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Sökning: L773:1472 6831 > Refereegranskat > Twetman Svante

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  • Holmen, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Tobacco use and caries risk among adolescents - a longitudinal study in Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Oral Health. - BioMed Central. - 1472-6831. ; 13, s. 31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco have a detrimental impact on general and oral health. The relationship to dental caries is however still unclear. As caries is a multi-factorial disease with clear life-style, socio-economic and socio-demographic gradients, the tobacco use may be a co-variable in this complex rather than a direct etiological factor. Our aim was to analyze the impact of tobacco use on caries incidence among adolescents, with consideration to socio-economic variables by residency, using epidemiological data from a longitudinal study in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods: The study population consisted of 10,068 adolescents between 16-19 years of age from whom yearly data on caries and tobacco use (cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco) were obtained during the period 2006-2012. Reported DMFS increment between 16 and 19 years of age (Delta DMFS) for an individual was considered as the primary caries outcome. The outcome data were compared for self-reported never vs. ever users of tobacco, with consideration to neighborhood-level socio-economy (4 strata), baseline (i.e., 16 years of age) DMFS and sex. The region consists of 65 parishes with various socio-economic conditions and each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish. Neighborhood (parish-level) socio-economy was assessed by proportion of residing families with low household purchasing power. Results:Delta DMFS differed evidently between ever and never users of tobacco (mean values: 1.8 vs. 1.2; proportion with Delta DMFS > 0: 54.2% vs. 40.5%; p < 0.0001). Significant differences were observed in each neighborhood-level socio-economic stratum. Even after controlling for baseline DMFS and sex, Delta DMFS differed highly significantly between the ever and never users of tobacco (overall p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Tobacco use was clearly associated with increased caries increment during adolescence. Hence, this factor is relevant to consider in the clinical caries risk assessment of the individual patient as well as for community health plans dealing with oral health.
  • Hänsel Petersson, Gunnel, et al. (författare)
  • Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren using a reduced Cariogram model
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC oral health. - 1472-6831. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren. METHODS: The study group consisted of 392 school children, 10-11 years of age, who volunteered after informed consent. A caries risk assessment was made at baseline with aid of the computer-based Cariogram model and expressed as "the chance of avoiding caries" and the children were divided into five risk groups. The caries increment (DeltaDMFS) was extracted from the dental records and bitewing radiographs after 2 years. The reduced Cariogram was processed by omitting the variables "salivary mutans streptococci", "secretion rate" and "buffer capacity" one by one and finally all three. Differences between the total and reduced models were expressed as area under the ROC-curve. RESULTS: The baseline caries prevalence in the study population was 40% (mean DMFS 0.87 +/- 1.35) and the mean 2-year caries increment was 0.51 +/- 1.06. Both Cariogram models displayed a statistically relationship with caries development (p < 0.05); more caries was found among those assessed with high risk compared to those with low risk. The combined sensitivity and specificity decreased after exclusion of the salivary tests and a statistically significant reduction of the area under the ROC-curve was displayed compared with the total Cariogram (p < 0.05). Among the salivary variables, omission of the mutans streptococci enumeration impaired the predictive ability the most. CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of caries prediction in school children was significantly impaired when the Cariogram model was applied without enumeration of salivary tests.
  • Petersson, Gunnel Hansel, et al. (författare)
  • Caries risk assessment in young adults: a 3 year validation of the Cariogram model
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Oral Health. - BioMed Central. - 1472-6831. ; 15:17, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. Methods: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and compared with a risk assessment scheme used in Public Dental Service. Results: The drop-outs displayed more risk factors and a significantly higher caries burden at baseline compared with those that remained in the project (p < 0.05). There was a strong association between the Cariogram risk categories and the 3-year caries increment on cavity level but the predictive values were modest. The high or very high caries risk categories yielded high specificities (>90%) but poor sensitivities. The low risk groups displayed higher sensitivities on expense of impaired specificities. No combinations proved clinically useful values according to Yuoden's index. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, the computer-based Cariogram did not perform better than a caries risk assessment scheme based on past caries experience and caries progression, over a 3-year period in young adults.
  • Strömberg, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk - a method for assessment of preventive care
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Oral Health. - BioMed Central. - 1472-6831. ; 12, s. 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods: The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006) and 10,927 (2010) children between 3 to 6 years of age (similar to 77% of the eligible population) from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs &gt;0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region). Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI (R) ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. Results: The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs = 0) children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level) smoothed relative risks (SmRRs) increased from 1.76/0.44 = 4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33 = 7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Conclusion: Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive care in child populations.
  • Anderson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program: a cross-sectional study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC oral health. - 1472-6831. ; 16:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence.Five hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with semi-annual applications of a fluoride varnish since the age of 1 year (test group) while 237 had received standard preventive care (reference group). Oral samples were collected with a sterile swab and analysed with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization using 12 pre-determined bacterial probes. Caries and background data were collected from clinical examinations and questionnaires.Gram-positive streptococci (S. intermedius, S. salivarius, S. oralis) were most frequently detected and displayed the highest counts in both groups. There were no significant differences between the groups concerning prevalence of any of the selected bacterial strains except for S. oralis that occurred less frequently in the reference group. In children with caries, V. parvula were significantly more common (p < 0.05) while strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Neisseria were more prevalent among the caries-free children (p < 0.05).A 2-year community program with semi-annual fluoride varnish applications did not seem to significantly influence the oral microflora in preschool children.www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN35086887) 20131216 'retrospectively registered'.
  • Lena Sundell, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Comparing caries risk profiles between 5-and 10-year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate and non-cleft controls
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Oral Health. - BioMed Central. - 1472-6831. ; 15:85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Previous studies have suggested that children with oral clefts may have higher caries prevalence in comparison with non-cleft controls but the relative importance of the potential risk factors is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the caries risk profiles in a group of cleft lip and/or palate (CL(P)) children with non-cleft controls in the same age using a computerized caries risk assessment model. Methods: The study group consisted of 133 children with CL(P) (77 subjects aged 5 years and 56 aged 10 years) and 297 non-cleft controls (133 aged 5 years and 164 aged 10 years). A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning the childs oral hygiene routines, dietary habits and fluoride exposure. Oral hygiene was assessed using Quigley-Hein plaque Index and the caries prevalence and frequency was scored according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Whole saliva samples were analyzed for mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, buffering capacity and secretion rate. The risk factors and risk profiles were compared between the groups with aid of Cariogram and the estimated risk for future caries was categorized as "high" or "low". Results: Children with CL(P) (the entire study group) had significantly higher counts of salivary lactobacilli (p less than 0.05) and displayed less good oral hygiene (p less than 0.05). More 10-year-old children in the CL(P) group had low secretion rate but this difference was not significant. The average chance to avoid caries ranged from 59 to 67 % but there were no significant differences between the groups. The odds of being categorized with high caries risk in the CL(P) group was significantly elevated (OR = 1.89; 95 % CI = 1.25-2.86). In both groups, children in the high risk category had a higher caries experience than those with low risk. Conclusion: Children with CL(P) displayed increased odds of being categorized at high caries risk with impaired oral hygiene and elevated salivary lactobacilli counts as most influential factors. The results suggest that a caries risk assessment model should be applied in the routine CL(P) care as a basis for the clinical decision-making and implementation of primary and secondary caries prevention.
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