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  • Maret-Ouda, John, et al. (författare)
  • Association between laparoscopic antireflux surgery and recurrence of gastroesophageal reflux
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 0098-7484. ; 318:10, s. 939-946
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: Cohort studies, mainly based on questionnaires and interviews, have reported high rates of reflux recurrence after antireflux surgery, which may have contributed to a decline in its use. Reflux recurrence after laparoscopic antireflux surgery has not been assessed in a long-term population-based study of unselected patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of reflux recurrence after laparoscopic antireflux surgery and to identify risk factors for recurrence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study in Sweden between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014, based on all Swedish health care and including 2655 patients who underwent laparoscopic antireflux surgery according to the Swedish Patient Registry. Their records were linked to the Swedish Causes of Death Registry and Prescribed Drug Registry. EXPOSURES: Primary laparoscopic antireflux surgery due to gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults (>18 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The outcomewas recurrence of reflux, defined as use of antireflux medication (proton pump inhibitors or histamine2 receptor antagonists for >6 months) or secondary antireflux surgery. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess risk factors for reflux recurrence. RESULTS: Among all 2655 patients who underwent antireflux surgery (median age, 51.0 years; interquartile range, 40.0-61.0 years; 1354 men [51.0%]) and were followed up for a median of 5.6 years, 470 patients (17.7%) had reflux recurrence; 393 (83.6%) received long-term antireflux medication and 77 (16.4%) underwent secondary antireflux surgery. Risk factors for reflux recurrence included female sex (hazard ratio [HR], 1.57 [95%CI, 1.29-1.90]; 286 of 1301 women [22.0%] and 184 of 1354 men [13.6%] had recurrence of reflux), older age (HR, 1.41 [95%CI, 1.10-1.81] for age 61 years compared with 45 years; recurrence among 156 of 715 patients and 133 of 989 patients, respectively), and comorbidity (HR, 1.36 [95%CI, 1.13-1.65] for Charlson comorbidity index score 1 compared with 0; recurrence among 180 of 804 patients and 290 of 1851 patients, respectively). Hospital volume of antireflux surgery was not associated with risk of reflux recurrence (HR, 1.09 [95%CI, 0.77-1.53] for hospital volume 24 surgeries compared with 76 surgeries; recurrence among 38 of 266 patients [14.3%] and 271 of 1526 patients [17.8%], respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients who underwent primary laparoscopic antireflux surgery, 17.7%experienced recurrent gastroesophageal reflux requiring long-term medication use or secondary antireflux surgery. Risk factors for recurrence were older age, female sex, and comorbidity. Laparoscopic antireflux surgery was associated with a relatively high rate of recurrent gastroesophageal reflux disease requiring treatment, diminishing some of the benefits of the operation.
  • Sujan, A.C., et al. (författare)
  • Associations of maternal antidepressant use during the first trimester of pregnancy with preterm birth, small for gestational age, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0098-7484. ; 317:15, s. 1553-1562
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Prenatal antidepressant exposure has been associated with adverse outcomes. Previous studies, however, may not have adequately accounted for confounding. Objective: To evaluate alternative hypotheses for associations between first-trimester antidepressant exposure and birth and neurodevelopmental problems. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included Swedish offspring born between 1996 and 2012 and followed up through 2013 or censored by death or emigration. Analyses controlling for pregnancy, maternal and paternal covariates, as well as sibling comparisons, timing of exposure comparisons, and paternal comparisons, were used to examine the associations. Exposures: Maternal self-reported first-trimester antidepressant use and first-trimester antidepressant dispensations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Preterm birth (<37 gestational weeks), small for gestational age (birth weight <2 SDs below the mean for gestational age), and first inpatient or outpatient clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring. Results: Among 1580629 offspring (mean gestational age, 279 days; 48.6% female; 1.4% [n = 22544] with maternal first-trimester self-reported antidepressant use) born to 943776 mothers (mean age at childbirth, 30 years), 6.98% of exposed vs 4.78% of unexposed offspring were preterm, 2.54% of exposed vs 2.19% of unexposed were small for gestational age, 5.28% of exposed vs 2.14% of unexposed were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder by age 15 years, and 12.63% of exposed vs 5.46% of unexposed were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by age 15 years. At the population level, first-trimester exposure was associated with all outcomes compared with unexposed offspring (preterm birth odds ratio [OR], 1.47 [95% CI, 1.40-1.55]; small for gestational age OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.06-1.25]; autism spectrum disorder hazard ratio [HR], 2.02 [95% CI, 1.80-2.26]; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder HR, 2.21 [95% CI, 2.04-2.39]). However, in models that compared siblings while adjusting for pregnancy, maternal, and paternal traits, first-trimester antidepressant exposure was associated with preterm birth (OR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.18-1.52]) but not with small for gestational age (OR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.81-1.25]), autism spectrum disorder (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.62-1.13]), or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.79-1.25]). Results from analyses assessing associations with maternal dispensations before pregnancy and with paternal first-trimester dispensations were consistent with findings from the sibling comparisons. Conclusions and Relevance: Among offspring born in Sweden, after accounting for confounding factors, first-trimester exposure to antidepressants, compared with no exposure, was associated with a small increased risk of preterm birth but no increased risk of small for gestational age, autism spectrum disorder, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
  • Athan, Eugene, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and outcome of infective endocarditis involving implantable cardiac devices
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 307, s. 1727-1735
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Infection of implantable cardiac devices is an emerging disease with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of cardiac device infective endocarditis (CDIE) with attention to its health care association and to evaluate the association between device removal during index hospitalization and outcome. Design, Setting, and Patients: Prospective cohort study using data from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS), conducted June 2000 through August 2006 in 61 centers in 28 countries. Patients were hospitalized adults with definite endocarditis as defined by modified Duke endocarditis criteria. Main Outcome Measures: In-hospital and 1-year mortality. Results: CDIE was diagnosed in 177 (6.4% [95% CI, 5.5%-7.4%]) of a total cohort of 2760 patients with definite infective endocarditis. The clinical profile of CDIE included advanced patient age (median, 71.2 years [interquartile range, 59.8-77.6]); causation by staphylococci (62 [35.0% {95% CI, 28.0%-42.5%}] Staphylococcus aureus and 56 [31.6% {95% CI, 24.9%-39.0%}] coagulase-negative staphylococci); and a high prevalence of health care-associated infection (81 [45.8% {95% CI, 38.3%- 53.4%}]). There was coexisting valve involvement in 66 (37.3% [95% CI, 30.2%- 44.9%]) patients, predominantly tricuspid valve infection (43/177 [24.3%]), with associated higher mortality. In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 14.7% (26/177 [95% CI, 9.8%-20.8%]) and 23.2% (41/177 [95% CI, 17.2%-30.1%]), respectively. Proportional hazards regression analysis showed a survival benefit at 1 year for device removal during the initial hospitalization (28/141 patients [19.9%] who underwent device removal during the index hospitalization had died at 1 year, vs 13/34 [38.2%] who did not undergo device removal; hazard ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.22- 0.82]). Conclusions: Among patients with CDIE, the rate of concomitant valve infection is high, as is mortality, particularly if there is valve involvement. Early device removal is associated with improved survival at 1 year. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
  • Axelsson, Kristian F, et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Alendronate Use and Hip Fracture Risk in Older Patients Using Oral Prednisolone
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association. - : American Medical Association. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 318:2, s. 146-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Oral glucocorticoid treatment increases fracture risk, and evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of alendronate to protect against hip fracture in older patients using glucocorticoids. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether alendronate treatment in older patients using oral prednisolone is associated with decreased hip fracture risk and adverse effects. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study using a national database (N = 433 195) of patients aged 65 years or older undergoing a health evaluation (baseline) at Swedish health care facilities; 1802 patients who were prescribed alendronate after at least 3 months of oral prednisolone treatment (>= 5mg/d) were identified. Propensity score matching was used to select 1802 patients without alendronate use from 6076 patients taking prednisolone with the same dose and treatment time criteria. Follow-up occurred between January 2008 and December 2014. EXPOSURES Alendronate vs no alendronate use; no patients had previously taken alendronate at the time of prednisolone initiation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was incident hip fracture. RESULTS Of the 3604 included patients, the mean age was 79.9 (SD, 7.5) years, and 2524 (70%) were women. After a median follow-up of 1.32 years (interquartile range, 0.57-2.34 years), there were 27 hip fractures in the alendronate group and 73 in the no-alendronate group, corresponding to incidence rates of 9.5 (95% CI, 6.5-13.9) and 27.2 (95% CI, 21.6-34.2) fractures per 1000 person-years, with an absolute rate difference of -17.6 (95% CI, -24.8 to -10.4). The use of alendronate was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in a multivariable-adjusted Cox model (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.22-0.54). Alendronate treatment was not associated with increased risk of mild upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms (alendronate vs no alendronate, 15.6 [95% CI, 11.6-21.0] vs 12.9 [95% CI, 9.3-18.0] per 1000 person-years; P=.40) or peptic ulcers (10.9 [95% CI, 7.7-15.5] vs 11.4 [95% CI, 8.0-16.2] per 1000 person-years; P=.86). There were no cases of incident drug-induced osteonecrosis and only 1 case of femoral shaft fracture in each group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among older patients using medium to high doses of prednisolone, alendronate treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of hip fracture over a median of 1.32 years. Although the findings are limited by the observational study design and the small number of events, these results support the use of alendronate in this patient group.
  • Bellani, Giacomo, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology, Patterns of Care, and Mortality for Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Intensive Care Units in 50 Countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 315:8, s. 788-800
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Limited information exists about the epidemiology, recognition, management, and outcomes of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). OBJECTIVES To evaluate intensive care unit (ICU) incidence and outcome of ARDS and to assess clinician recognition, ventilation management, and use of adjuncts-for example prone positioning-in routine clinical practice for patients fulfilling the ARDS Berlin Definition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Large Observational Study to Understand the Global Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Failure (LUNG SAFE) was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study of patients undergoing invasive or noninvasive ventilation, conducted during 4 consecutive weeks in the winter of 2014 in a convenience sample of 459 ICUs from 50 countries across 5 continents. EXPOSURES Acute respiratory distress syndrome. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was ICU incidence of ARDS. Secondary outcomes included assessment of clinician recognition of ARDS, the application of ventilatory management, the use of adjunctive interventions in routine clinical practice, and clinical outcomes from ARDS. RESULTS Of 29 144 patients admitted to participating ICUs, 3022 (10.4%) fulfilled ARDS criteria. Of these, 2377 patients developed ARDS in the first 48 hours and whose respiratory failure was managed with invasive mechanical ventilation. The period prevalence of mild ARDS was 30.0%(95% CI, 28.2%-31.9%); of moderate ARDS, 46.6%(95% CI, 44.5%-48.6%); and of severe ARDS, 23.4%(95% CI, 21.7%-25.2%). ARDS represented 0.42 cases per ICU bed over 4 weeks and represented 10.4%(95% CI, 10.0%-10.7%) of ICU admissions and 23.4% of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Clinical recognition of ARDS ranged from 51.3% (95% CI, 47.5%-55.0%) in mild to 78.5%(95% CI, 74.8%-81.8%) in severe ARDS. Less than two-thirds of patients with ARDS received a tidal volume 8 of mL/kg or less of predicted body weight. Plateau pressure was measured in 40.1%(95% CI, 38.2-42.1), whereas 82.6%(95% CI, 81.0%-84.1%) received a positive end-expository pressure (PEEP) of less than 12 cm H2O. Prone positioning was used in 16.3%(95% CI, 13.7%-19.2%) of patients with severe ARDS. Clinician recognition of ARDS was associated with higher PEEP, greater use of neuromuscular blockade, and prone positioning. Hospital mortality was 34.9%(95% CI, 31.4%-38.5%) for those with mild, 40.3%(95% CI, 37.4%-43.3%) for those with moderate, and 46.1%(95% CI, 41.9%-50.4%) for those with severe ARDS. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among ICUs in 50 countries, the period prevalence of ARDS was 10.4% of ICU admissions. This syndrome appeared to be underrecognized and undertreated and associated with a high mortality rate. These findings indicate the potential for improvement in the management of patients with ARDS.
  • Bengtsson, A, et al. (författare)
  • The appropriateness of performing coronary angiography and coronary artery revascularization in a Swedish population
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - : American Medical Association. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 271:16, s. 1260-1265
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. —To evaluate the appropriateness of performing coronary angiography and revascularization in a Swedish population. Design. —Prospective population study of questionnaires and medical records. Setting. —All the hospitals in southwestern Sweden that perform coronary angiography and revascularization. Patients. —Random sample of 831 patients (with chronic stable angina) on the waiting list for coronary angiography or revascularization in southwestern Sweden in September 1990. Main Outcome Measure. —Percentage of patients referred for coronary angiography or revascularization for appropriate, uncertain, or inappropriate indications. Results. —Of the patients referred for angiography, 89% were classified as appropriate, 9% as uncertain, and 2% as inappropriate. The percentages are similar for patients referred for coronary artery bypass graft surgery and for angioplasty (91% and 86%, respectively, classified as appropriate). The majority of patients had chest pain rated as Canadian Cardiovascular Society classes II through IV (93%), despite maximum anti-ischemic therapy in 90% of these patients. Conclusions. —Few patients were referred for coronary angiography or revascularization for inappropriate or uncertain indications. The percentage of these patients who are from southwestern Sweden is similar to the percentage recently reported from New York State.
  • Berk, John L., et al. (författare)
  • Repurposing Diflunisal for Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy : A Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 310:24, s. 2658-2667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Familial amyloid polyneuropathy, a lethal genetic disease caused by aggregation of variant transthyretin, induces progressive peripheral nerve deficits and disability. Diflunisal, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, stabilizes transthyretin tetramers and prevents amyloid fibril formation in vitro. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of diflunisal on polyneuropathy progression in patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS International randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted among 130 patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy exhibiting clinically detectable peripheral or autonomic neuropathy at amyloid centers in Sweden (Umea), Italy (Pavia), Japan (Matsumoto and Kumamoto), England (London), and the United States (Boston, Massachusetts; New York, New York; and Rochester, Minnesota) from 2006 through 2012. INTERVENTION Participants were randomly assigned to receive diflunisal, 250 mg (n=64), or placebo (n=66) twice daily for 2 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point, the difference in polyneuropathy progression between treatments, was measured by the Neuropathy Impairment Score plus 7 nerve tests (NIS+7) which ranges from 0 (no neurological deficits) to 270 points (no detectable peripheral nerve function). Secondary outcomes included a quality-of-life questionnaire (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36]) and modified body mass index. Because of attrition, we used likelihood-based modeling and multiple imputation analysis of baseline to 2-year data. RESULTS By multiple imputation, the NIS+7 score increased by 25.0 (95% CI, 18.4-31.6) points in the placebo group and by 8.7 (95% CI, 3.3-14.1) points in the diflunisal group, a difference of 16.3 points (95% CI, 8.1-24.5 points; P < .001). Mean SF-36 physical scores decreased by 4.9 (95% CI, -7.6 to -2.2) points in the placebo group and increased by 1.5 (95% CI, -0.8 to 3.7) points in the diflunisal group (P < .001). Mean SF-36 mental scores declined by 1.1 (95% CI, -4.3 to 2.0) points in the placebo group while increasing by 3.7 (95% CI, 1.0-6.4) points in the diflunisal group (P = .02). By responder analysis, 29.7% of the diflunisal group and 9.4% of the placebo group exhibited neurological stability at 2 years (<2-point increase in NIS+7 score; P = .007). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy, the use of diflunisal compared with placebo for 2 years reduced the rate of progression of neurological impairment and preserved quality of life. Although longer-term follow-up studies are needed, these findings suggest benefit of this treatment for familial amyloid polyneuropathy.
  • Blennow, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • One-Year Survival of Extremely Preterm Infants After Active Perinatal Care in Sweden
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 301:21, s. 2225-2233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context Up-to-date information on infant survival after extremely preterm birth is needed for assessing perinatal care services, clinical guidelines, and parental counseling. Objective To determine the 1-year survival in all infants born before 27 gestational weeks in Sweden during 2004-2007. Design, Setting, and Patients Population-based prospective observational study of extremely preterm infants (707 live-born and 304 stillbirths) born to 887 mothers in 904 deliveries (102 multiple births) in all obstetric and neonatal units in Sweden from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2007. Main Outcome Measures Infant survival to 365 days and survival without major neonatal morbidity (intraventricular hemorrhage grade andgt; 2, retinopathy of prematurity stage andgt; 2, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Associations between perinatal interventions and survival. Results The incidence of extreme prematurity was 3.3 per 1000 infants. Overall perinatal mortality was 45% (from 93% at 22 weeks to 24% at 26 weeks), with 30% stillbirths, including 6.5% intrapartum deaths. Of live-born infants, 91% were admitted to neonatal intensive care and 70% survived to 1 year of age (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-73%). The Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26 weeks were 9.8% (95% CI, 4%-23%), 53% ( 95% CI, 44%-63%), 67% (95% CI, 59%-75%), 82% (95% CI, 76%-87%), and 85% ( 95% CI, 81%-90%), respectively. Lower risk of infant death was associated with tocolytic treatment (adjusted for gestational age odds ratio [ OR], 0.43; 95% CI, 0.36-0.52), antenatal corticosteroids (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24-0.81), surfactant treatment within 2 hours after birth ( OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.32-0.71), and birth at a level III hospital (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32-0.75). Among 1-year survivors, 45% had no major neonatal morbidity. Conclusion During 2004 to 2007, 1-year survival of infants born alive at 22 to 26 weeks of gestation in Sweden was 70% and ranged from 9.8% at 22 weeks to 85% at 26 weeks.
  • Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Catheter Ablation vs Antiarrhythmic Medication on Quality of Life in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation : The CAPTAF Randomized Clinical Trial
  • Ingår i: JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. - Chicago : American Medical Association. - 0098-7484 .- 1067-5027 .- 1527-974X .- 1538-3598. ; 321:11, s. 1059-1068
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Quality of life is not a standard primary outcome in ablation trials, even though symptoms drive the indication.Objective: To assess quality of life with catheter ablation vs antiarrhythmic medication at 12 months in patients with atrial fibrillation.Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial at 4 university hospitals in Sweden and 1 in Finland of 155 patients aged 30-70 years with more than 6 months of atrial fibrillation and treatment failure with 1 antiarrhythmic drug or β-blocker, with 4-year follow-up. Study dates were July 2008-September 2017. Major exclusions were ejection fraction <35%, left atrial diameter >60 mm, ventricular pacing dependency, and previous ablation.Interventions: Pulmonary vein isolation ablation (n = 79) or previously untested antiarrhythmic drugs (n = 76).Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was the General Health subscale score (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) at baseline and 12 months, assessed unblinded (range, 0 [worst] to 100 [best]). There were 26 secondary outcomes, including atrial fibrillation burden (% of time) from baseline to 12 months, measured by implantable cardiac monitors. The first 3 months were excluded from rhythm analysis.Results: Among 155 randomized patients (mean age, 56.1 years; 22.6% women), 97% completed the trial. Of 79 patients randomized to receive ablation, 75 underwent ablation, including 2 who crossed over to medication and 14 who underwent repeated ablation procedures. Of 76 patients randomized to receive antiarrhythmic medication, 74 received it, including 8 who crossed over to ablation and 43 for whom the first drug used failed. General Health score increased from 61.8 to 73.9 points in the ablation group vs 62.7 to 65.4 points in the medication group (between-group difference, 8.9 points; 95% CI, 3.1-14.7; P = .003). Of 26 secondary end points, 5 were analyzed; 2 were null and 2 were statistically significant, including decrease in atrial fibrillation burden (from 24.9% to 5.5% in the ablation group vs 23.3% to 11.5% in the medication group; difference -6.8% [95% CI, -12.9% to -0.7%]; P = .03). Of the Health Survey subscales, 5 of 7 improved significantly. Most common adverse events were urosepsis (5.1%) in the ablation group and atrial tachycardia (3.9%) in the medication group.Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation despite use of antiarrhythmic medication, the improvement in quality of life at 12 months was greater for those treated with catheter ablation compared with antiarrhythmic medication. Although the study was limited by absence of blinding, catheter ablation may offer an advantage for quality of life.Trial Registration: clinicaltrialsregister.eu Identifier: 2008-001384-11.
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