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  • Hill, JA, et al. (författare)
  • Medical Misinformation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. Heart failure. - 1941-3297. ; 12:2, s. e005496-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Adiyaman, Ahmet, et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of the ambulatory arterial stiffness index in 7604 subjects from 6 populations
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 1524-4563. ; 52:6, s. 1038-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure recordings. We investigated whether the goodness-of-fit of the AASI regression line in individual subjects (r(2)) impacts on the association of AASI with established determinants of the relation between diastolic and systolic blood pressures. We constructed the International Database on the Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (7604 participants from 6 countries). AASI was unity minus the regression slope of diastolic on systolic blood pressure in individual 24-hour ambulatory recordings. AASI correlated positively with age and 24-hour mean arterial pressure and negatively with body height and 24-hour heart rate. The single correlation coefficients and the mutually adjusted partial regression coefficients of AASI with age, height, 24-hour mean pressure, and 24-hour heart rate increased from the lowest to the highest quartile of r(2). These findings were consistent in dippers and nondippers (night:day ratio of systolic pressure >or=0.90), women and men, and in Europeans, Asians, and South Americans. The cumulative z score for the association of AASI with these determinants of the relation between diastolic and systolic blood pressures increased curvilinearly with r(2), with most of the improvement in the association occurring above the 20th percentile of r(2) (0.36). In conclusion, a better fit of the AASI regression line enhances the statistical power of analyses involving AASI as marker of arterial stiffness. An r(2) value of 0.36 might be a threshold in sensitivity analyses to improve the stratification of cardiovascular risk.
  • Akhter, Tansim, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Individual Artery Wall Layer Dimensions Indicate Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Previous Severe Preeclampsia : An investigation using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Preeclampsia, especially severe preeclampsia, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. However, ultrasound assessments of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) do not convincingly demonstrate this. The aim of this study was to assess whether the individual thickness of the CCA intima and media layers and calculation of intima/media (I/M) ratio indicate an increased cardiovascular risk in women with previous severe PE. The thicknesses of the CCA intima and media layers were obtained by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) (Collagenoson, Meudt, Germany) in 42 women with previous severe preeclampsia and 44 women with previous normal pregnancies. A thick intima, thin media and high I/M ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. Women with previous severe preeclampsia had a thicker mean CCA intima and a higher I/M ratio than women with previous normal pregnancies (both p < 0.0001). CCA-IMT did not differ significantly between the groups. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, both intima thickness and I/M ratio clearly discriminated between women with and without previous severe preeclampsia [area under the curve (AUC) about 0.95], whereas CCA-IMT did not (AUC 0.52). Estimation of the individual CCA intima and media layers using high-frequency ultrasound and calculation of the I/M ratio clearly demonstrated the well known increased cardiovascular risk in women with previous severe preeclampsia, whereas CCA-IMT did not. This method appears preferable to measuring CCA-IMT for imaging arterial effects and the increased cardiovascular risk in women with a history of previous severe preeclampsia.
  • Alvarez-Madrazo, S., et al. (författare)
  • Common Polymorphisms in the CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 Genes: Evidence for a Digenic Influence on Hypertension
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 61:1, s. 232-239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The locus encompassing the corticosteroidogenic genes CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 is of potential importance in essential hypertension. We analyzed the association of polymorphisms at this locus with risk of essential hypertension, using 2 white case-control collections for discovery (n = 3340) and confirmation (n = 2929). Single-marker and haplotype analyses were performed, with the CYP11B2 Intron 2 Conversion polymorphism showing strongest association with hypertension in both cohorts and in combined analysis (odds ratio = 1.16, P = 8.54x10(-5)). The CYP11B1 ACA haplotype associated with increased risk of hypertension relative to the alternative, GTC (odds ratio = 1.11; P = 7.4x10(-3)), whereas the CYP11B2 TWtC haplotype seemed protective relative to the contrasting CConvT (odds ratio = 0.88, P = 2.2x10(-3)). Analysis spanning the whole CYP11B1/CYP11B2 locus showed that haplotypes associated with raised risk of hypertension tend to coexist. Functional analysis of heterozygous human adrenal tissue demonstrated decreased CYP11B2 expression and increased CYP11B1 expression for those alleles associating with reduced risk of hypertension. These results confirm the hypertensive influence of this locus, with data suggesting a complex digenic mechanism whereby altered relative CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 gene expression could have a chronic effect on enzyme activity and corticosteroid synthesis.
  • An, De-Wei, et al. (författare)
  • Carotid-Femoral Pulse Transit Time Variability Predicted Mortality and Improved Risk Stratification in the Elderly
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1524-4563. ; 78:5, s. 1287-1295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity, determined by pulse transit time (PTT) and distance, is a well-established measure of arterial stiffness and predicts adverse outcomes. However, its predictive value decreases with aging. To explore new risk indicator in the elderly, we investigated if the variation of carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity, registered as beat-to-beat variability of carotid-to-femoral PTT (cf-PTT), could predict outcome. Totally 3015 (median age, 72.4 years; 39.6% men) and 1181 (75.6 years; 42.2% men) subjects from communities of Malmö, Sweden, and Shanghai, China, were analyzed, respectively. Continuous pulse waves for 10 seconds were recorded sequentially at carotid and femoral arterial sites with applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor, Atcor, Australia). During a median of 6.6 and 10.2 years, 389 and 427 deaths occurred in the Malmö and Shanghai cohorts, respectively. Each one-SD increase in the log-transformed coefficient of variation of cf-PTT was associated with 24% (95% CI, 13%–37%) and 21% (10%–33%) increased risk for all-cause mortality in the Malmö and Shanghai subjects, and 60% (33%–91%) for cardiovascular mortality in the Malmö subjects. Adding the coefficient of variation of cf-PTT to the models including conventional risk factors and carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity significantly (P<0.05) improved prediction for all-cause mortality in both cohorts (integrated discrimination improvement, 0.005–0.008) and cardiovascular mortality in the Malmö cohort (net reclassification improvement, 0.206). In both cohorts, a coefficient of variation of cf-PTT <6% was not associated with increased mortality risk. In conclusion, the beat-to-beat variability of cf-PTT predicted mortality and improved risk stratification, which might be a novel risk indicator for elderly people.
  • Asayama, Kei, et al. (författare)
  • Setting Thresholds to Varying Blood Pressure Monitoring Intervals Differentially Affects Risk Estimates Associated With White-Coat and Masked Hypertension in the Population
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 64:5, s. 935-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using >= 140/>= 90, >= 130/>= 80, >= 135/>= 85, and >= 120/>= 70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice.
  • Bakris, George L, et al. (författare)
  • Divergent results using clinic and ambulatory blood pressures report of a darusentan-resistant hypertension trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 56:5, s. 824-830
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with resistant hypertension are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. The addition of new treatments to existing therapies will help achieve blood pressure (BP) goals in more resistant hypertension patients. In the current trial, 849 patients with resistant hypertension receiving ≥3 antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, at optimized doses were randomized to the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist darusentan, placebo, or the central α-2 agonist guanfacine. The coprimary end points of the study were changes from baseline to week 14 in trough, sitting systolic BP, and diastolic BP measured in the clinic. Decreases from baseline to week 14 in systolic BP for darusentan (−15±14 mm Hg) were greater than for guanfacine (−12±13 mm Hg; P<0.05) but not greater than placebo (−14±14 mm Hg). Darusentan, however, reduced mean 24-hour systolic BP (−9±12 mm Hg) more than placebo (−2±12 mm Hg) or guanfacine (−4±12 mm Hg) after 14 weeks of treatment (P<0.001 for each comparison). The most frequent adverse event associated with darusentan was fluid retention/edema at 28% versus 12% in each of the other groups. More patients withdrew because of adverse events on darusentan as compared with placebo or guanfacine. We conclude that darusentan provided greater reduction in systolic BP in resistant hypertension patients as assessed by ambulatory BP monitoring, in spite of not meeting its coprimary end points. The results of this trial highlight the importance of ambulatory BP monitoring in the design of hypertension clinical studies.
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