cell line (p = 0.042 and 0.046). MTT results showed that anti-miR-31 alone had no effect on the proliferation of HCT-116(p53+/+) or HCT-116(p53-/-). However, when combined with 5-FU, anti-miR-31 inhibited the proliferation of the two cell lines as early as 24 h after exposure to 5-FU (p = 0.038 and 0.044). Suppression of miR-31 caused a reduction of the migratory cells by nearly 50% compared with the negative control in both HCT-116(p53+/+) and HCT-116(p53-/-)(p = 0.040 and 0.001). The invasive ability of the cells were increased by 8-fold in HCT-116(p53+/+) and 2-fold in HCT-116(p53-/-)(p = 0.045 and 0.009). Suppression of miR-31 had no effect on cell cycle and colony formation (p andgt; 0.05). Conclusions: Suppression of miR-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT-116 colon cancer cells.</p>
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