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  • As-Sanie, Sawsan, et al. (författare)
  • Functional Connectivity Is Associated With Altered Brain Chemistry in Women With Endometriosis-Associated Chronic Pelvic Pain
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain. - : Elsevier. - 1526-5900. ; 17:1, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • UNLABELLED: In contrast to women with relatively asymptomatic endometriosis, women with endometriosis-associated chronic pelvic pain (CPP) exhibit nonpelvic hyperalgesia and decreased gray matter volume in key neural pain processing regions. Although these findings suggest central pain amplification in endometriosis-associated CPP, the underlying changes in brain chemistry and function associated with central pain amplification remain unknown. We performed proton spectroscopy and seed-based resting functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether women with endometriosis display differences in insula excitatory neurotransmitter concentrations or intrinsic brain connectivity to other pain-related brain regions. Relative to age-matched pain-free controls, women with endometriosis-associated CPP displayed increased levels of combined glutamine-glutamate (Glx) within the anterior insula and greater anterior insula connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Increased connectivity between these regions was positively correlated with anterior insula Glx concentrations (r = .87), as well as clinical anxiety (r = .61, P = .02), depression (r = .60, P = .03), and pain intensity (r = .55, P = .05). There were no significant differences in insula metabolite levels or resting-state connectivity in endometriosis patients without CPP versus controls. We conclude that enhanced anterior insula glutamatergic neurotransmission and connectivity with the mPFC, key regions of the salience and default mode networks, may play a role in the pathophysiology of CPP independent of the presence of endometriosis.PERSPECTIVE: Similar to other chronic pain conditions, endometriosis-associated pelvic pain is associated with altered brain chemistry and function in pain processing regions. These findings support central pain amplification as a mechanism of chronic pelvic pain, and clinicians should consider the use of adjunctive therapies that target central pain dysfunction in these women.
  • Asenlöf, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Individually tailored treatment targeting activity, motor behavior, and cognition reduces pain-related disability : a randomized controlled trial in patients with musculoskeletal pain.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain. - 1526-5900 .- 1528-8447. ; 6:9, s. 588-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study compares the outcomes of an individually tailored behavioral medicine intervention (experimental) with physical exercise therapy (control). The experimental intervention was systematically individualized according to each participant's behavioral treatment goals and functional behavioral analyses. One hundred twenty-two patients seeking care at 3 primary health care clinics because of musculoskeletal pain were randomized. Ninety-seven completed the trial. Data were collected at baseline, immediately after treatment, and at a 3-month follow-up. Analyses of data from completers, as well as intention-to-treat analyses, showed that the experimental group experienced lower levels of disability (P = .01), lower maximum pain intensity (P = .02), higher levels of pain control (P = .001), and lower fear of movement (P = .022) as a result of treatment condition. Self-efficacy (P = .0001) and physical performance (P = .0001) increased over time for both groups. Participants in the experimental group generally reported more positive effects after treatment. Treatment fidelity was maintained during the course of the study. Activity can be resumed and pain might be managed by the patients themselves if treatment incorporates the biopsychosocial explanatory model of pain and strategies are tailored according to individual's priorities of everyday life activities and empirically derived determinants of pain-related disability. PERSPECTIVE: This study shows that the biomedical and the psychosocial perspectives of the experiences and consequences of pain complement rather than contradict each other. Primary health care patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain benefit more from a systematic tailoring of treatments according to biopsychosocial factors than from a physically based exercise intervention.
  • Bjorkman, Berit, et al. (författare)
  • Phantom Breast and Other Syndromes After Mastectomy : Eight Breast Cancer Patients Describe Their Experiences Over Time
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain. - 1526-5900 .- 1528-8447. ; 9:11, s. 1018-1025
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients often experience hard-to-treat neuropathic pain and other sensations after surgery; consequently, they could develop chronic pain conditions. The phantom limb phenomenon is a well-documented postoperative pain condition. However, phantom phenomena after mastectomies are less documented. The reviews report several views on the prevalence of breast phantoms and coexisting distress. Researchers observed that new methodological approaches might facilitate further research of these issues. This prospective, qualitative study used semistructured interviews to acquire knowledge of if and how phantom breast phenomena appear within the range of other postmastectomy symptoms and sensations. The study revealed that a phantom breast could be difficult to describe and position spatially. The phantom breast phenomenon varied from classic phantom extremity phenomenon and did not seem to cause much distress. However, it proved to be a phenomenon so unknown and different that there is urgent need for more knowledge. This study highlights the importance of further investigation regarding how information and communication related to a phantom breast might be developed. Perspective: The phantom breast is only one piece of a complicated puzzle. Because it was relatively unknown for the women in the study, it is important that analyses of this phenomenon, as a part of a postmastectomy syndrome, be conducted in a dialogue with the patients, by scientifically using qualitative methods.
  • Costa, Nathalia, et al. (författare)
  • A Definition of "Flare" in Low Back Pain: A Multiphase Process Involving Perspectives of Individuals With Low Back Pain and Expert Consensus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain. - : CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE. - 1526-5900 .- 1528-8447. ; 20:11, s. 1267-1275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low back pain (LBP) varies over time. Consumers, clinicians, and researchers use various terms to describe LBP fluctuations, such as episodes, recurrences and flares. Although "flare" is use commonly, there is no consensus on how it is defined. This study aimed to obtain consensus for a LBP flare definition using a mixed-method approach. Step 1 involved the derivation of a preliminary candidate flare definition based on thematic analysis of views of 130 consumers in consultation with an expert consumer writer. In step 2, a workshop was conducted to incorporate perspectives of 19 LBP experts into the preliminary flare definition, which resulted in 2 alternative LBP flare definitions. Step 3 refined the definition using a 2-round Delphi consensus with 50 experts in musculoskeletal conditions. The definition favored by experts was further tested with 16 individuals with LBP in step 4, using the definition in three scenarios. This multiphase study produced a definition of LBP flare that distinguishes it from other LBP fluctuations, represents consumers views, involves expert consensus, and is understandable by consumers in clinical and research contexts: "A flare-up is a worsening of your condition that lasts from hours to weeks that is difficult to tolerate and generally impacts your usual activities and/or emotions." Perspective: A multiphase process, incorporating consumers views and expert consensus, produced a definition of LBP flare that distinguishes it from other LBP fluctuations. (C) 2019 by the American Pain Society
  • Denison, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Musculoskeletal pain in primary health care : subgroups based on pain intensity, disability, self-efficacy, and fear-avoidance variables
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain. - 1526-5900 .- 1528-8447. ; 8:1, s. 67-74
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to identify and describe subgroup profiles based on self-reported pain intensity, disability, self-efficacy, fear of movement/(re)injury, and catastrophizing in patients with musculoskeletal pain. Two primary health care samples (n = 215 and n = 161) were used. Self-report questionnaires were completed at the start of physical therapy treatment. Cluster analysis was used to generate subgroups. Three subgroups were identified in sample 1 and replicated in sample 2. These were labeled "High self-efficacy-Low fear-avoidance," "Low self-efficacy-Low fear-avoidance," and "Low self-efficacy-High fear-avoidance." The subgroups differed significantly in work-status in both samples (P < .001), but not in age, gender, or duration of pain. The results show the presence of subgroups based on pain intensity, disability, self-efficacy, fear of movement/(re)injury, and catastrophizing. The profile patterns suggest that different management strategies may be relevant in each subgroup. Perspective  This article presents subgroups of patients with musculoskeletal pain with different profiles in pain intensity, disability, and psychosocial variables possible to modify by physical therapy management. The results could potentially aid clinicians in tailoring assessment and treatment approaches to each subgroup.
  • Eftekhari, Sajedeh, et al. (författare)
  • Differentiation of Nerve Fibers Storing CGRP and CGRP Receptors in the Peripheral Trigeminovascular System.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain. - : Elsevier. - 1526-5900. ; 14:11, s. 1289-1303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary headaches such as migraine are postulated to involve the activation of sensory trigeminal pain neurons that innervate intracranial blood vessels and the dura mater. It is suggested that local activation of these sensory nerves may involve dural mast cells as one factor in local inflammation, causing sensitization of meningeal nociceptors. Immunofluorescence was used to study the detailed distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor components calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) in whole-mount rat dura mater and in human dural vessels. The relative distributions of CGRP, CLR, and RAMP1 were evaluated with respect to each other and in relationship to mast cells, myelin, substance P, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide. CGRP expression was found in thin unmyelinated fibers, whereas CLR and RAMP1 were expressed in thicker myelinated fibers coexpressed with an A-fiber marker. CLR and RAMP1 immunoreactivity colocalized with mast cell tryptase in rodent; however, expression of both receptor components was not observed in human mast cells. Immunoreactive substance P fibers coexpressed CGRP, although neuronal nitric oxide synthase and vasoactive intestinal peptide expression was very limited, and these fibers were distinct from the CGRP-positive fibers. Few pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide immunoreactive fibers occurred and some colocalized with CGRP.
  • Glette, Mari, et al. (författare)
  • Catastrophizing, Solicitous Responses From Significant Others, and Function in Individuals With Neuropathic Pain, Osteoarthritis, or Spinal Pain in the General Population
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain. - 1526-5900 .- 1528-8447. ; 19:9, s. 983-995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • That certain psychological factors are negatively associated with function in patients with chronic pain is well established. However, few studies have evaluated these factors in individuals with chronic pain from the general population. The aims of this study were to: 1) evaluate the unique associations between catastrophizing and perceived solicitous responses and psychological function, physical function, and insomnia severity in individuals with neuropathic pain, osteoarthritis, or spinal pain in the general population; and 2) determine if diagnosis moderates the associations found. Five hundred fifty-one individuals from the general population underwent examinations with a physician and physiotherapist, and a total of 334 individuals were diagnosed with either neuropathic pain (n = 34), osteoarthritis (n = 78), or spinal pain (n = 222). Results showed that catastrophizing was significantly associated with reduced psychological and physical function, explaining 24% and 2% of the variance respectively, whereas catastrophizing as well as perceived solicitous responding were significantly and uniquely associated with insomnia severity, explaining 8% of the variance. Perceived solicitous responding was significantly negatively associated with insomnia severity. Moderator analyses indicated that: 1) the association between catastrophizing and psychological function was greater among individuals with spinal pain and neuropathic pain than those with osteoarthritis, and 2) the association between catastrophizing and insomnia was greater among individuals with spinal pain and osteoarthritis than those with neuropathic pain. No statistically significant interactions including perceived solicitous responses were found. The findings support earlier findings of an association between catastrophizing and function among individuals with chronic pain in the general population, and suggest that diagnosis may serve a moderating role in some of these associations. Perspective: When examining persons with pain in the general population, catastrophizing is associated with several aspects of function, and diagnosis serves as a moderator for these associations. The replication of these associations in the general population support their reliability and generalizability.
  • Godfrey, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Physical Therapy Informed by Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (PACT) Versus Usual Care Physical Therapy for Adults With Chronic Low Back Pain : A Randomized Controlled Trial.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain. - 1526-5900 .- 1528-8447. ; 21:1-2, s. 71-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major cause of global disability and improving management is essential. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a promising treatment for chronic pain but has not been modified for physical therapy. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared physical therapy informed by ACT (PACT) against standard care physical therapy for patients with CLBP. Patients with CLBP (duration ≥12 weeks, mean 3 years) were recruited from physical therapy clinics in 4 UK public hospitals. The Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) at 3 months' post-randomization was the primary outcome. Two hundred forty-eight participants (59% female, mean age = 48) were recruited and 219 (88.3%) completed measures at 3 and/or 12 months' follow-up. At 3 months, PACT participants reported better outcomes for disability (RMDQ mean difference = 1.07, p = .037, 95% CI = -2.08 to -.07, d = .2), Patient Specific Functioning (p = .008), SF12 physical health (p = .032), and treatment credibility (p < .001). At 12 months' follow-up, there were no significant differences between groups. PACT was acceptable to patients and clinicians and feasible to deliver. Physical therapists incorporated psychological principles successfully and treatment was delivered with high (≥80%) fidelity. Our results may inform the management of CLBP, with potential benefits for patients, health care providers, and society. PERSPECTIVE: Psychologically informed physical therapy has great potential but there are challenges in implementation. The training and support included in the PACT trial enabled the intervention to be delivered as planned. This successfully reduced disability in the short but not long term. Findings could inform physical therapists' treatment of CLBP.
  • Hedman-Lagerlöf, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Utility of Internet-Delivered Exposure Therapy for Fibromyalgia : Results From a Randomized, Controlled Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain. - : Elsevier. - 1526-5900 .- 1528-8447. ; 20:1, s. 47-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent and debilitating chronic pain disorder associated with a substantial economic burden. Although there are several studies investigating the effectiveness of psychological treatments such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for FM, studies on cost-effectiveness are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of Internet-delivered exposure therapy (iExp) for FM. We used health economic data from a recently conducted randomized, controlled trial, where 140 participants were randomized to either iExp or a waitlist control (WLC) condition. Economic data were collected at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at the 1-year follow-up. Treatment effectiveness in relation to costs were analyzed using both a societal perspective (including all direct and indirect costs) and a health care unit perspective (including only the direct treatment costs). Bootstrapped net benefit regression analyses were also conducted, comparing the difference in costs and effects between iExp and WLC, within different willingness-to-pay scenarios. Results showed that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -$15,295, indicating that iExp was highly cost-effective as each successfully treated case (treatment responder) was associated with a substantial net reduction in costs. The robustness of the results was tested in 2 different sensitivity analyses, where iExp remained cost-effective, even in a willingness-to-pay-scenario of $0. We conclude that iExp is a cost-effective treatment that generates large societal cost savings.PERSPECTIVE: Health-economic evaluations of psychological interventions for FM are scarce. This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis of Internet-delivered exposure therapy for patients with FM. Results showed that iExp was highly cost-effective compared with no treatment, where each successfully treated case generated a substantial societal cost saving.
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