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1.
  • Aberg, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in long-term mortality among liver transplant recipients and the general population: A population-based Nordic study.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). - 1527-3350. ; 61:2, s. 668-677
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dramatic improvement in first-year outcomes post-liver transplantation (LT) has shifted attention to long-term survival, where efforts are now needed to achieve improvement. Understanding the causes for premature death is a prerequisite for improving long-term outcome. Overall and cause-specific mortality of 3299 Nordic LT patients (1985-2009) having survived 1 year post-LT were divided by expected rates in the general population, adjusted for age, sex, calendar time, and country to yield standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Data came from the Nordic Liver-Transplant Registry and WHO mortality-indicator database. Stagnant patient survival rates >1 year post-LT were 21% lower at 10 years than expected survival for the general population. Overall SMR for death before age 75 (premature mortality) was 5.8 (95%CI 5.4-6.3), with improvement from 1985-1999 to 2000-2010 in hepatitis C (HCV) (SMR change 23.1-9.2), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (SMR 38.4-18.8), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (SMR 11.0-4.2), and deterioration in alcoholic liver disease (8.3-24.0) and acute liver failure (ALF) (5.9-7.6). SMRs for cancer and liver disease (recurrent or transplant-unrelated disease) were elevated in all indications except primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Absolute mortality rates underestimated the elevated premature mortality from infections (SMR 22-693) and kidney disease (SMR 13-45) across all indications, and from suicide in HCV and ALF. SMR for cardiovascular disease was significant only in PBC and alcoholic liver disease, owing to high mortality in the general population. Transplant-specific events caused 16% of deaths. Conclusion: standardized premature mortality provided an improved picture of long-term post-LT outcome, showing improvement over time in some indications, not revealed by overall absolute mortality rates. Causes with high premature mortality (infections, cancer, kidney and liver disease, and suicide) merit increased attention in clinical patient follow-up and future research. (Hepatology 2014;).
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3.
  • Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi, et al. (författare)
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139. ; 57:2, s. 716-726
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients. Mice challenged with cholic acid developed hypercholanemia and a hepatic gene expression profile indicative of FXR activation. However, coadministration of epiallopregnanolone sulfate with cholic acid exacerbated the hypercholanemia and resulted in aberrant gene expression profiles for hepatic bile acid-responsive genes consistent with cholestasis. We demonstrate that levels of epiallopregnanolone sulfate found in ICP can function as a partial agonist for FXR, resulting in the aberrant expression of bile acid homeostasis genes in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, epiallopregnanolone sulfate inhibition of FXR results in reduced FXR-mediated bile acid efflux and secreted FGF19. Using cofactor recruitment assays, we show that epiallopregnanolone sulfate competitively inhibits bile acid-mediated recruitment of cofactor motifs to the FXR-ligand binding domain. Conclusion: Our results reveal a novel molecular interaction between ICP-associated levels of the 3β-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate and FXR that couples the endocrine component of pregnancy in ICP to abnormal bile acid homeostasis. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;).
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4.
  • Abu-Hayyeh, S., et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic and Mechanistic Potential of Progesterone Sulfates in Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy and Pruritus Gravidarum
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139. ; 63:4, s. 1287-1298
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A challenge in obstetrics is to distinguish pathological symptoms from those associated with normal changes of pregnancy, typified by the need to differentiate whether gestational pruritus of the skin is an early symptom of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) or due to benign pruritus gravidarum. ICP is characterized by raised serum bile acids and complicated by spontaneous preterm labor and stillbirth. A biomarker for ICP would be invaluable for early diagnosis and treatment and to enable its differentiation from other maternal diseases. Three progesterone sulfate compounds, whose concentrations have not previously been studied, were newly synthesized and assayed in the serum of three groups of ICP patients and found to be significantly higher in ICP at 9-15 weeks of gestation and prior to symptom onset (group 1 cases/samples: ICP n = 35/80, uncomplicated pregnancy = 29/100), demonstrating that all three progesterone sulfates are prognostic for ICP. Concentrations of progesterone sulfates were associated with itch severity and, in combination with autotaxin, distinguished pregnant women with itch that would subsequently develop ICP from pruritus gravidarum (group 2: ICP n = 41, pruritus gravidarum n = 14). In a third group of first-trimester samples all progesterone sulfates were significantly elevated in serum from low-risk asymptomatic women who subsequently developed ICP (ICP/uncomplicated pregnancy n = 54/51). Finally, we show mechanistically that progesterone sulfates mediate itch by evoking a Tgr5-dependent scratch response in mice. Conclusion: Our discovery that sulfated progesterone metabolites are a prognostic indicator for ICP will help predict onset of ICP and distinguish it from benign pruritus gravidarum, enabling targeted obstetric care to a high-risk population. Delineation of a progesterone sulfate-TGR5 pruritus axis identifies a therapeutic target for itch management in ICP.
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6.
  • Ajmera, Veeral H., et al. (författare)
  • MRI Assessment of Treatment Response in HIV-associated NAFLD: A Randomized Trial of a Stearoyl-Coenzyme-A-Desaturase-1 Inhibitor (ARRIVE Trial)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : WILEY. - 0270-9139 .- 1527-3350. ; 70:5, s. 1531-1545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aramchol, an oral stearoyl-coenzyme-A-desaturase-1 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce hepatic fat content in patients with primary nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, its effect in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated NAFLD is unknown. The aramchol for HIV-associated NAFLD and lipodystrophy (ARRIVE) trial was a double-blind, randomized, investigator-initiated, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of treatment with aramchol versus placebo in HIV-associated NAFLD. Fifty patients with HIV-associated NAFLD, defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-proton density fat fraction (PDFF) amp;gt;= 5%, were randomized to receive either aramchol 600 mg daily (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was a change in hepatic fat as measured by MRI-PDFF in colocalized regions of interest. Secondary endpoints included changes in liver stiffness using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE), and exploratory endpoints included changes in total-body fat and muscle depots on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), whole-body MRI, and cardiac MRI. The mean (+/- standard deviation) of age and body mass index were 48.2 +/- 10.3 years and 30.7 +/- 4.6 kg/m(2), respectively. There was no difference in the reduction in mean MRI-PDFF between the aramchol group at -1.3% (baseline MRI-PDFF 15.6% versus end-of-treatment MRI-PDFF 14.4%, P = 0.24) and the placebo group at -1.4% (baseline MRI-PDFF 13.3% versus end-of-treatment MRI-PDFF 11.9%, P = 0.26). There was no difference in the relative decline in mean MRI-PDFF between the aramchol and placebo groups (6.8% versus 1.1%, P = 0.68). There were no differences in MRE-derived and VCTE-derived liver stiffness and whole-body (fat and muscle) composition analysis by MRI or DXA. Compared to baseline, end-of-treatment aminotransferases were lower in the aramchol group but not in the placebo arm. There were no significant adverse events. Conclusion: Aramchol, over a 12-week period, did not reduce hepatic fat or change body fat and muscle composition by using MRI-based assessment in patients with HIV-associated NAFLD (clinicaltrials.gov ID:NCT02684591).
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7.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers and risk of liver and bilary tract cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0270-9139 .- 1527-3350. ; 60:3, s. 858-871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis; however there is little data on the role of obesity-related biomarkers on liver cancer risk. We studied prospectively the association of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intra-hepatic bile duct (IBD) and gallbladder and bilary tract cancers outside of the liver (GBTC) in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Over an average of 7.7 years, 296 participants developed HCC (n=125), GBTC (n=137) or IBD (n=34). Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio and matched for recruitment center, age, sex, fasting status, time of blood collection. Baseline serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-peptide, total, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a, and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH) were measured and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI-s) estimated using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for lifestyle factors, diabetes, hepatitis infection and adiposity measures, higher concentrations of CRP, IL-6, C-peptide and non-HMW adiponectin were associated with higher risk of HCC (IRR per doubling of concentrations = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.02-1.46, P=0.03; 1.90; 95%CI = 1.30-2.77, P=0.001; 2.25; 95%CI = 1.43-3.54, P=0.0005 and 2.09; 95%CI = 1.19-3.67, P=0.01, respectively). CRP was associated also with risk of GBTC (IRR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.05-1.42, P=0.01). GLDH was associated with risks of HCC (IRR = 1.62; 95%CI = 1.25-2.11, P=0.0003) and IBD (IRR = 10.5; 95%CI = 2.20-50.90, P=0.003). The continuous net reclassification index was 0.63 for CRP, IL-6, C-peptide and non-HMW adiponectin, and 0.46 for GLDH indicating good predictive ability of these biomarkers. Conclusion: Elevated levels of biomarkers of inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are associated with a higher risk of HCC, independent of obesity and established liver cancer risk factors.
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8.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory and Metabolic Biomarkers and Risk of Liver and Biliary Tract Cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1527-3350 .- 0270-9139. ; 60:3, s. 858-871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis; however, there are little data on the role of obesity-related biomarkers on liver cancer risk. We studied prospectively the association of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD), and gallbladder and biliary tract cancers outside of the liver (GBTC) in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Over an average of 7.7 years, 296 participants developed HCC (n = 125), GBTC (n = 137), or IBD (n = 34). Using risk-set sampling, controls were selected in a 2: 1 ratio and matched for recruitment center, age, sex, fasting status, and time of blood collection. Baseline serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-peptide, total high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a, and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH) were measured, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for lifestyle factors, diabetes, hepatitis infection, and adiposity measures, higher concentrations of CRP, IL-6, C-peptide, and non-HMWadiponectin were associated with higher risk of HCC (IRR per doubling of concentrations = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.02-1.46; P = 0.03; 1.90; 95% CI = 1.30-2.77; P = 0.001; 2.25; 95% CI = 1.43-3.54; P = 0.0005; and 2.09; 95% CI = 1.19-3.67; P = 0.01, respectively). CRP was associated also with risk of GBTC (IRR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.05-1.42; P = 0.01). GLDH was associated with risks of HCC (IRR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.25-2.11; P = 0.0003) and IBD (IRR = 10.5; 95% CI = 2.20-50.90; P = 0.003). The continuous net reclassification index was 0.63 for CRP, IL-6, C-peptide, and non-HMW adiponectin and 0.46 for GLDH, indicating good predictive ability of these biomarkers. Conclusion: Elevated levels of biomarkers of inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are associated with a higher risk of HCC, independent of obesity and established liver cancer risk factors.
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9.
  • Arkadopoulos, N, et al. (författare)
  • Intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolongs survival in anhepatic rats
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Hepatology. - 0270-9139 .- 1527-3350. ; 28:5, s. 1365-1370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To examine whether hepatocytes transplanted in the spleen can function as an ectopic liver, we performed hepatocyte transplantation in rats that were rendered anhepatic, Total hepatectomy was performed by using a novel single-stage technique. Following hepatectomy, Group 1 rats (n = 16) were monitored until death to determine survival time without prior intervention. Group 2 anhepatic rats (n = 20) were sacrificed at various times to measure blood hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) levels. Group 3 (n = 16) rats received intrasplenic injection of isolated hepatocytes (2.5 x 10(7) cells/rat) followed by total hepatectomy after 3 days. Group 4 (n = 12) sham-transplanted rats received intrasplenic saline infusion, and after 3 days they were rendered anhepatic, Group 2, 3, and 4 rats were maintained on daily Cyclosporine A (10 mg/kg; intramuscularly). Group I anhepatic rats survived for 22.4 +/- 5.2 hours (standard deviation). The anhepatic state was associated with a progressive and statistically significant rise in blood HGF and TGF-beta 1 levels. Rats that received hepatocyte transplantation before total hepatectomy had a significantly longer survival time than sham-transplanted anhepatic controls (34.1 +/- 8.5 vs. 15.5 +/- 4.8 hrs, P < .01), Additionally, at 12 hours post-hepatectomy, transplanted rats had significantly lower blood ammonia, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, and TGF-beta 1 levels when compared with sham-transplanted controls, In conclusion, intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolonged survival, improved blood chemistry, and lowered blood TGF-beta 1 levels in rats rendered anhepatic.
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