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1.
  • Ahmad, Jawad, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Screen Printed Piezoresistive Sensors for Monitoring Pressure Distribution in Wheelchair
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal. - : IEEE. - 1530-437X .- 1558-1748. ; 19:6, s. 2055-2063
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prolonged sitting inadequacies cause pressure ulcer to many individuals, especially to disadvantaged with reduced mobility. The measurement of distributed pressure and detection of irregular sitting postures is essential for preventing the risk of developing pressure ulcer. In this paper, a pressure sensing system capable of recognizing sitting postures by means of measuring interface pressure through printed pressure sensors is presented. A thin and flexible large area sensor is screen-printed using silver flake and carbon particle inks and comprises 16 sensing elements. For the evaluation of practical usability, the sensor characterization is carried out by conducting stability, repeatability, drift and bending tests. The performance of the sensor is checked under varying environmental conditions. Sitting posture detection accuracy above 80 % is achieved using a classification algorithm for four different sitting postures. Pressure distribution is monitored at a scanning rate of 10 Hz. A low power and small form factor of read-out electronics enables a compact packaging inside the seat cushion. The presented sensor design targets smart wheelchairs, but it is extendable to much larger areas, for example to be used in beds. The proposed sensing system would be of a great assistance for caregivers and health professionals.
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2.
  • Alam, Mohammad Anzar, et al. (författare)
  • Limitation of a line-of-light online paper surface measurement system
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal. - 1530-437X .- 1558-1748. ; 14:8, s. 2715-2724
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new prototype device has been developed based on a laser triangulation principle to measure online surface topography in the paper and paperboard industries. It characterizes the surface in a wide spatial scale of topography from 0.09-10 mm. The prototype's technique projects a narrow line-of-light perpendicularly onto the moving paper-Web surface and scattered reflected light is collected at a low angle, low specular, and reduced coherent length onto the CCD sensors synchronized with the laser sources. The scattering phenomenon determines surface deviations in the z-direction. The full-width, at half-maximum of a laser line in cross section is sensitive in computation of the surface topography. The signal processing aspect of the image processing, for example, threshold and filtering algorithms are also sensitive in estimating the accurate surface features. Moreover, improper light illumination, intensity, reflection, occlusion, surface motion, and noise in the imaging sensor, and so forth, all contribute to deteriorate the measurements. Optical techniques measure the surface indirectly and, in general, an evaluation of the performance and the limitations of the technique are both essential and challenging. The paper describes the accuracy, uncertainty, and limitations of the developed technique in the raw profiles and in terms of the rms roughness. The achieved image subpixel resolution is 0.01 times a pixel. Statistically estimated uncertainty (2σ) in the laboratory environment was found 0.05 μm for a smooth sample, which provides a 95% confidence level in the rms roughness results. The depth of field of the prototype is ~2.4 mm.
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3.
  • Alam, Mohammad Anzar, et al. (författare)
  • Real time surface measurement technique in a wide range of wavelengths spectrum
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal. - 1530-437X .- 1558-1748. ; 14:1, s. 285-294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Real time surface topography measurement in the paper and paperboard industries is a challenging research field. The existing online techniques measure only a small area of paper surface and estimate topographical irregularities in a narrow scale as a single predictor. Considering the limitations and complications in measuring the surface at high speed, a laser line triangulation technique is explored to measure surface topography in a wide scale. The developed technique is new for the paper and paperboard application that scans a line onto the paper-web surface up to 210 mm in length in the cross machine direction. The combination of a narrow laser linewidth imaging, a subpixel resolution, and the selection of a unique measurement location has made it possible to measure roughness and simultaneously characterize paper surface topography from 0.1 to 30 mm spatial wavelength. This spatial range covers wide scale surface properties such as roughness, cockling, and waviness. The technique clearly distinguishes and characterizes the surface of newspaper, and lightweight coated, coated, and uncoated paperboard in real time during the paper manufacturing process. The system temporal noise for the average roughness is estimated as 37 dB. The signal to noise ratio found is from 5.4 to 8.1 in the short spatial wavelength up to 1 mm, whereas it is more than 75 in the long spatial wavelength from 5 to 10 mm.
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4.
  • Alhashimi, Anas, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Calibrating distance sensors for terrestrial applications without groundtruth information
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal. - : IEEE. - 1530-437X .- 1558-1748. ; 17:12, s. 3698-3709
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes a new calibration procedure for distance sensors that does not require independent sources of groundtruth information, i.e., that is not based on comparing the measurements from the uncalibrated sensor against measurements from a precise device assumed as the groundtruth. Alternatively, the procedure assumes that the uncalibrated distance sensor moves in space on a straight line in an environment with fixed targets, so that the intrinsic parameters of the statistical model of the sensor readings are calibrated without requiring tests in controlled environments, but rather in environments where the sensor follows linear movement and objects do not move. The proposed calibration procedure exploits an approximated expectation maximization scheme on top of two ingredients: an heteroscedastic statistical model describing the measurement process, and a simplified dynamical model describing the linear sensor movement. The procedure is designed to be capable of not just estimating the parameters of one generic distance sensor, but rather integrating the most common sensors in robotic applications, such as Lidars, odometers, and sonar rangers and learn the intrinsic parameters of all these sensors simultaneously. Tests in a controlled environment led to a reduction of the mean squared error of the measurements returned by a commercial triangulation Lidar by a factor between 3 and 6, comparable to the efficiency of other state-of-the art groundtruth-based calibration procedures. Adding odometric and ultrasonic information further improved the performance index of the overall distance estimation strategy by a factor of up to 1.2. Tests also show high robustness against violating the linear movements assumption.
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5.
  • Alqaysi, Hiba, et al. (författare)
  • Cost Optimized Design of Multi-Camera Domefor Volumetric Surveillance
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal. - 1530-437X .- 1558-1748. ; 21:3, s. 3730-3737
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A multi-camera dome consists of number ofcameras arranged in layers to monitor a hemisphere aroundits center. In volumetric surveillance,a 3D space is required tobemonitoredwhich can be achievedby implementing numberof multi-camera domes. A monitoring height is consideredas a constraint to ensure full coverage of the space belowit. Accordingly, the multi-camera dome can be redesignedinto a cylinder such that each of its multiple layers hasdifferent coverage radius. Minimum monitoring constraintsshould be met at all layers. This work is presenting a costoptimized design for the multi-camera dome that maximizesits coverage. The cost per node and number of squaremetersper dollar of multiple configurations are calculated using asearch space of cameras and considering a set of monitoring and coverage constraints. The proposed design is costoptimized per node and provides more coverage as compared to the hemispherical multi-camera dome.
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6.
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Inkjet printed silver nanoparticle humidity sensor with memory effect on paper
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal. - 1530-437X .- 1558-1748. ; 12:6, s. 1901-1905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this paper, the design and the manufacture of an inkjet printed resistive type humidity sensor on paper are reported. After having been exposed to humidity above a given threshold level, the resistance of the sensor decreases substantially and remains at that level even when thehumidity is reduced. It is possible to deduce the humidity level by monitoring the resistance. The main benefit of the printed sensor presented in this case is in relation to its very low production costs. It has also been shown that both the ink type and this paper combination used prove to be crucial in order to obtain the desired sensor effect. More research is required in order to fully understand the humidity sintering effect on the nano particle ink and the role of the substrate. However, the observed effect can be put to use in printed humidity sensors which possess a memoryfunction. The sensor can be used in various applications for environmental monitoring, for example, in situations where a large number of inexpensive and disposable humidity sensors are required which are able to detect whether they have been subjected to high humidity. This could be the checking of transportation conditions of goods or monitoring humidity within buildings. © 2001-2012 IEEE.
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7.
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of Humidity Sensor Effect in Silver Nanoparticle Ink Sensors Printed on Paper
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal. - 1530-437X .- 1558-1748. ; 14:3, s. Art. no. 6615915-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thin inkjet-printed tracks of silver nanoparticles have previously been observed to show a non-reversible decrease in resistance when exposed to a high degree of relative humidity and thus providing sensor functionality with a memory effect. This paper provides a more in-depth explanation of the observed humidity sensor effect that originates from inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle sensors on a paper substrate. It is shown that the geometry of the sensor has a large effect on the sensor's initial resistance, and therefore also on the sensor's resistive dynamic range. The importance of the sensor geometry is believed to be due to the amount of solvent from the ink interacting with the coating of the paper substrate, which in turn enables the diffusion of salts from the paper coating into the ink and thus affecting the silver ink.
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8.
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Processing and Characterization of a MOS Type Tetra Lateral Position Sensitive Detector with Indium Tin Oxide Gate Contact
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal. - 1530-437X .- 1558-1748. ; 8:9-10, s. 1704-1709
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A 2-D tetra lateral position sensitive detector (PSD) based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) principle has been manufactured and characterized. The active area of the device is 5 nun x 5 mm and the intention is to use the central 4 nun x 4 nun for low nonlinearity measurements. The gate contact is made of indium tin oxide (ITO) that is a degenerate electrically conducting semiconductor, which, in addition, is also transparent in the visible part of the spectrum. The use of a MOS structure results in a processing with no necessity to use implantation or diffusion in order to make the resistive p-layer as in a conventional p-n junction lateral effect PSD. Position measurements show good linearity in the middle 4 nun x 4 mm area. Within the middle 2.1 mm x 2.1 mm, the nonlinearity is within 1.7% of the active area with a position detection error of maximum 60 mu m. Measured MOS IV characteristics are compared to a level 3 spice model fit and show good agreement. The threshold voltage is determined to be -0.03 V. Responsivity measurements show a high sensitivity in the visible spectral region.
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9.
  • Anderås, Emil, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Tilted c-Axis Thin-Film Bulk Wave Resonant Pressure Sensors With Improved Sensitivity
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal. - 1530-437X .- 1558-1748. ; 12:8, s. 2653-2654
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aluminum nitride thin film bulk wave resonant pressure sensors employing c- and tilted c-axis texture, have been fabricated and tested for their pressure sensitivities. The c-axis tilted FBAR pressure sensors demonstrate substantially higher pressure sensitivity compared to its c-axis oriented counterpart. More specifically the thickness plate quasi-shear resonance has demonstrated the highest pressure sensitivity while further being able to preserve its performance in liquid environment.
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10.
  • Arapan, Lilia, et al. (författare)
  • Sensitivity Features of Thin Film Plate Acoustic Wave Resonators
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal. - : IEEE Sensors Council. - 1530-437X .- 1558-1748. ; 11:12, s. 3330-3331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thin film plate acoustic resonators devices operating in the lowest order symmetric Lamb wave mode (S0) in coriented aluminum nitride (AlN) membranes on Si were fabricated and tested for their sensitivities to pressure and mass as well as for their ability to work in liquid environment.
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