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  • Adiyaman, Ahmet, et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of the ambulatory arterial stiffness index in 7604 subjects from 6 populations
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 1524-4563. ; 52:6, s. 1038-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure recordings. We investigated whether the goodness-of-fit of the AASI regression line in individual subjects (r(2)) impacts on the association of AASI with established determinants of the relation between diastolic and systolic blood pressures. We constructed the International Database on the Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (7604 participants from 6 countries). AASI was unity minus the regression slope of diastolic on systolic blood pressure in individual 24-hour ambulatory recordings. AASI correlated positively with age and 24-hour mean arterial pressure and negatively with body height and 24-hour heart rate. The single correlation coefficients and the mutually adjusted partial regression coefficients of AASI with age, height, 24-hour mean pressure, and 24-hour heart rate increased from the lowest to the highest quartile of r(2). These findings were consistent in dippers and nondippers (night:day ratio of systolic pressure &gt;or=0.90), women and men, and in Europeans, Asians, and South Americans. The cumulative z score for the association of AASI with these determinants of the relation between diastolic and systolic blood pressures increased curvilinearly with r(2), with most of the improvement in the association occurring above the 20th percentile of r(2) (0.36). In conclusion, a better fit of the AASI regression line enhances the statistical power of analyses involving AASI as marker of arterial stiffness. An r(2) value of 0.36 might be a threshold in sensitivity analyses to improve the stratification of cardiovascular risk.</p>
  • Akhter, Tansim, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Individual Artery Wall Layer Dimensions Indicate Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Previous Severe Preeclampsia : An investigation using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Preeclampsia, especially severe preeclampsia, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. However, ultrasound assessments of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) do not convincingly demonstrate this. The aim of this study was to assess whether the individual thickness of the CCA intima and media layers and calculation of intima/media (I/M) ratio indicate an increased cardiovascular risk in women with previous severe PE. The thicknesses of the CCA intima and media layers were obtained by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) (Collagenoson, Meudt, Germany) in 42 women with previous severe preeclampsia and 44 women with previous normal pregnancies. A thick intima, thin media and high I/M ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. Women with previous severe preeclampsia had a thicker mean CCA intima and a higher I/M ratio than women with previous normal pregnancies (both p &lt; 0.0001). CCA-IMT did not differ significantly between the groups. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, both intima thickness and I/M ratio clearly discriminated between women with and without previous severe preeclampsia [area under the curve (AUC) about 0.95], whereas CCA-IMT did not (AUC 0.52). Estimation of the individual CCA intima and media layers using high-frequency ultrasound and calculation of the I/M ratio clearly demonstrated the well known increased cardiovascular risk in women with previous severe preeclampsia, whereas CCA-IMT did not. This method appears preferable to measuring CCA-IMT for imaging arterial effects and the increased cardiovascular risk in women with a history of previous severe preeclampsia.</p>
  • Asayama, Kei, et al. (författare)
  • Setting Thresholds to Varying Blood Pressure Monitoring Intervals Differentially Affects Risk Estimates Associated With White-Coat and Masked Hypertension in the Population
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 64:5, s. 935-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using &gt;= 140/&gt;= 90, &gt;= 130/&gt;= 80, &gt;= 135/&gt;= 85, and &gt;= 120/&gt;= 70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P&lt;0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice.</p>
  • Bakris, George L, et al. (författare)
  • Divergent results using clinic and ambulatory blood pressures report of a darusentan-resistant hypertension trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 56:5, s. 824-830
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Patients with resistant hypertension are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. The addition of new treatments to existing therapies will help achieve blood pressure (BP) goals in more resistant hypertension patients. In the current trial, 849 patients with resistant hypertension receiving ≥3 antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, at optimized doses were randomized to the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist darusentan, placebo, or the central α-2 agonist guanfacine. The coprimary end points of the study were changes from baseline to week 14 in trough, sitting systolic BP, and diastolic BP measured in the clinic. Decreases from baseline to week 14 in systolic BP for darusentan (−15±14 mm Hg) were greater than for guanfacine (−12±13 mm Hg; <em>P</em>&lt;0.05) but not greater than placebo (−14±14 mm Hg). Darusentan, however, reduced mean 24-hour systolic BP (−9±12 mm Hg) more than placebo (−2±12 mm Hg) or guanfacine (−4±12 mm Hg) after 14 weeks of treatment (<em>P</em>&lt;0.001 for each comparison). The most frequent adverse event associated with darusentan was fluid retention/edema at 28% versus 12% in each of the other groups. More patients withdrew because of adverse events on darusentan as compared with placebo or guanfacine. We conclude that darusentan provided greater reduction in systolic BP in resistant hypertension patients as assessed by ambulatory BP monitoring, in spite of not meeting its coprimary end points. The results of this trial highlight the importance of ambulatory BP monitoring in the design of hypertension clinical studies.</p>
  • Barnes, J. N., et al. (författare)
  • Aging enhances autonomic support of blood pressure in women
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 63:2, s. 303-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in both acute and chronic blood pressure regulation in humans. The activity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is positively associated with peripheral resistance, an important determinant of mean arterial pressure in men. In contrast, there is no association between sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral resistance in women before menopause, yet a positive association after menopause. We hypothesized that autonomic support of blood pressure is higher after menopause in women. We examined the effect of ganglionic blockade on arterial blood pressure and how this relates to baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity in 12 young (25±1 years) and 12 older postmenopausal (61±2 years) women. The women were studied before and during autonomic blockade using trimethaphan camsylate. At baseline, muscle sympathetic nerve activity burst frequency and burst incidence were higher in the older women (33±3 versus 15±1 bursts/min; 57±5 versus 25±2 bursts/100 heartbeats, respectively; P<0.05). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity bursts were abolished by trimethaphan within minutes. Older women had a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure (-29±2 versus-9±2 mm Hg; P<0.01) and total peripheral resistance (-10±1 versus-5±1 mm Hg/L per minute; P<0.01) during trimethaphan. Baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity was associated with the decrease in mean arterial pressure during trimethaphan (r=-0.74; P<0.05). In summary, our results suggest that autonomic support of blood pressure is greater in older women compared with young women and that elevated sympathetic nerve activity in older women contributes importantly to the increased incidence of hypertension after menopause. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.
  • Bengtsson, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene variation and hypertension in subjects with type 2 diabetes
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1524-4563. ; 37:5, s. 1303-1308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (5'LC-Arg19Cys, Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu) are associated with hypertension in patients with or without type 2 diabetes and with the blood pressure levels in normotensive sib pairs. The association study included 291 hypertensive patients without type 2 diabetes, 124 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, and 265 healthy control subjects from SWEDEN: In addition, normotensive sib pairs that were discordant for the Arg16Gly (72 pairs) and Gln27Glu (40 pairs) polymorphisms were identified in type 2 diabetes families from FINLAND: Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis. Homozygous carriers of the Arg16 allele had a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes (OR 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 4.33), particularly among lean (body mass index<27 kg/m(2)) patients (OR 3.47; 95% CI, 1.06 to 11.33). The Gln27 allele showed a weaker association to hypertension (OR 1.55; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.41) and was found to be in linkage disequilibrium with the Cys19 allele of the 5'LC-Arg19Cys polymorphism. In the paired-sibling analysis, siblings with at least 1 copy of the Arg16 allele had higher systolic blood pressure (P=0.049), and nondiabetic siblings had a higher body mass index (P=0.026) than siblings homozygous for the Gly16 allele. These results indicate that the Arg16 allele of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene confers an increased risk for hypertension in subjects with type 2 diabetes and is associated with higher blood pressure levels and higher body mass index in sib pairs who are discordant for the polymorphism.
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