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  • Arvidsson, D., et al. (författare)
  • Vigorous Physical Activity may be Important for the Insulin Sensitivity in Immigrants From the Middle East and Native Swedes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity & Health. - : Human Kinetics. - 1543-3080 .- 1543-5474. ; 12:2, s. 273-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To compare physical activity measures and their associations with insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and body mass index (BMI) between Iraqi immigrants and native Swedes. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 493 Iraqis (58% men) and 469 Swedes (54% men) aged 30 to 75 years living in the city of Malmo, Sweden. Accelerometry was used for physical activity measures (sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, moderate and vigorous physical activity, total counts). Insulin sensitivity index and oral disposal index were determined from an oral glucose tolerance test and BMI by body weight and height. Results: Iraqi men were less physically active than Swedish men, while the physical activity was more similar in the women. BMI was a strong predictor of insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function and frequently associated with the physical activity measures. BMI modified the associations of insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function with the physical activity measures to such extent that only VPA and total counts show direct associations with insulin sensitivity in addition to the indirect associations via BMI. Iraqi women demonstrated weaker associations compared with Swedish women. Conclusions: Physical activity and performed at vigorous intensity may be important mainly for the insulin sensitivity in Iraqi immigrants and native Swedes.
  • Aubert, Salome, et al. (författare)
  • Global Matrix 3.0 Physical Activity Report Card Grades for Children and Youth: Results and Analysis From 49 Countries
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health. - : HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC. - 1543-3080 .- 1543-5474. ; 15, s. S251-S273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Accumulating sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity is recognized as a key determinant of physical, physiological, developmental, mental, cognitive, and social health among children and youth (aged 5-17 y). The Global Matrix 3.0 of Report Card grades on physical activity was developed to achieve a better understanding of the global variation in child and youth physical activity and associated supports. Methods: Work groups from 49 countries followed harmonized procedures to develop their Report Cards by grading 10 common indicators using the best available data. The participating countries were divided into 3 categories using the United Nations human development index (HDI) classification (low or medium, high, and very high HDI). Results: A total of 490 grades, including 369 letter grades and 121 incomplete grades, were assigned by the 49 work groups. Overall, an average grade of "C-," "D+," and "C-" was obtained for the low and medium HDI countries, high HDI countries, and very high HDI countries, respectively. Conclusions: The present study provides rich new evidence showing that the situation regarding the physical activity of children and youth is a concern worldwide. Strategic public investments to implement effective interventions to increase physical activity opportunities are needed.
  • Aubert, Salome, et al. (författare)
  • Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 30 Very High Human Development Index Countries
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health. - : HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC. - 1543-3080 .- 1543-5474. ; 15, s. S298-S314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To better understand the childhood physical inactivity crisis, Report Cards on physical activity of children and youth were prepared concurrently in 30 very high Human Development Index countries. The aim of this article was to present, describe, and compare the findings from these Report Cards. Methods: The Report Cards were developed using a harmonized process for data gathering, assessing, and assigning grades to 10 common physical activity indicators. Descriptive statistics were calculated after converting letter grades to interval variables, and correlational analyses between the 10 common indicators were performed using Spearmans rank correlation coefficients. Results: A matrix of 300 grades was obtained with substantial variations within and between countries. Low grades were observed for behavioral indicators, and higher grades were observed for sources of influence indicators, indicating a disconnect between supports and desired behaviors. Conclusion: This analysis summarizes the level and context of the physical activity of children and youth among very high Human Development Index countries, and provides additional evidence that the situation regarding physical activity in children and youth is very concerning. Unless a major shift to a more active lifestyle happens soon, a high rate of noncommunicable diseases can be anticipated when this generation of children reaches adulthood.
  • Barbieri, Dechristian, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of time in sitting and standing on pleasantness, acceptability, fatigue and pain when using a sit-stand table: an experiment on overweight and normal-weight subjects
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health. - 1543-3080 .- 1543-5474.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Sit-stand desks have been suggested as an initiative to increase posture variation among office workers. However, there is limited evidence of what would be preferable combinations of time sitting and standing. The aim of this study was to determine and compare perceived pleasantness, acceptability, pain and fatigue for five time patterns of sitting and standing at a sit-stand desk.Methods: Thirty post-graduate students were equally divided into a normal-weight (mean BMI 22.8 kg/m2) and an overweight/obese (mean BMI 28.1 kg/m2) group. They performed 3 hours of computer work at a sit-stand desk on five different days, each day with a different time pattern (A: 60-min sit/0-min stand; B: 50/10; C: 40/20; D: 30/30; E: 20/40). Pleasantness, acceptability, pain and fatigue ratings were obtained at the beginning and at the end of the 3-hour period.Results: High ratings of pleasantness were observed for time patterns B, C and D in both groups. All participants rated acceptability to be good for time patterns A to D. A minor increase in perceived fatigue and pain was observed in time pattern E.Conclusion: For new sit-stand desk users, regardless of BMI, 10-30 min of standing per hour appears to be an amenable time pattern.
  • Bonn, Stephanie E., et al. (författare)
  • Correlates of leisure time physical inactivity in a scandinavian population : A basis for interventions
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health. - : Human Kinetics. - 1543-3080 .- 1543-5474. ; 13:11, s. 1236-1242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Effective interventions are needed to increase physical activity in the general population. To target interventions, we need knowledge of insuffciently active groups in society. This study aims to identify demographic and health-related correlates of leisure-time physical inactivity in a general Scandinavian population. Methods: Study participants comprised 5734 control subjects, age 18 to 70 years, from 2 ongoing Swedish case-control studies. Participants self-reported their leisure-time physical activity level. The odds of being physically inactive were calculated using logistic regression. Results: A total of 42% of participants were classifed as physically inactive during leisure time. A lower prevalence of inactivity was associated with middle age, higher education, having previous experience of sports participation, following a low glycemic index/Mediterranean diet and having a light physical workload. A high prevalence of inactivity was associated with greater age, high body mass index, smoking, never drinking alcohol, having children, having a weak social network or lower levels of emotional support, and a low vegetable intake. Conclusions: Several factors were associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. Directing interventions to target groups defned by specifc factors associated with physical inactivity could be an effcient way to increase activity and improve health in the general population.
  • Ekblom Bak, Elin, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Physical Education and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Youth Are Both Important for Adulthood Activity, Physical Performance, and Health.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: HPI-gruppen. ; 15:9, s. 661-670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The importance of youth physical activity (PA) for adulthood PA, performance, and health was retrospectively evaluated. Methods: A total of 258,146 participants (49% women), aged 19–70, with a first-time health-profile assessment between 1982 and 2015, provided self-reported data on current perceived health, PA, lifestyle, and physical education class participation, and PA outside school hours before age 20. Data on anthropometrics, blood pressure, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were obtained. Results: Women participating in physical education class, compared with those who did not, had significantly lower OR (range: 0.81–0.87) for perceiving poor overall health, general obesity, and high diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for potential confounders, and increased OR (range: 1.17–1.23) for exercising regularly and a normal/high VO2max in adulthood. For men, the ORs were significantly lower (range: 0.66–0.86) for poor perceived overall health, general, and abdominal obesity. These associations were seen for participants up to 70 years. Increased PA outside school hours revealed even stronger beneficial associations. In joint analyses, both youth and current PA were important for lower OR of poor health and being obese in adulthood. Conclusions: Physical education class participation and additional PA after school hours were both important for perceived health, PA, VO2max, and metabolic health in adulthood up to 70 years.
  • Ekblom-Bak, E., et al. (författare)
  • SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness-Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity & Health. - 1543-3080 .- 1543-5474. ; 13:7, s. 697-703
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels. Methods: A total of 654 men and women, 50 to 64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined. Results: Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared with participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively. Conclusions: LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.
  • Ekblom, Örjan, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Validity and comparability of a wrist-worn accelerometer in children.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Mätning av det dagliga aktivitetsmönstret. ; 9:3, s. 389-393
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Wrist-worn accelerometers may provide an alternative to hip-worn monitors for assessing physical activity as they are easier to wear and may thus facilitate long-term recordings. The current study aimed at a) assessing the validity of the Actiwatch (wrist-worn) for estimating energy expenditure, b) determining cut-off values for light, moderate, and vigorous activities, c) studying the comparability between the Actiwatch and the Actigraph (hip-worn), and d) assessing reliability.METHODS:For validity, indirect calorimetry was used as criterion measure. ROC-analyses were applied to identify cut-off values. Comparability was tested by simultaneously wearing of the 2 accelerometers during free-living condition. Reliability was tested in a mechanical shaker.RESULTS:All-over correlation between accelerometer output and energy expenditure were found to be 0.80 (P < .001).Based on ROC-analysis, cut-off values for 1.5, 3, and 6 METs were found to be 80, 262, and 406 counts per 15 s, respectively. Energy expenditure estimates differed between the Actiwatch and the Actigraph (P < .05). The intra- and interinstrument coefficient of variation of the Actiwatch ranged between 0.72% and 8.4%.CONCLUSION:The wrist-worn Actiwatch appears to be valid and reliable for estimating energy expenditure and physical activity intensity in children aged 8 to 10 years.
  • Gilson, Nicholas, et al. (författare)
  • Sedentary and physical activity behaviour in ‘blue-collar’ workers: A systematic review of accelerometer studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health. - : ISPAH International Society for Physical Activity and Health. - 1543-3080 .- 1543-5474. ; 16:11, s. 1060-1069
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This systematic review assessed evidence on the accelerometer-measured sedentary and physical activity (PA) behavior of nonoffice workers in “blue-collar” industries.Methods: The databases CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus were searched up to April 6, 2018. Eligibility criteria were accelerometer-measured sedentary, sitting, and/or PA behaviors in “blue-collar” workers (≥10 participants; agricultural, construction, cleaning, manufacturing, mining, postal, or transport industries). Data on participants’ characteristics, study protocols, and measured behaviors during work and/or nonwork time were extracted. Methodologic quality was assessed using a 12-item checklist.Results: Twenty studies (representing 11 data sets), all from developed world economies, met inclusion criteria. The mean quality score for selected studies was 9.5 (SD 0.8) out of a maximum of 12. Data were analyzed using a range of analytical techniques (eg, accelerometer counts or pattern recognition algorithms). “Blue-collar” workers were more sedentary and less active during nonwork compared with work time (eg, sitting 5.7 vs 3.2 h/d; moderate to vigorous PA 0.5 vs 0.7 h/d). Drivers were the most sedentary (work time 5.1 h/d; nonwork time 8.2 h/d).Conclusions: High levels of sedentary time and insufficient PA to offset risk are health issues for “blue-collar” workers. To better inform interventions, research groups need to adopt common measurement and reporting methodologies.
  • Haerens, Leen, et al. (författare)
  • Formative Research to Develop the IDEFICS Physical Activity Intervention Component : Findings From Focus Groups With Children and Parents
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health. - Champaign, IL : HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC. - 1543-3080 .- 1543-5474. ; 7:2, s. 246-256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The current study aimed at describing influencing factors for physical activity among young children to determine the best approaches for developing the IDEFICS community based intervention. Methods: In 8 European sites a trained moderator conducted a minimum of 4 focus groups using standardized questioning guides. A total of 56 focus groups were conducted including 36 focus groups with parents and 20 focus groups with children, of which 74 were boys and 81 girls. Key findings were identified through independent reviews of focus group summary reports using content analysis methods. Findings: Findings were generally consistent across countries. The greatest emphasis was on environmental physical (eg, seasonal influences, availability of facilities and safety), institutional (eg, length of breaks at school), and social factors (eg, role modeling of parents). Most cited personal factors by parents were age, social economical status, and perceived barriers. Both children and parents mentioned the importance of children's preferences. Conclusions: To increase physical activity levels of young children the intervention should aim at creating an environment (physical, institutional, social) supportive of physical activity. On the other hand strategies should take into account personal factors like age and social economical status and should consider personal barriers too.
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