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1.
  • Agler, Caryline, et al. (författare)
  • Canine Hereditary Ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters Is Associated with a Defect in the Autophagy Gene Encoding RAB24
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 10:2, s. e1003991
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters suffer from a juvenile onset, autosomal recessive form of canine hereditary ataxia primarily affecting the Purkinje neuron of the cerebellar cortex. The clinical and histological characteristics are analogous to hereditary ataxias in humans. Linkage and genome-wide association studies on a cohort of related Old English Sheepdogs identified a region on CFA4 strongly associated with the disease phenotype. Targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing of the region identified an A to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 113 in exon 1 of an autophagy gene, RAB24, that segregated with the phenotype. Genotyping of six additional breeds of dogs affected with hereditary ataxia identified the same polymorphism in affected Gordon Setters that segregated perfectly with phenotype. The other breeds tested did not have the polymorphism. Genome-wide SNP genotyping of Gordon Setters identified a 1.9 MB region with an identical haplotype to affected Old English Sheepdogs. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural evaluation of the brains of affected dogs from both breeds identified dramatic Purkinje neuron loss with axonal spheroids, accumulation of autophagosomes, ubiquitin positive inclusions and a diffuse increase in cytoplasmic neuronal ubiquitin staining. These findings recapitulate the changes reported in mice with induced neuron-specific autophagy defects. Taken together, our results suggest that a defect in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, is highly associated with and may contribute to canine hereditary ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters. This finding suggests that detailed investigation of autophagy pathways should be undertaken in human hereditary ataxia. Author Summary Neurodegenerative diseases are one of the most important causes of decline in an aging population. An important subset of these diseases are known as the hereditary ataxias, familial neurodegenerative diseases that affect the cerebellum causing progressive gait disturbance in both humans and dogs. We identified a mutation in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters with hereditary ataxia. Autophagy is a process by which cell proteins and organelles are removed and recycled and its critical role in maintenance of the continued health of cells is becoming clear. We evaluated the brains of affected dogs and identified accumulations of autophagosomes within the cerebellum, suggesting a defect in the autophagy pathway. Our results suggest that a defect in the autophagy pathway results in neuronal death in a naturally occurring disease in dogs. The autophagy pathway should be investigated in human hereditary ataxia and may represent a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases.</p>
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2.
  • Ahmad, Shafqat, et al. (författare)
  • Gene x Physical Activity Interactions in Obesity Combined Analysis of 111,421 Individuals of European Ancestry
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 9:7, s. e1003607
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2), sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS x physical activity interaction effect estimate (P-interaction = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, P-interaction = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, P-interaction = 0.275 for Europeans). In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (P-interaction = 0.003) and the SEC16B rs10913469 (P-interaction = 0.025) variants showed evidence of SNP x physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.</p>
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3.
  • Andersson, Göran (författare)
  • A functional regulatory variant of MYH3 influences muscle fiber-type composition and intramuscular fat content in pigs
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Muscle development and lipid accumulation in muscle critically affect meat quality of livestock. However, the genetic factors underlying myofiber-type specification and intramuscular fat (IMF) accumulation remain to be elucidated. Using two independent intercrosses between Western commercial breeds and Korean native pigs (KNPs) and a joint linkage-linkage disequilibrium analysis, we identified a 488.1-kb region on porcine chromosome 12 that affects both reddish meat color (a*) and IMF. In this critical region, only the MYH3 gene, encoding myosin heavy chain 3, was found to be preferentially overexpressed in the skeletal muscle of KNPs. Subsequently, MYH3-transgenic mice demonstrated that this gene controls both myofiber-type specification and adipogenesis in skeletal muscle. We discovered a structural variant in the promotor/regulatory region of MYH3 for which Q allele carriers exhibited significantly higher values of a* and IMF than q allele carriers. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation and cotransfection assays showed that the structural variant in the 5'-flanking region of MYH3 abrogated the binding of the myogenic regulatory factors (MYF5, MYOD, MYOG, and MRF4). The allele distribution of MYH3 among pig populations worldwide indicated that the MYH3 Q allele is of Asian origin and likely predates domestication. In conclusion, we identified a functional regulatory sequence variant in porcine MYH3 that provides novel insights into the genetic basis of the regulation of myofiber type ratios and associated changes in IMF in pigs. The MYH3 variant can play an important role in improving pork quality in current breeding programs.
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4.
  • Andersson, Leif (författare)
  • A cis-Regulatory Mutation of PDSS2 Causes Silky-Feather in Chickens
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Silky-feather has been selected and fixed in some breeds due to its unique appearance. This phenotype is caused by a single recessive gene (hookless, h). Here we map the silky-feather locus to chromosome 3 by linkage analysis and subsequently fine-map it to an 18.9 kb interval using the identical by descent (IBD) method. Further analysis reveals that a C to G transversion located upstream of the prenyl (decaprenyl) diphosphate synthase, subunit 2 (PDSS2) gene is causing silky-feather. All silky-feather birds are homozygous for the G allele. The silky-feather mutation significantly decreases the expression of PDSS2 during feather development in vivo. Consistent with the regulatory effect, the C to G transversion is shown to remarkably reduce PDSS2 promoter activity in vitro. We report a new example of feather structure variation associated with a spontaneous mutation and provide new insight into the PDSS2 function.
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5.
  • Andersson, Leif (författare)
  • A Genomic Duplication is Associated with Ectopic Eomesodermin Expression in the Embryonic Chicken Comb and Two Duplex-comb Phenotypes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Duplex-comb (D) is one of three major loci affecting comb morphology in the domestic chicken. Here we show that the two Duplex-comb alleles, V-shaped (D*V) and Buttercup (D*C), are both associated with a 20 Kb tandem duplication containing several conserved putative regulatory elements located 200 Kb upstream of the eomesodermin gene (EOMES). EOMES is a T-box transcription factor that is involved in mesoderm specification during gastrulation. In D*V and D*C chicken embryos we find that EOMES is ectopically expressed in the ectoderm of the comb-developing region as compared to wild-type embryos. The confinement of the ectopic expression of EOMES to the ectoderm is in stark contrast to the causal mechanisms underlying the two other major comb loci in the chicken (Rose-comb and Pea-comb) in which the transcription factors MNR2 and SOX5 are ectopically expressed strictly in the mesenchyme. Interestingly, the causal mutations of all three major comb loci in the chicken are now known to be composed of large-scale structural genomic variants that each result in ectopic expression of transcription factors. The Duplex-comb locus also illustrates the evolution of alleles in domestic animals, which means that alleles evolve by the accumulation of two or more consecutive mutations affecting the phenotype. We do not yet know whether the V-shaped or Buttercup allele correspond to the second mutation that occurred on the haplotype of the original duplication event.
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6.
  • Andersson, Leif (författare)
  • Copy Number Variation in Intron 1 of SOX5 Causes the Pea-comb Phenotype in Chickens
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pea-comb is a dominant mutation in chickens that drastically reduces the size of the comb and wattles. It is an adaptive trait in cold climates as it reduces heat loss and makes the chicken less susceptible to frost lesions. Here we report that Pea-comb is caused by a massive amplification of a duplicated sequence located near evolutionary conserved non-coding sequences in intron 1 of the gene encoding the SOX5 transcription factor. This must be the causative mutation since all other polymorphisms associated with the Pea-comb allele were excluded by genetic analysis. SOX5 controls cell fate and differentiation and is essential for skeletal development, chondrocyte differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. Immunostaining in early embryos demonstrated that Pea-comb is associated with ectopic expression of SOX5 in mesenchymal cells located just beneath the surface ectoderm where the comb and wattles will subsequently develop. The results imply that the duplication expansion interferes with the regulation of SOX5 expression during the differentiation of cells crucial for the development of comb and wattles. The study provides novel insight into the nature of mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution and is the first description of a spontaneous and fully viable mutation in this developmentally important gene.
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7.
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8.
  • Andersson, Leif (författare)
  • Identification and validation of genetic variants predictive of gait in standardbred horses
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several horse breeds have been specifically selected for the ability to exhibit alternative patterns of locomotion, or gaits. A premature stop codon in the gene DMRT3 is permissive for gaitedness across breeds. However, this mutation is nearly fixed in both American Standardbred trotters and pacers, which perform a diagonal and lateral gait, respectively, during harness racing. This suggests that modifying alleles must influence the preferred gait at racing speeds in these populations. A genome-wide association analysis for the ability to pace was performed in 542 Standardbred horses (n = 176 pacers, n = 366 trotters) with genotype data imputed to similar to 74,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Nineteen SNPs on nine chromosomes (ECA1, 2, 6, 9, 17, 19, 23, 25, 31) reached genome-wide significance (p < 1.44 x 10(-6)). Variant discovery in regions of interest was carried out via whole-genome sequencing. A set of 303 variants from 22 chromosomes with putative modifying effects on gait was genotyped in 659 Standardbreds (n = 231 pacers, n = 428 trotters) using a high-throughput assay. Random forest classification analysis resulted in an out-of-box error rate of 0.61%. A conditional inference tree algorithm containing seven SNPs predicted status as a pacer or trotter with 99.1% accuracy and subsequently performed with 99.4% accuracy in an independently sampled population of 166 Standardbreds (n = 83 pacers, n = 83 trotters). This highly accurate algorithm could be used by owners/trainers to identify Standardbred horses with the potential to race as pacers or as trotters, according to the genotype identified, prior to initiating training and would enable fine-tuning of breeding programs with designed matings. Additional work is needed to determine both the algorithm's utility in other gaited breeds and whether any of the predictive SNPs play a physiologically functional role in the tendency to pace or tag true functional alleles.
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9.
  • Andersson, Leif (författare)
  • Mutations in or near the Transmembrane Domain Alter PMEL Amyloid Formation from Functional to Pathogenic
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PMEL is a pigment cell-specific protein that forms physiological amyloid fibrils upon which melanins ultimately deposit in the lumen of the pigment organelle, the melanosome. Whereas hypomorphic PMEL mutations in several species result in a mild pigment dilution that is inherited in a recessive manner, PMEL alleles found in the Dominant white (DW) chicken and Silver horse (HoSi)-which bear mutations that alter the PMEL transmembrane domain (TMD) and that are thus outside the amyloid core-are associated with a striking loss of pigmentation that is inherited in a dominant fashion. Here we show that the DW and HoSi mutations alter PMEL TMD oligomerization and/or association with membranes, with consequent formation of aberrantly packed fibrils. The aberrant fibrils are associated with a loss of pigmentation in cultured melanocytes, suggesting that they inhibit melanin production and/or melanosome integrity. A secondary mutation in the Smoky chicken, which reverts the dominant DW phenotype, prevents the accumulation of PMEL in fibrillogenic compartments and thus averts DW-associated pigment loss; a secondary mutation found in the Dun chicken likely dampens a HoSi-like dominant mutation in a similar manner. We propose that the DW and HoSi mutations alter the normally benign amyloid to a pathogenic form that antagonizes melanosome function, and that the secondary mutations found in the Smoky and Dun chickens revert or dampen pathogenicity by functioning as null alleles, thus preventing the formation of aberrant fibrils. We speculate that PMEL mutations can model the conversion between physiological and pathological amyloid.
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10.
  • Andersson, Leif (författare)
  • The Rose-comb mutation in chickens constitutes a structural rearrangement causing both altered comb morphology and defective sperm motility
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 8, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comb morphology is a trait that shows considerable variability among domestic chickens. The Rose-comb mutation causes a drastically altered shape of the comb, whereas the Pea-comb mutation leads to a considerable reduction in the size of the comb. The combined effect of Rose-comb and Pea-comb is a comb shaped like a walnut, and the phenotype is consequently named walnut-comb. Both Pea-comb and Rose-comb are caused by structural changes in the genome leading to altered expression of important transcription factors. In a previous study we showed that Pea-comb is caused by misexpression of SOX5 during the development of the comb. In this study we report that Rose-comb is caused by a large inversion on chicken chromosome 7. The inversion moves the MNR2 gene to a new genomic location. This leads to misexpression of MNR2 during comb development, similar to the defect causing Pea-comb. Roosters that are homozygous for the Rose-comb inversion show poor sperm motility, and our results suggest that this is caused by the disruption of the CCDC108 gene that is located at one of the inversion breakpoints. CCDC108 is well conserved between chickens and humans, and this study establishes CCDC108 as a candidate gene for sperm motility disorders in humans.
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