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1.
  • Aguado, T, et al. (författare)
  • The endocannabinoid system drives neural progenitor proliferation
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: FASEB Journal. - : The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. - 1530-6860. ; 19:9, s. 1704-1704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of multipotent neural progenitor (NP) cells has provided strong support for the existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain. However, the signals controlling NP proliferation remain elusive. Endocannabinoids, the endogenous counterparts of marijuana-derived cannabinoids, act as neuromodulators via presynaptic CB1 receptors and also control neural cell death and survival. Here we show that progenitor cells express a functional endocannabinoid system that actively regulates cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, NPs produce endocannabinoids and express the CB1 receptor and the endocannabinoid-inactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase ( FAAH). CB1 receptor activation promotes cell proliferation and neurosphere generation, an action that is abrogated in CB1-deficient NPs. Accordingly, proliferation of hippocampal NPs is increased in FAAH-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that endocannabinoids constitute a new group of signaling cues that regulate NP proliferation and thus open novel therapeutic avenues for manipulation of NP cell fate in the adult brain.
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  • Alkhori, Liza, et al. (författare)
  • The corepressor Atrophin specifies odorant receptor expression in Drosophila
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The FASEB Journal. - : Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. - 0892-6638 .- 1530-6860. ; 28:3, s. 1355-1364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In both insects and vertebrates, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) expresses one odorant receptor (OR) from a large genomic repertoire. How a receptor is specified is a tantalizing question addressing fundamental aspects of cell differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that the corepressor Atrophin (Atro) segregates OR gene expression between OSN classes in Drosophila. We show that the knockdown of Atro result in either loss or gain of a broad set of ORs. Each OR phenotypic group correlated with one of two opposing Notch fates, Notch responding, Nba (N(on)), and nonresponding, Nab (N(off)) OSNs. Our data show that Atro segregates ORs expressed in the Nba OSN classes and helps establish the Nab fate during OSN development. Consistent with a role in recruiting histone deacetylates, immunohistochemistry revealed that Atro regulates global histone 3 acetylation (H3ac) in OSNs and requires Hdac3 to segregate OR gene expression. We further found that Nba OSN classes exhibit variable but higher H3ac levels than the Nab OSNs. Together, these data suggest that Atro determines the level of H3ac, which ensures correct OR gene expression within the Nba OSNs. We propose a mechanism by which a single corepressor can specify a large number of neuron classes.-Alkhori, L., Öst, A., Alenius, M. The corepressor Atrophin specifies odorant receptor expression in Drosophila.
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  • Almuzzaini, Bader, et al. (författare)
  • In beta-actin knockouts, epigenetic reprogramming and rDNA transcription inactivation lead to growth and proliferation defects
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The FASEB Journal. - 0892-6638 .- 1530-6860. ; 30:8, s. 2860-2873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Actin and nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) are regulators of transcription and chromatin organization. Using a genome-wide approach, we report here that beta-actin binds intergenic and genic regions across the mammalian genome, associated with both protein-coding and rRNA genes. Within the rDNA, the distribution of beta-actin correlated with NM1 and the other subunits of the B-WICH complex, WSTF and SNF2h. In beta-actin(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we found that rRNA synthesis levels decreased concomitantly with drops in RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and NM1 occupancies across the rRNA gene. Reintroduction of wild-type beta-actin, in contrast to mutated forms with polymerization defects, efficiently rescued rRNA synthesis underscoring the direct role for a polymerization-competent form of beta-actin in Pol I transcription. The rRNA synthesis defects in the beta-actin(-/-) MEFs are a consequence of epigenetic reprogramming with up-regulation of the repressive mark H3K4me1 (mono-methylation of lys4 on histone H3) and enhanced chromatin compaction at promoter-proximal enhancer (T0 sequence), which disturb binding of the transcription factor TTF1. We propose a novel genome-wide mechanism where the polymerase-associated beta-actin synergizes with NM1 to coordinate permissive chromatin with Pol I transcription, cell growth, and proliferation.
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  • Alvarado-Kristensson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activities have opposite effects on human neutrophil apoptosis.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: FASEB Journal. - : The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. - 1530-6860. ; 16:1, s. 31-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutrophil apoptosis is essential for resolution of inflammatory reactions. Here, we studied the role of two apoptosis/survival-associated protein kinases in this process. We discovered a previously undetected early and transient inhibition of the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) during both spontaneous and Fas-induced apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of this enzyme augmented the activation of caspases and the apoptotic response, which suggests that the p38 MAPK signals survival in neutrophils. Our finding that caspase-3 activity was initiated during the transient inhibition of p38 MAPK suggests that apoptosis is initiated during this inhibition. Furthermore, such transient inhibition was counteracted by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which elicits survival. We also found that neither this inhibition of p38 MAPK nor the spontaneous apoptotic response depended on Fas. Instead, the early inhibition of p38 MAPK concurred with a Fas-induced activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, inhibition of which reduced apoptosis. Thus, the Fas-induced augmentation of spontaneous apoptosis can be explained by its activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. We conclude that p38 MAPK activity represents a survival signal that is inactivated transiently during both spontaneous and Fas-induced apoptosis, whereas Fas-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is a proapoptotic signal in isolated human neutrophils.
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