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1.
  • Abbas, S, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition : the EPIC-InterAct study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0954-3007 .- 1476-5640. ; 68:2, s. 196-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES</strong>: Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including eight countries with large geographical variation.</p><p><strong>SUBJECTS/METHODS</strong>: Using a case-cohort design, 11 245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N = 15 798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Twenty-four-hour diet-recall data from a subsample (N = 2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires.</p><p><strong>RESULTS</strong>: Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95% CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22) (P-trend = 0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect (HR (95% CI)) using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 mg/day dietary vitamin D.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong>: This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type 2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person.</p>
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2.
  • Abbas, S., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: the EPIC-InterAct study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 68:2, s. 196-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including eight countries with large geographical variation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a case-cohort design, 11 245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N = 15 798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Twenty-four-hour diet-recall data from a subsample (N = 2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95% CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22) (P-trend = 0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect (HR (95% CI)) using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 mg/day dietary vitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type 2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person.
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4.
  • Ahrén, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of conjugated linoleic acid plus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin secretion and estimated insulin sensitivity in men.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; Sep 3, s. 778-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Objectives:Dietary addition of either conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) has been shown to alter adiposity and circulating lipids, risk markers of cardiovascular diseases. However, CLA may decrease insulin sensitivity, an effect that may be reversed by n-3 LC-PUFA. Thus, the potential of CLA plus n-3 LC-PUFA to affect insulin secretion and sensitivity in non-diabetic young and old, lean and obese subjects was tested.Subjects/Methods:CLA (3 g daily) plus n-3 LC-PUFA (3 g daily) or control oil (6 g daily) was given to lean (n=12; BMI 20-26 kg/m(2)) or obese (n=10; BMI 29-35 kg/m(2)) young (20-37 years old) or lean (n=16) or obese (n=11) older men (50-65 years) for 12 weeks. The study had a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized crossover design, and primary end points were insulin secretion and sensitivity during a standardized meal test, evaluated by modeling glucose, insulin and C-peptide data.Results:The combination was well tolerated. There was no significant difference in fasting levels of glucose, insulin or C-peptide after CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA treatment compared with control oil. Neither insulin secretion nor estimated sensitivity was affected by CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA in lean or obese young subjects or in older lean subjects. However, in older obese subjects, estimated insulin sensitivity was reduced with CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA compared with control (P=0.024).Conclusions:The results do not support beneficial effects of CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA for beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance in humans but suggest that insulin sensitivity in older obese subjects is reduced.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 September 2008; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2008.45.
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5.
  • Al-Delaimy, W K, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables : ecological-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0954-3007 .- 1476-5640. ; 59:12, s. 1397-408
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) and food questionnaires (FQ) to predict plasma carotenoid levels at the ecological level by assessing the relationship between mean plasma carotenoid levels and mean intake of fruit and vegetables measured by 24HDR and FQ across 16 European regions. DESIGN: A random subsample of 3089 subjects was included, stratified by age and gender. They provided blood samples and dietary information between 1992 and 2000 as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. RESULTS: Using Spearman's correlation coefficients, the correlations between mean regional 24HDR fruit and vegetable variables and corresponding mean plasma carotenoid levels were generally higher than the correlations using FQ means. The highest correlation was between the 24HDR citrus fruit variable and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.90). For 24HDR, total fruits and vegetables were highly correlated with lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.83-0.87), while vegetables were more closely related with lutein (r = 0.69) and zeaxanthin (r = 0.68), and fruits correlated with zeaxanthin (r = 0.87) and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.84). Root vegetables (r = 0.81) and total carrots (r = 0.71) were well correlated with alpha-carotene. In the multivariate models adjusting for age, body mass index, and season, and using observations of means stratified by sex and region, the association was generally higher for 24HDR compared to FQ. CONCLUSION: Mean regional intakes of fruits and vegetables in several European countries were closely correlated with corresponding mean plasma levels of individual carotenoids. Fruits and vegetables measured by 24HDR were generally better able to predict plasma carotenoids at the ecological level.</p>
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6.
  • Al-Delaimy, WK, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables : individual-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0954-3007 .- 1476-5640. ; 59:12, s. 1387-1396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVE: The aim in this study was to assess the association between individual plasma carotenoid levels (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin) and fruit and vegetable intakes recorded by a calibrated food questionnaire (FQ) and 24-h dietary recall records (24HDR) in nine different European countries with diverse populations and widely varying intakes of plant foods. DESIGN: A stratified random subsample of 3089 men and women from nine countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had provided blood samples and dietary and other lifestyle information between 1992 and 2000, were included. RESULTS: beta-Cryptoxanthin was most strongly correlated with total fruits (FQ r = 0.52, 24HDR r = 0.39), lycopene with tomato and tomato products (FQ r = 0.38, 24HDR r = 0.25), and alpha-carotene with intake of root vegetables (r = 0.39) and of total carrots (r = 0.38) for FQ only. Based on diet measured by FQ and adjusting for possible confounding by body mass index (BMI), age, gender, smoking status, alcohol intake, and energy intake, the strongest predictors of individual plasma carotenoid levels were fruits (R(partial)(2) = 17.2%) for beta-cryptoxanthin, total carrots ((partial)(2) = 13.4%) and root vegetables (R(partial)(2) = 13.3%) for alpha-carotene, and tomato products (R(partial)(2) = 13.8%) for lycopene. For 24HDR, the highest R(partial)(2) was for fruits in relation to beta-cryptoxanthin (7.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of specific fruits and vegetables as measured by food questionnaires are good predictors of certain individual plasma carotenoid levels in our multicentre European study. At individual subject levels, FQ measurements of fruits, root vegetables and carrots, and tomato products are, respectively, good predictors of beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, and lycopene in plasma.</p>
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7.
  • Al-Delaimy, WK, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: ecological-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 59:12, s. 1397-1408
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) and food questionnaires (FQ) to predict plasma carotenoid levels at the ecological level by assessing the relationship between mean plasma carotenoid levels and mean intake of fruit and vegetables measured by 24HDR and FQ across 16 European regions. Design: A random subsample of 3089 subjects was included, stratified by age and gender. They provided blood samples and dietary information between 1992 and 2000 as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Results: Using Spearman's correlation coefficients, the correlations between mean regional 24HDR fruit and vegetable variables and corresponding mean plasma carotenoid levels were generally higher than the correlations using FQ means. The highest correlation was between the 24HDR citrus fruit variable and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.90). For 24HDR, total fruits and vegetables were highly correlated with lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.83-0.87), while vegetables were more closely related with lutein (r = 0.69) and zeaxanthin (r = 0.68), and fruits correlated with zeaxanthin (r = 0.87) and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.84). Root vegetables (r = 0.81) and total carrots (r = 0.71) were well correlated with alpha-carotene. In the multivariate models adjusting for age, body mass index, and season, and using observations of means stratified by sex and region, the association was generally higher for 24HDR compared to FQ. Conclusion: Mean regional intakes of fruits and vegetables in several European countries were closely correlated with corresponding mean plasma levels of individual carotenoids. Fruits and vegetables measured by 24HDR were generally better able to predict plasma carotenoids at the ecological level.
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8.
  • Al-Delaimy, WK, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: individual-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 59:12, s. 1387-1396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim in this study was to assess the association between individual plasma carotenoid levels (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin) and fruit and vegetable intakes recorded by a calibrated food questionnaire (FQ) and 24- h dietary recall records (24HDR) in nine different European countries with diverse populations and widely varying intakes of plant foods. Design: A stratified random subsample of 3089 men and women from nine countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had provided blood samples and dietary and other lifestyle information between 1992 and 2000, were included. Results: beta-Cryptoxanthin was most strongly correlated with total fruits (FQ r = 0.52, 24HDR r = 0.39), lycopene with tomato and tomato products (FQ r = 0.38, 24HDR r = 0.25), and alpha-carotene with intake of root vegetables (r = 0.39) and of total carrots (r = 0.38) for FQ only. Based on diet measured by FQ and adjusting for possible confounding by body mass index (BMI), age, gender, smoking status, alcohol intake, and energy intake, the strongest predictors of individual plasma carotenoid levels were fruits (R-partial(2) = 17.2%) for beta-cryptoxanthin, total carrots (R-partial(2) = 13.4%) and root vegetables (R-partial(2) = 13.3%) for alpha-carotene, and tomato products (R-partial(2) = 13.8%) for lycopene. For 24HDR, the highest R-partial(2) was for fruits in relation to beta-cryptoxanthin (7.9%). Conclusions: Intakes of specific fruits and vegetables as measured by food questionnaires are good predictors of certain individual plasma carotenoid levels in our multicentre European study. At individual subject levels, FQ measurements of fruits, root vegetables and carrots, and tomato products are, respectively, good predictors of beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, and lycopene in plasma.
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9.
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10.
  • Alehagen, Urban, et al. (författare)
  • Relatively high mortality risk in elderly Swedish subjects with low selenium status
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0954-3007 .- 1476-5640. ; 70:1, s. 91-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background/Objectives: </p><p>The daily dietary intake of selenium (Se), an essential trace element, is still low in Sweden in spite of decades of nutritional information campaigns and the effect of this on the public health is presently not well known. The objective of this study was to determine the serum Se levels in an elderly Swedish population and to analyze whether a low Se status had any influence on mortality.</p><p>Subjects/Methods: </p><p>Six-hundred sixty-eight (<em>n</em>=668) elderly participants were invited from a municipality and evaluated in an observational study. Individuals were followed for 6.8 years and Se levels were re-evaluated in 98 individuals after 48 months. Clinical examination of all individuals included functional classification, echocardiography, electrocardiogram and serum Se measurement. All mortality was registered and endpoints of mortality were assessed by Kaplan–Meier plots, and Cox proportional hazard ratios adjusted for potential confounding factors were calculated.</p><p>Results: </p><p>The mean serum Se level of the study population (<em>n</em>=668) was 67.1 μg/l, corresponding to relatively low Se intake. After adjustment for male gender, smoking, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and impaired heart function, persons with serum Se in the lowest quartile had 43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–2.00) and 56% (95% CI: 1.03–2.36) increased risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. The result was not driven by inflammatory effects on Se concentration in serum.</p><p>Conclusion: </p><p>The mean serum Se concentration in an elderly Swedish population was 67.1 μg/l, which is below the physiological saturation level for several selenoprotein enzymes. This result may suggest the value of modest Se supplementation in order to improve the health of the Swedish population.</p>
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