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  • Abbas, S, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: the EPIC-InterAct study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 68:2, s. 196-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including eight countries with large geographical variation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a case-cohort design, 11 245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N = 15 798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Twenty-four-hour diet-recall data from a subsample (N = 2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95% CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22) (P-trend = 0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect (HR (95% CI)) using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 mg/day dietary vitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type 2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person.
  • Ahrén, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of conjugated linoleic acid plus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin secretion and estimated insulin sensitivity in men.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; Sep 3, s. 778-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Objectives:Dietary addition of either conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) has been shown to alter adiposity and circulating lipids, risk markers of cardiovascular diseases. However, CLA may decrease insulin sensitivity, an effect that may be reversed by n-3 LC-PUFA. Thus, the potential of CLA plus n-3 LC-PUFA to affect insulin secretion and sensitivity in non-diabetic young and old, lean and obese subjects was tested.Subjects/Methods:CLA (3 g daily) plus n-3 LC-PUFA (3 g daily) or control oil (6 g daily) was given to lean (n=12; BMI 20-26 kg/m(2)) or obese (n=10; BMI 29-35 kg/m(2)) young (20-37 years old) or lean (n=16) or obese (n=11) older men (50-65 years) for 12 weeks. The study had a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized crossover design, and primary end points were insulin secretion and sensitivity during a standardized meal test, evaluated by modeling glucose, insulin and C-peptide data.Results:The combination was well tolerated. There was no significant difference in fasting levels of glucose, insulin or C-peptide after CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA treatment compared with control oil. Neither insulin secretion nor estimated sensitivity was affected by CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA in lean or obese young subjects or in older lean subjects. However, in older obese subjects, estimated insulin sensitivity was reduced with CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA compared with control (P=0.024).Conclusions:The results do not support beneficial effects of CLA/n-3 LC-PUFA for beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance in humans but suggest that insulin sensitivity in older obese subjects is reduced.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 September 2008; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2008.45.
  • Al-Delaimy, W K, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: ecological-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 59:12, s. 1397-1408
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) and food questionnaires (FQ) to predict plasma carotenoid levels at the ecological level by assessing the relationship between mean plasma carotenoid levels and mean intake of fruit and vegetables measured by 24HDR and FQ across 16 European regions. Design: A random subsample of 3089 subjects was included, stratified by age and gender. They provided blood samples and dietary information between 1992 and 2000 as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Results: Using Spearman's correlation coefficients, the correlations between mean regional 24HDR fruit and vegetable variables and corresponding mean plasma carotenoid levels were generally higher than the correlations using FQ means. The highest correlation was between the 24HDR citrus fruit variable and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.90). For 24HDR, total fruits and vegetables were highly correlated with lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.83-0.87), while vegetables were more closely related with lutein (r = 0.69) and zeaxanthin (r = 0.68), and fruits correlated with zeaxanthin (r = 0.87) and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.84). Root vegetables (r = 0.81) and total carrots (r = 0.71) were well correlated with alpha-carotene. In the multivariate models adjusting for age, body mass index, and season, and using observations of means stratified by sex and region, the association was generally higher for 24HDR compared to FQ. Conclusion: Mean regional intakes of fruits and vegetables in several European countries were closely correlated with corresponding mean plasma levels of individual carotenoids. Fruits and vegetables measured by 24HDR were generally better able to predict plasma carotenoids at the ecological level.
  • Al-Delaimy, WK, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: individual-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 59:12, s. 1387-1396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim in this study was to assess the association between individual plasma carotenoid levels (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin) and fruit and vegetable intakes recorded by a calibrated food questionnaire (FQ) and 24- h dietary recall records (24HDR) in nine different European countries with diverse populations and widely varying intakes of plant foods. Design: A stratified random subsample of 3089 men and women from nine countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had provided blood samples and dietary and other lifestyle information between 1992 and 2000, were included. Results: beta-Cryptoxanthin was most strongly correlated with total fruits (FQ r = 0.52, 24HDR r = 0.39), lycopene with tomato and tomato products (FQ r = 0.38, 24HDR r = 0.25), and alpha-carotene with intake of root vegetables (r = 0.39) and of total carrots (r = 0.38) for FQ only. Based on diet measured by FQ and adjusting for possible confounding by body mass index (BMI), age, gender, smoking status, alcohol intake, and energy intake, the strongest predictors of individual plasma carotenoid levels were fruits (R-partial(2) = 17.2%) for beta-cryptoxanthin, total carrots (R-partial(2) = 13.4%) and root vegetables (R-partial(2) = 13.3%) for alpha-carotene, and tomato products (R-partial(2) = 13.8%) for lycopene. For 24HDR, the highest R-partial(2) was for fruits in relation to beta-cryptoxanthin (7.9%). Conclusions: Intakes of specific fruits and vegetables as measured by food questionnaires are good predictors of certain individual plasma carotenoid levels in our multicentre European study. At individual subject levels, FQ measurements of fruits, root vegetables and carrots, and tomato products are, respectively, good predictors of beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, and lycopene in plasma.
  • Assey, V. D., et al. (författare)
  • Sustainable universal salt iodization in low-income countries : time to re-think strategies?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0954-3007 .- 1476-5640. ; 62:2, s. 292-294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Sustained iodine deficiency control requires sustainable mechanisms for iodine supplementation. We aim to describe the status of salt iodation machines, salt producers' experiences and quality of salt produced in Tanzania. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative data was collected from the factory sites, observations were made on the status of UNICEF-supplied assisted-iodation machines and convenience samples of salt from 85 salt production facilities were analysed for iodine content. Results: A total of 140 salt works visited had received 72 salt iodation machines in 1990s, but had largely abandoned them due to high running and maintenance costs. Locally devised simple technology was instead being used to iodate salt. High variability of salt iodine content was found and only 7% of samples fell within the required iodation range. Conclusion: Although iodine content at factory level is highly variable, overall iodine supply to the population has been deemed largely sufficient. The need for perpetual iodine fortification requires reassessment of salt iodation techniques and production-monitoring systems to ensure sustainability. The emerging local technologies need evaluation as alternative approaches for sustaining universal salt iodation in low-income countries with many small-scale salt producers.
  • Axling, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese persons.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 66:5, s. 585-590
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:In studies performed in mice, rose hip powder has been shown to both prevent and reverse high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance as well as reduce plasma levels of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to investigate whether daily intake of rose hip powder over 6 weeks exerts beneficial metabolic effects in obese individuals.SUBJECTS/METHODS:A total of 31 obese individuals with normal or impaired glucose tolerance were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in which metabolic effects of daily intake of a rose hip powder drink over 6 weeks was compared with a control drink. Body weight, glucose tolerance, blood pressure, blood lipids and markers of inflammation were assessed in the subjects.RESULTS:In comparison with the control drink, 6 weeks of daily consumption of the rose hip drink resulted in a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (-3.4%; P=0.021), total plasma cholesterol (-4.9%; P=0.0018), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (-6.0%; P=0.012) and LDL/HDL ratio (-6.5%; P=0.041). The Reynolds risk assessment score for cardiovascular disease was decreased in the rose hip group compared with the control group (-17%; P=0.007). Body weight, diastolic blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, incretins and markers of inflammation did not differ between the two groups.CONCLUSIONS:Daily consumption of 40 g of rose hip powder for 6 weeks can significantly reduce cardiovascular risk in obese people through lowering of systolic blood pressure and plasma cholesterol levels.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2011; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.203.
  • Bel-Serrat, S, et al. (författare)
  • Clustering of multiple lifestyle behaviours and its association to cardiovascular risk factors in children: the IDEFICS study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European journal of clinical nutrition. - 1476-5640.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Individual lifestyle behaviours have independently been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in children. This study aimed to identify clustered lifestyle behaviours (dietary, physical activity (PA) and sedentary indicators) and to examine their association with CVD risk factors in children aged 2-9 years.SUBJECTS/METHODS:Participants included 4619 children (51.6% boys) from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS cross-sectional baseline survey (2007-2008). Insulin resistance, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, sum of two skinfolds and systolic blood pressure (SBP) z-scores were summed to compute a CVD risk score. Cluster analyses stratified by sex and age groups (2 to <6 years; 6-9 years) were performed using parental-reported data on fruit, vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption, PA performance and television video/DVD viewing.RESULTS:Five clusters were identified. Associations between CVD risk factors and score, and clusters were obtained by multiple linear regression using cluster 5 ('low beverages consumption and low sedentary') as the reference cluster. SBP was positively associated with clusters 1 ('physically active'; β=1.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02, 2.67), 2 ('sedentary'; β=1.84; 95% CI: 0.57, 3.11), 3 ('physically active and sedentary'; β=1.45; 95% CI: 0.15, 2.75) and 4 ('healthy diet'; β=1.83; 95% CI: 0.50, 3.17) in older boys. A positive association was observed between CVD risk score and clusters 2 (β=0.60; 95% CI: 0.20, 1.01), 3 (β=0.55; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.97) and 4 (β=0.60, 95% CI: 0.18, 1.02) in older boys.CONCLUSIONS:Low television/video/DVD viewing levels and low SSB consumption may result in a healthier CVD profile rather than having a diet rich in fruits and vegetables or being physically active in (pre-)school children.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.84.
  • Biörklund, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in serum lipids and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations after consumption of beverages with beta-glucans from oats or barley: a randomised dose-controlled trial
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 59:11, s. 1272-1281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To investigate side by side the effects on serum lipoproteins and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations of beverages enriched with 5 or 10 g of beta-glucans from oats or barley. Design and setting: An 8-week single blind, controlled study with five parallel groups carried out at two centres under identical conditions. Interventions: During a 3-week run-in period all subjects consumed a control beverage. For the following 5-week period four groups received a beverage with 5 or 10 g beta-glucans from oats or barley and one group continued with the control beverage. Blood samples in weeks 0, 2, 3, 7 and 8 were analysed for serum lipids, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin. Postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were compared between control and the beverage with 5 g of beta-glucans from oats or barley. Results: Compared to control, 5 g of beta-glucans from oats significantly lowered total-cholesterol by 7.4% ( P<0.01), and postprandial concentrations of glucose ( 30 min, P = 0.005) and insulin ( 30 min, P = 0.025). The beverage with 10 g of beta-glucans from oats did not affect serum lipids significantly in comparison with control. No statistically significant effects compared to control of the beverages with barley beta-glucans were found. Conclusions: A daily consumption of 5 g of oat beta-glucans in a beverage improved the lipid and glucose metabolism, while barley beta-glucans did not.
  • Brandhagen, Martin, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns are related to general and central adiposity.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European journal of clinical nutrition. - 1476-5640. ; 66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Objectives:Alcohol and dietary fat have high energy densities and may therefore be related to body weight and fat deposition. We studied associations between alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns and general and central adiposity.Subjects/Methods:A population-based cross-sectional study of 524 men and 611 women. The participants answered a dietary questionnaire describing habitual food consumption including intake of alcoholic beverages. Macronutrient intake was analysed in relation to anthropometric measures and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry determined body fat.Results:In women, total alcohol intake was negatively associated with body fat percentage (β:-0.67, P<0.01). In men, total alcohol intake was positively associated with sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) (β: 0.28, P=0.01). In addition, positive associations were found between intake of alcohol from spirits and body fat percentage (β: 1.17, P<0.05), SAD (β: 0.52, P<0.05) and waist circumference (β: 2.29, P=0.01). In men, protein intake was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) (β: 0.03, P=0.001), body fat percentage (β: 0.04, P<0.05), SAD (β: 0.02, P=0.01) and waist circumference (β: 0.09, P<0.01). Also in men only, negative associations between fat intake and BMI (β: -0.03, P<0.01), SAD (β: -0.02, P<0.05) and waist circumference (β: -0.05, P<0.05) were found.Conclusions:Alcohol intake was inversely associated to relative body fat in women whereas spirits consumption was positively related to central and general obesity in men. Macronutrient intakes, particularly protein and fat, were differently associated with obesity indicators in men versus women. This may reflect a differential effect by gender, or differential obesity related reporting errors in men and women.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 16 November 2011; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.189.
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