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  • Abdalla, Maie, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of Rectal Cancer After Colectomy for Patients With Ulcerative Colitis: A National Cohort Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 15:7, s. 1055-1060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND amp; AIMS: Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have an increased risk of rectal cancer, therefore reconstruction with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) generally is preferred to an ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) after subtotal colectomy. Similarly, completion proctectomy is recommended for patients with ileostomy and a diverted rectum, although this approach has been questioned because anti-inflammatory agents might reduce cancer risk. We performed a national cohort study in Sweden to assess the risk of rectal cancer in patients with UC who have an IRA, IPAA, or diverted rectum after subtotal colectomy.METHODS: We collected data from the Swedish National Patient Register for a cohort of 5886 patients with UC who underwent subtotal colectomy with an IRA, IPAA, or diverted rectum from 1964 through 2010. Patients who developed rectal cancer were identified from the Swedish National Cancer Register. The risk of rectal cancer was compared between this cohort and the general population by standardized incidence ratio analysis.RESULTS: Rectal cancer occurred in 20 of 1112 patients (1.8%) who received IRA, 1 of 1796 patients (0.06%) who received an IPAA, and 25 of 4358 patients (0.6%) with a diverted rectum. Standardized incidence ratios for rectal cancer were 8.7 in patients with an IRA, 0.4 in patients with an IPAA, and 3.8 in patients with a diverted rectum. Risk factors for rectal cancer were primary sclerosing cholangitis in patients with an IRA (hazard ratio, 6.12), and colonic severe dysplasia or cancer before subtotal colectomy in patients with a diverted rectum (hazard ratio, 3.67).CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of the Swedish National Patient Register, we found that the risk for rectal cancer after colectomy in patients with UC is low, in relative and absolute terms, after reconstruction with an IPAA. An IRA and diverted rectum are associated with an increased risk of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, but the absolute risk is low. Patients and their health care providers should consider these findings in making decisions to leave the rectum intact, perform completion proctectomy, or reconstruct the colon with an IRA or IPAA.
  • Aglago, Elom K., et al. (författare)
  • Consumption of Fish and Long-chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer in a Large European Cohort
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 18:3, s. 6-666
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: There is an unclear association between intake of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the association between fish consumption, dietary and circulating levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs, and ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA with CRC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods: Dietary intake of fish (total, fatty/oily, lean/white) and n-3 LC-PUFA were estimated by food frequency questionnaires given to 521,324 participants in the EPIC study; among these, 6291 individuals developed CRC (median follow up, 14.9 years). Levels of phospholipid LC-PUFA were measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples from a sub-group of 461 CRC cases and 461 matched individuals without CRC (controls). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs), respectively, with 95% CIs. Results: Total intake of fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96; Ptrend = .005), fatty fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82–0.98; Ptrend = .009), and lean fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83–1.00; Ptrend = .016) were inversely associated with CRC incidence. Intake of total n-3 LC-PUFA (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78–0.95; Ptrend = .010) was also associated with reduced risk of CRC, whereas dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA was associated with increased risk of CRC (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18–1.45; Ptrend < .001). Plasma levels of phospholipid n-3 LC-PUFA was not associated with overall CRC risk, but an inverse trend was observed for proximal compared with distal colon cancer (Pheterogeneity = .026). Conclusions: In an analysis of dietary patterns of participants in the EPIC study, we found regular consumption of fish, at recommended levels, to be associated with a lower risk of CRC, possibly through exposure to n-3 LC-PUFA. Levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma were not associated with CRC risk, but there may be differences in risk at different regions of the colon.
  • Alexandersson, Bjarki, et al. (författare)
  • High-Definition Chromoendoscopy Superior to High-Definition White-Light Endoscopy in Surveillance of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in a Randomized Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 18:9, s. 2101-2107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is debate over the optimal method for colonoscopic surveillance of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Guidelines recommend chromoendoscopy, but the value of chromoendoscopy in high-definition colonoscopy has not been proven. Furthermore, the value of random biopsies is controversial. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 305 patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis referred for surveillance colonoscopy at a university hospital in Sweden, from March 2011 through April 2016. Patients randomly assigned to a group that received high-definition chromoendoscopy with indigo carmine (HD-CE; n=152), collection of 32 random biopsies, and targeted biopsies or polypectomies or to a group that received high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE; n=153), collection of 32 random biopsies, and targeted biopsies or polypectomies. The primary endpoint was number of patients with dysplastic lesions. RESULTS: Dysplastic lesions were detected in 17 patients with HD-CE and 7 patients with HD-WLE (P=.032). Dysplasias in random biopsies (n=9760) were detected in 9 patients: 6 (3.9%) in the HD-CE group and 3 (2.0%) in the HD-WLE group (P=.72). Of the 9 patients with dysplasia, 3 patients (33%) had primary sclerosing cholangitis-only 18% of patients (54/305) included in the study had primary sclerosing cholangitis. The number of dysplastic lesions per 10 min of withdrawal time was 0.066 with HD-CE and 0.027 with HD-WLE (P=.056). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized trial, we found HD-CE with collection of random biopsies to be superior to HD-WLE with random biopsies for detection of dysplasia per colonoscopy. These results support the use of chromoendoscopy for surveillance of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01505842.
  • Anderson, Ryan T, et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Seroclearance of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 19:3, s. 463-472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the desired end point of treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, according to guidelines. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the strength of the association between HBsAg seroclearance and long-term clinical outcomes.METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for articles that assessed HBsAg status and reported the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver decompensation, liver transplantation, and/or all-cause mortality during follow-up evaluation. We performed a meta-analysis of rate ratios (RR) using a random-effects model independently for each end point and for a composite end point.RESULTS: We analyzed data from 28 studies, comprising a total of 188,316 patients with chronic HBV infection (treated and untreated), and 1,486,081 person-years (PY) of follow-up evaluation; 26 reported data on HCC, 7 on liver decompensation, and 13 on liver transplantation and/or death. The composite event rates were 0.19/1000 PY for the HBsAg seroclearance group and 2.45/1000 PY for the HBsAg-persistent group. Pooled RRs for the HBsAg seroclearance group were 0.28 for liver decompensation (95% CI, 0.13-0.59; P = .001), 0.30 for HCC (95% CI, 0.20-0.44; P < .001), 0.22 for liver transplantation and/or death (95% CI, 0.13-0.39; P < .001), and 0.31 for the composite end point (95% CI, 0.23-0.43; P < .001). No differences in RR estimates were observed among subgroups of different study or patient characteristics.CONCLUSIONS: In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found seroclearance of HBsAg to be associated significantly with improved patient outcomes. The results are consistent among different types of studies, in all patient subpopulations examined, and support the use of HBsAg seroclearance as a primary end point of trials of patients with chronic HBV infection.
  • Andreasson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Waist/Hip Ratio Better Predicts Development of Severe Liver Disease Within 20 Years Than Body Mass Index : A Population-based Cohort Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 15:8, s. 1294-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity, commonly assessed based on body mass index (BMI), is associated with an increased risk for severe liver disease. It is not known if other measures of body composition are better determinants of risk for severe liver disease, and/or if these differ between women and men. We investigated the body composition measures that best predict the development of severe liver disease. METHODS: We collected data from the Malmo Diet and Cancer study in Sweden, comprising 16,784 women and 10,833 (mean age, 58.1 years at baseline), and followed patients for a median 19.8 years. We analyzed data on measures of body composition including BMI, waist/hip ratio, and others. We determined whether subjects were diagnosed with severe liver disease, or died from severe liver disease, until the end of 2014 using Swedish national registers. Associations between body composition measures and severe liver disease were assessed using Cox regression models, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, alcohol consumption, smoking, education, and physical activity. RESULTS: All studied measures of body composition were significantly associated with severe liver disease. Waist/hip ratio was the best predictor of severe liver disease in women (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation increment, 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.46) and men (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.31-1.63). BMI had the lowest HR in women (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.27) and men (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12-1.42). The association between waist/hip ratio and development of liver disease was independent of BMI. CONCLUSIONS: In a Swedish population-based cohort study, we associated all measures of body composition with risk of severe liver disease. However, measures of abdominal obesity were best at predicting development of severe liver disease.
  • Axelrad, Jordan E., et al. (författare)
  • Gastrointestinal Infection Increases Odds of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Nationwide Case-Control Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 17:7, s. 1311-1322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal infections have been associated with later development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, studies have produced conflicting results. We performed a nationwide case-control study in Sweden to determine whether gastroenteritis is associated with the development of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: Using the Swedish National Patient Register, we identified 44,214 patients with IBD (26,450 with UC; 13,387 with CD; and 4377 with IBD-unclassified) from 2002 to 2014 and matched them with 436,507 individuals in the general population (control subjects). We then identified patients and control subjects with reported episodes of gastroenteritis (from 1964 to 2014) and type of pathogen associated. We collected medical and demographic data and used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for IBD associated with enteric infection.RESULTS: Of the patients with IBD, 3105 (7.0%) (1672 with UC, 1050 with CD, and 383 with IBD-unclassified) had a record of previous gastroenteritis compared with 17,685 control subjects (4.1%). IBD cases had higher odds for an antecedent episode of gastrointestinal infection (aOR, 1.64; 1.57-1.71), bacterial gastrointestinal infection (aOR, 2.02; 1.82-2.24), parasitic gastrointestinal infection (aOR, 1.55; 1.03-2.33), and viral gastrointestinal infection (aOR, 1.55; 1.34-1.79). Patients with UC had higher odds of previous infection with Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, or Clostridium difficile compared to control subjects. Patients with CD had higher odds of previous infection with Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia enterocolitica, C difficile, amoeba, or norovirus compared to control subjects. Increasing numbers of gastroenteritis episodes were associated with increased odds of IBD, and a previous episode of gastroenteritis remained associated with odds for IBD more than 10 years later (aOR, 1.26; 1.19-1.33).CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of the Swedish National Patient Register, we found previous episodes of gastroenteritis to increase odds of later development of IBD. Although we cannot formally exclude misclassification bias, enteric infections might induce microbial dysbiosis that contributes to the development of IBD in susceptible individuals.
  • Bergquist, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Increased risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis in first-degree relatives of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - New York : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 6:8, s. 939-943
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & Aims: The importance of genetic factors for the development of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is incompletely understood. This study assessed the risk of PSC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among first-degree relatives of patients with PSC, compared with the first-degree relatives of a cohort without PSC. Methods: Subjects from the national Swedish cohort of PSC patients (n = 678) were matched for date of birth, sex, and region to up to 10 subjects without a diagnosis of PSC (n = 6347). Linkage through general population registers identified first-degree relatives of subjects in both the PSC and comparison cohorts (n = 34,092). Diagnoses among first-degree relatives were identified by using the Inpatient Register. Results: The risk of cholangitis was statistically significantly increased in offspring, siblings, and parents of the PSC patient cohort, compared with relatives of the comparison cohort, with the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, 11.5 (1.6–84.4), 11.1 (3.3–37.8), and 2.3 (0.9–6.1), respectively. The hazard ratios for ulcerative colitis (UC) among first-degree relatives of all PSC patients was 3.3 (2.3–4.9) and for Crohn's disease 1.4 (0.8–2.5). The risk of UC for relatives of PSC patients without IBD was also increased, 7.4 (2.9–18.9). Conclusions: First-degree relatives of patients with PSC run an increased risk of PSC, indicating the importance of genetic factors in the etiology of PSC. First-degree relatives of PSC patients without IBD are also at an increased risk of UC, which might indicate shared genetic susceptibility factors for PSC and UC. 
  • Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala, et al. (författare)
  • Intake of Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee, or Tea Does Not Affect Risk for Pancreatic Cancer : Results From the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 11:11, s. 1486-1492
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few modifiable risk factors have been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. There is little evidence for the effects of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea intake on risk of pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer.METHODS: This study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort, comprising male and female participants from 10 European countries. Between 1992 and 2000, there were 477,312 participants without cancer who completed a dietary questionnaire, and were followed up to determine pancreatic cancer incidence. Coffee and tea intake was calibrated with a 24-hour dietary recall. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were computed using multivariable Cox regression.RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 y, 865 first incidences of pancreatic cancers were reported. When divided into fourths, neither total intake of coffee (HR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.27; high vs low intake), decaffeinated coffee (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.76-1.63; high vs low intake), nor tea were associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.22, 95% CI, 0.95-1.56; high vs low intake). Moderately low intake of caffeinated coffee was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74), compared with low intake. However, no graded dose response was observed, and the association attenuated after restriction to histologically confirmed pancreatic cancers.CONCLUSIONS: Based on an analysis of data from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort, total coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption are not related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.
  • Bjorkstrom, K., et al. (författare)
  • Risk Factors for Severe Liver Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - 1542-3565. ; 17:13, s. 2769-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, risk factors that identify persons with the highest risk for these outcomes are missing from unselected, population-based cohorts. METHODS: The National Diabetes Register contains data on about 90% of persons in Sweden with type 2 diabetes. In this cohort study, persons with type 2 diabetes listed in the National Diabetes Register were compared with 5 individuals from the general population (controls), matched for age, sex, and county. In total, 406 770 persons with type 2 diabetes and 2 033 850 controls were included and followed for 21 596 934 person-years. We used population-based registers to determine the incidence of severe liver disease, defined as a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, decompensation, liver failure and/or death due to liver disease during follow up. Cox regression was performed to estimate the risk of severe liver disease and to examine risk factors in persons with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Risk for severe liver disease was increased in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to controls (hazard ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 2.21-2.36). Risk factors associated with severe liver disease in persons with type 2 diabetes were higher age, male sex, hypertension, higher body mass index, lower glomerular filtration rate, microalbuminuria, and smoking. Statins were associated with a decreased risk of severe liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for severe liver disease. Knowledge of risk factors can be helpful in identifying persons with type 2 diabetes who have a high risk for severe liver disease.
  • Bozorg, Soran R., 1993-, et al. (författare)
  • Work loss in patients with celiac disease : A population-based longitudinal study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) affects around 1% of the population worldwide. Data on work disability in celiac patients remain scarce. We estimated work loss in celiac patients including its temporal relationship to diagnosis.METHODS: Through biopsy reports from Sweden's 28 pathology departments, we identified 16,005 working-aged patients with prevalent CD (villus atrophy) as of January 1, 2015, and 4,936 incident patients diagnosed with CD in 2008-2015. Each patient was matched to up to 5 general-population comparators. Using nationwide social insurance registers, we retrieved prospectively-recorded data on compensation for sick leave and disability leave to assess work loss in patients and comparators.RESULTS: In 2015, patients with prevalent CD had a mean of 42.5 lost work days as compared with 28.6 in comparators (mean difference: 14.7, 95%CI: 13.2-16.2), corresponding to a relative increase of 49%. More than half of the work loss (60.1%) in celiac patients was derived from a small subgroup (7%) while 75.4% had no work loss. Among incident patients, the annual mean difference between patients and comparators was 8.0 (5.4-10.6) lost work days 5 years before CD diagnosis, which grew to 13.7 (9.1-18.3) days 5 years after diagnosis. No difference in work loss was observed between patients with or without mucosal healing at follow-up.CONCLUSIONS: Celiac patients lost more work days than comparators before their diagnosis, and this loss increased after diagnosis. Identifying patients with an increased risk of work loss may serve as a target to mitigate work disability, and thereby reduce work loss, in CD.
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