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  • Albers, GW, et al. (författare)
  • Ximelagatran vs warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation - A Randomized trial
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. - : American Medical Association. - 1538-3598. ; 293:6, s. 690-698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context Inpatients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, warfarin prevents ischemic stroke, but dose adjustment, coagulation monitoring, and bleeding limit its use. Objective To compare the efficacy of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran with warfarin for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism. Design, Setting, and Participants Double-blind, randomized, multicenter trial (20002001) conducted at 409 North American sites, involving 3922 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and additional stroke risk factors. Interventions Adjusted-dose warfarin (aiming for an international normalized ratio [INR] 2.0 to 3.0) or fixed-dose oral ximelagatran, 36 mg twice daily. Main Outcome Measures The primary end point was all strokes (ischemic or hemorrhagic) and systemic embolic events. The primary analysis was based on demonstrating noninferiority within an absolute margin of 2.0% per year according to the intention-to-treat model. Results During 6405 patient-years (mean 20 months) of follow-up, 88 patients experienced primary events. The mean (SD) INR with warfarin (2.4 [0.8]) was within target during 68% of the treatment period. The primary event rate with ximelagatran was 1.6% per year and with warfarin was 1.2% per year (absolute difference, 0.45% per year; 95% confidence interval, -0.13% to 1.03% per year; P<.001 for the pre-defined noninferiority hypothesis). When all-cause mortality was included in addition to stroke and systemic embolic events, the rate difference was 0.10% per year (95% confidence interval, -0.97% to 1.2% per year; P=.86). There was no difference between treatment groups in rates of major bleeding, but total bleeding (major and minor) was lower with ximelagatran (37% vs 47% per year; 95% confidence interval for the difference, -14% to -6.0% per year; P<.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase levels rose to greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal in 6.0% of patients treated with ximelagatran, usually within 6 months and typically declined whether or not treatment continued; however, one case of documented fatal liver disease and one other suggestive case occurred. Conclusions The results establish the efficacy of fixed-dose oral ximelagatran without coagulation monitoring compared with well-controlled warfarin for prevention of thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation requiring chronic anticoagulant therapy, but the potential for hepatotoxicity requires further investigation.
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  • Athan, Eugene, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and outcome of infective endocarditis involving implantable cardiac devices
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 307, s. 1727-1735
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Infection of implantable cardiac devices is an emerging disease with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of cardiac device infective endocarditis (CDIE) with attention to its health care association and to evaluate the association between device removal during index hospitalization and outcome. Design, Setting, and Patients: Prospective cohort study using data from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS), conducted June 2000 through August 2006 in 61 centers in 28 countries. Patients were hospitalized adults with definite endocarditis as defined by modified Duke endocarditis criteria. Main Outcome Measures: In-hospital and 1-year mortality. Results: CDIE was diagnosed in 177 (6.4% [95% CI, 5.5%-7.4%]) of a total cohort of 2760 patients with definite infective endocarditis. The clinical profile of CDIE included advanced patient age (median, 71.2 years [interquartile range, 59.8-77.6]); causation by staphylococci (62 [35.0% {95% CI, 28.0%-42.5%}] Staphylococcus aureus and 56 [31.6% {95% CI, 24.9%-39.0%}] coagulase-negative staphylococci); and a high prevalence of health care-associated infection (81 [45.8% {95% CI, 38.3%- 53.4%}]). There was coexisting valve involvement in 66 (37.3% [95% CI, 30.2%- 44.9%]) patients, predominantly tricuspid valve infection (43/177 [24.3%]), with associated higher mortality. In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 14.7% (26/177 [95% CI, 9.8%-20.8%]) and 23.2% (41/177 [95% CI, 17.2%-30.1%]), respectively. Proportional hazards regression analysis showed a survival benefit at 1 year for device removal during the initial hospitalization (28/141 patients [19.9%] who underwent device removal during the index hospitalization had died at 1 year, vs 13/34 [38.2%] who did not undergo device removal; hazard ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.22- 0.82]). Conclusions: Among patients with CDIE, the rate of concomitant valve infection is high, as is mortality, particularly if there is valve involvement. Early device removal is associated with improved survival at 1 year. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
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  • Atroshi, Isam (författare)
  • Clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome - Reply
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. - : American Medical Association. - 1538-3598. ; 283:8, s. 1002-1002
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Atroshi, Isam, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. - : American Medical Association. - 1538-3598. ; 282:2, s. 153-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a cause of pain, numbness, and tingling in the hands and is an important cause of work disability. Although high prevalence rates of CTS in certain occupations have been reported, little is known about its prevalence in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of CTS in a general population. DESIGN: General health mail survey sent in February 1997, inquiring about symptoms of pain, numbness, and tingling in any part of the body, followed 2 months later by clinical examination and nerve conduction testing of responders reporting symptoms in the median nerve distribution in the hands, as well as of a sample of those not reporting these symptoms (controls). SETTING: A region in southern Sweden with a population of 170000. PARTICIPANTS: A sex- and age-stratified sample of 3000 subjects (age range, 25-74 years) was randomly selected from the general population register and sent the survey, with a response rate of 83% (n = 2466; 46% men). Of the symptomatic responders, 81% underwent clinical examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Population prevalence rates, calculated as the number of symptomatic responders diagnosed on examination as having clinically certain CTS and/or electrophysiological median neuropathy divided by the total number of responders. RESULTS: Of the 2466 responders, 354 reported pain, numbness, and/or tingling in the median nerve distribution in the hands (prevalence, 14.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0%-15.8%). On clinical examination, 94 symptomatic subjects were diagnosed as having clinically certain CTS (prevalence, 3.8%; 95% CI, 3.1%-4.6%). Nerve conduction testing showed median neuropathy at the carpal tunnel in 120 symptomatic subjects (prevalence, 4.9%; 95% CI, 4.1%-5.8%). Sixty-six symptomatic subjects had clinically and electrophysiologically confirmed CTS (prevalence, 2.7%; 95% CI, 2.1%-3.4%). Of 125 control subjects clinically examined, electrophysiological median neuropathy was found in 23 (18.4%; 95% CI, 12.0%-26.3%). CONCLUSION: Symptoms of pain, numbness, and tingling in the hands are common in the general population. Based on our data, 1 in 5 symptomatic subjects would be expected to have CTS based on clinical examination and electrophysiologic testing.
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  • Axelsson, Kristian F, et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Alendronate Use and Hip Fracture Risk in Older Patients Using Oral Prednisolone
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association. - : American Medical Association. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 318:2, s. 146-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Oral glucocorticoid treatment increases fracture risk, and evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of alendronate to protect against hip fracture in older patients using glucocorticoids. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether alendronate treatment in older patients using oral prednisolone is associated with decreased hip fracture risk and adverse effects. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study using a national database (N = 433 195) of patients aged 65 years or older undergoing a health evaluation (baseline) at Swedish health care facilities; 1802 patients who were prescribed alendronate after at least 3 months of oral prednisolone treatment (>= 5mg/d) were identified. Propensity score matching was used to select 1802 patients without alendronate use from 6076 patients taking prednisolone with the same dose and treatment time criteria. Follow-up occurred between January 2008 and December 2014. EXPOSURES Alendronate vs no alendronate use; no patients had previously taken alendronate at the time of prednisolone initiation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was incident hip fracture. RESULTS Of the 3604 included patients, the mean age was 79.9 (SD, 7.5) years, and 2524 (70%) were women. After a median follow-up of 1.32 years (interquartile range, 0.57-2.34 years), there were 27 hip fractures in the alendronate group and 73 in the no-alendronate group, corresponding to incidence rates of 9.5 (95% CI, 6.5-13.9) and 27.2 (95% CI, 21.6-34.2) fractures per 1000 person-years, with an absolute rate difference of -17.6 (95% CI, -24.8 to -10.4). The use of alendronate was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in a multivariable-adjusted Cox model (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.22-0.54). Alendronate treatment was not associated with increased risk of mild upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms (alendronate vs no alendronate, 15.6 [95% CI, 11.6-21.0] vs 12.9 [95% CI, 9.3-18.0] per 1000 person-years; P=.40) or peptic ulcers (10.9 [95% CI, 7.7-15.5] vs 11.4 [95% CI, 8.0-16.2] per 1000 person-years; P=.86). There were no cases of incident drug-induced osteonecrosis and only 1 case of femoral shaft fracture in each group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among older patients using medium to high doses of prednisolone, alendronate treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of hip fracture over a median of 1.32 years. Although the findings are limited by the observational study design and the small number of events, these results support the use of alendronate in this patient group.
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