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1.
  • Wu, X., et al. (författare)
  • Hsp90 is expressed and represents a therapeutic target in human oesophageal cancer using the inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Br J Cancer. - 1532-1827 (Electronic) 0007-0920 (Linking) ; 100:2, s. 334-343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been demonstrated to protect oncogenic variants of signalling molecules from degradation and may consequently serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of oesophageal cancer for which adequate therapy is often lacking. We studied the expression of Hsp90 in tumour tissues of human oesophageal cancer and the impact of Hsp90 inhibition on oesophageal cancer cell lines using the drug 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG). Quantitative immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from patients with oesophageal cancer. In squamous cell carcinoma, a marked upregulation of Hsp90 could be noted in dysplastic epithelium and invasive cancer compared with normal epithelium. In adenocarcinoma, Hsp90 was expressed in neoplastic epithelium and also in normal non-neoplastic glands weakly. The inhibition of Hsp90 using 17-AAG led to a significant decrease in cell proliferation and viability in human oesophageal cancer cell lines. Using a clonogenic cell survival assay, Hsp90 inhibition significantly sensitised the cells for gamma-photon irradiation. Heat shock protein 90 was found to be critical for proper signalling induced by both epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1, in which the inhibition of signalling by 17-AAG correlated with the observed reduction in cell proliferation and viability. These results showed that Hsp90 was selectively expressed in oesophageal cancer tissue compared with the corresponding normal tissue, and the inhibition of Hsp90 resulted in decreased proliferation and viability as well as radiosensitisation of oesophageal cancer cells. Heat shock protein 90 represents a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of patients with oesophageal cancer, alone or in combination with radiotherapy.
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2.
  • Aaltonen, Kirsimari, et al. (författare)
  • High cyclin B1 expression is associated with poor survival in breast cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 100:7, s. 1055-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cyclin B1 regulates the G(2)-M transition of the cell cycle. Cyclin B1 expression is higher in premalignant and malignant than normal breast lesions. Correlation of cyclin B1 expression with other histopathological variables and prognostic role in breast cancer are not fully understood. Traditionally used prognostic criteria identify large subset of patients to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and to be exposed to adverse effects. A reliable and simple method helping prognostic evaluation in breast cancer is needed. We analysed cyclin B1 expression on 1348 invasive breast cancers and studied correlations with other histopathological variables and survival. High cyclin B1 correlated with high tumour grade, large tumour size and positive nodal status, oestrogen and progesterone receptor negativity, positive HER2 and p53 status, young age at diagnosis, and high cyclin E, cyclin A and Ki67 expression. Among patients not given adjuvant chemotherapy high cyclin B1 was a strong predictor of shorter overall and metastasis-free survival (RR 3.74, P<0.0005 and RR 3.51, P<0.0005, respectively), and remained as an independent prognostic factor also in multivariate analysis (RR 1.80, P=0.04 and RR 2.31, P=0.02, respectively). This study suggests high cyclin B1 associates with aggressive phenotype and is an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer.
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3.
  • Aaltonen, Kirsimari, et al. (författare)
  • Reliability of cyclin A assessment on tissue microarrays in breast cancer compared to conventional histological slides
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 94:11, s. 1697-1702
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cyclin A has in some studies been associated with poor breast cancer survival, although all studies have not confirmed this. Its prognostic significance in breast cancer needs evaluation in larger studies. Tissue microarray (TMA) technique allows a simultaneous analysis of large amount of tumours on a single microscopic slide. This makes a rapid screening of molecular markers in large amount of tumours possible. Because only a small tissue sample of each tumour is punched on an array, the question has arisen about the representativeness of TMA when studying markers that are expressed in only a small proportion of cells. For this reason, we wanted to compare cyclin A expression on TMA and on traditional large sections. Two breast cancer TMAs were constructed of 200 breast tumours diagnosed between 1997-1998. TMA slides and traditional large section slides of these 200 tumours were stained with cyclin A antibody and analysed by two independent readers. The reproducibility of the two readers' results was good or even very good, with kappa values 0.71-0.87. The agreement of TMA and large section results was good with kappa value 0.62-0.75. Cyclin A overexpression was significantly (P<0.001) associated with oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negativity and high grade both on TMA and large sections. Cyclin A overexpression was significantly associated with poor metastasis-free survival both on TMA and large sections. The relative risks for metastasis were similar on TMA and large sections. This study suggests that TMA technique could be useful to study histological correlations and prognostic significance of cyclin A on breast cancer on a large scale.
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5.
  • Abel, Frida, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Analyses of apoptotic regulators CASP9 and DFFA at 1P36.2, reveal rare allele variants in human neuroblastoma tumours.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: British journal of cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 86:4, s. 596-604
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genes encoding Caspase-9 and DFF45 have both recently been mapped to chromosome region 1p36.2, that is a region alleged to involve one or several tumour suppressor genes in neuroblastoma tumours. This study presents an update contig of the 'Smallest Region of Overlap of deletions' in Scandinavian neuroblastoma tumours and suggests that DFF45 is localized in the region. The genomic organization of the human DFF45 gene, deduced by in-silico comparisons of DNA sequences, is described for the first time in this paper. In the present study 44 primary tumours were screened for mutation by analysis of the genomic sequences of the genes. In two out of the 44 tumours this detected in the DFFA gene one rare allele variant that caused a non-polar to a polar amino acid exchange in a preserved hydrophobic patch of DFF45. One case was hemizygous due to deletion of the more common allele of this polymorphism. Out of 194 normal control alleles only one was found to carry this variant allele, so in respect of it, no healthy control individual out of 97 was homozygous. Moreover, our RT-PCR expression studies showed that DFF45 is preferably expressed in low-stage neuroblastoma tumours and to a lesser degree in high-stage neuroblastomas. We conclude that although coding mutations of Caspase-9 and DFF45 are infrequent in neuroblastoma tumours, our discovery of a rare allele in two neuroblastoma cases should be taken to warrant further studies of the role of DFF45 in neuroblastoma genetics.
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6.
  • Abel, Frida, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Gain of chromosome arm 17q is associated with unfavourable prognosis in neuroblastoma, but does not involve mutations in the somatostatin receptor 2(SSTR2) gene at 17q24.
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: British journal of cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 81:8, s. 1402-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deletion of chromosome arm 1p and amplification of the MYCN oncogene are well-recognized genetic alterations in neuroblastoma cells. Recently, another alteration has been reported; gain of the distal part of chromosome arm 17q. In this study 48 neuroblastoma tumours were successfully analysed for 17q status in relation to known genetic alterations. Chromosome 17 status was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Thirty-one of the 48 neuroblastomas (65%) showed 17q gain, and this was significantly associated with poor prognosis. As previously reported, 17q gain was significantly associated with metastatic stage 4 neuroblastoma and more frequently detected than both deletion of chromosome arm 1p and MYCN amplification in tumours of all stages. 17q gain also showed a strong correlation to survival probability (P = 0.0009). However, the most significant correlation between 17q gain and survival probability was observed in children with low-stage tumours (stage 1, 2, 3 and 4S), with a survival probability of 100% at 5 years from diagnosis for children with tumours showing no 17q gain compared to 52.5% for those showing 17q gain (P = 0.0021). This suggests that 17q gain as a prognostic factor plays a more crucial role in low-stage tumours. Expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), localized in chromosome region 17q24, has in previous studies been shown to be positively related to survival in neuroblastoma. A point mutation in the SSTR2 gene has earlier been reported in a human small-cell lung cancer. In this study, mutation screening of the SSTR2 gene in 43 neuroblastoma tumours was carried out with polymerase chain reaction-based single-stranded conformation polymorphism/heteroduplex (SSCP/HD) and DNA sequencing, and none of the tumours showed any aberrations in the SSTR2 gene. These data suggest that mutations in the SSTR2 gene are uncommon in neuroblastoma tumours and do not correlate with either the 17q gain often seen or the reason some tumours do not express SSTR2 receptors. Overall, this study indicates that gain of chromosome arm 17q is the most frequently occurring genetic alteration, and that it is associated with established prognostic factors.
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8.
  • Adami, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risk following organ transplantation : a nationwide cohort study in Sweden
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 89:7, s. 1221-1227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A substantial excess risk of lymphomas and nonmelanoma skin cancer has been demonstrated following organ transplantation. Large sample size and long follow-up time may, however, allow more accurate risk estimates and detailed understanding of long-term cancer risk. The objective of the study was to assess the risk of cancer following organ transplantation. A nationwide cohort study comprising 5931 patients who underwent transplantation of kidney, liver or other organs during 1970-1997 in Sweden was conducted. Complete follow-up was accomplished through linkage to nationwide databases. We used comparisons with the entire Swedish population to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), and Poisson regression for multivariate internal analyses of relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, we observed 692 incident first cancers vs 171 expected (SIR 4.0; 95% CI 3.7-4.4). We confirmed marked excesses of nonmelanoma skin cancer (SIR 56.2; 95% CI 49.8-63.2), lip cancer (SIR 53.3; 95% CI 38.0-72.5) and of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (SIR 6.0; 95% CI 4.4-8.0). Compared with patients who underwent kidney transplantation, those who received other organs were at substantially higher risk of NHL (RR 8.4; 95% CI 4.3-16). Besides, we found, significantly, about 20-fold excess risk of cancer of the vulva and vagina, 10-fold of anal cancer, and five-fold of oral cavity and kidney cancer, as well as two- to four-fold excesses of cancer in the oesophagus, stomach, large bowel, urinary bladder, lung and thyroid gland. In conclusion, organ transplantation entails a persistent, about four-fold increased overall cancer risk. The complex pattern of excess risk at many sites challenges current understanding of oncogenic infections that might become activated by immunologic alterations.
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