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1.
  • Agler, Caryline, et al. (författare)
  • Canine Hereditary Ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters Is Associated with a Defect in the Autophagy Gene Encoding RAB24
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 10:2, s. e1003991-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters suffer from a juvenile onset, autosomal recessive form of canine hereditary ataxia primarily affecting the Purkinje neuron of the cerebellar cortex. The clinical and histological characteristics are analogous to hereditary ataxias in humans. Linkage and genome-wide association studies on a cohort of related Old English Sheepdogs identified a region on CFA4 strongly associated with the disease phenotype. Targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing of the region identified an A to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 113 in exon 1 of an autophagy gene, RAB24, that segregated with the phenotype. Genotyping of six additional breeds of dogs affected with hereditary ataxia identified the same polymorphism in affected Gordon Setters that segregated perfectly with phenotype. The other breeds tested did not have the polymorphism. Genome-wide SNP genotyping of Gordon Setters identified a 1.9 MB region with an identical haplotype to affected Old English Sheepdogs. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural evaluation of the brains of affected dogs from both breeds identified dramatic Purkinje neuron loss with axonal spheroids, accumulation of autophagosomes, ubiquitin positive inclusions and a diffuse increase in cytoplasmic neuronal ubiquitin staining. These findings recapitulate the changes reported in mice with induced neuron-specific autophagy defects. Taken together, our results suggest that a defect in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, is highly associated with and may contribute to canine hereditary ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters. This finding suggests that detailed investigation of autophagy pathways should be undertaken in human hereditary ataxia. Author Summary Neurodegenerative diseases are one of the most important causes of decline in an aging population. An important subset of these diseases are known as the hereditary ataxias, familial neurodegenerative diseases that affect the cerebellum causing progressive gait disturbance in both humans and dogs. We identified a mutation in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters with hereditary ataxia. Autophagy is a process by which cell proteins and organelles are removed and recycled and its critical role in maintenance of the continued health of cells is becoming clear. We evaluated the brains of affected dogs and identified accumulations of autophagosomes within the cerebellum, suggesting a defect in the autophagy pathway. Our results suggest that a defect in the autophagy pathway results in neuronal death in a naturally occurring disease in dogs. The autophagy pathway should be investigated in human hereditary ataxia and may represent a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases.
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2.
  • Ahmad, Shafqat, et al. (författare)
  • Gene x physical activity interactions in obesity : combined analysis of 111,421 individuals of European ancestry
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 9:7, s. e1003607-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2), sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS x physical activity interaction effect estimate (P-interaction = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, P-interaction = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, P-interaction = 0.275 for Europeans). In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (P-interaction = 0.003) and the SEC16B rs10913469 (P-interaction = 0.025) variants showed evidence of SNP x physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.
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3.
  • Ahsan, Muhammad, et al. (författare)
  • The relative contribution of DNA methylation and genetic variants on protein biomarkers for human diseases.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 13:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Associations between epigenetic alterations and disease status have been identified for many diseases. However, there is no strong evidence that epigenetic alterations are directly causal for disease pathogenesis. In this study, we combined SNP and DNA methylation data with measurements of protein biomarkers for cancer, inflammation or cardiovascular disease, to investigate the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic variation on biomarker levels. A total of 121 protein biomarkers were measured and analyzed in relation to DNA methylation at 470,000 genomic positions and to over 10 million SNPs. We performed epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) and genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses, and integrated biomarker, DNA methylation and SNP data using between 698 and 1033 samples depending on data availability for the different analyses. We identified 124 and 45 loci (Bonferroni adjusted P < 0.05) with effect sizes up to 0.22 standard units' change per 1% change in DNA methylation levels and up to four standard units' change per copy of the effective allele in the EWAS and GWAS respectively. Most GWAS loci were cis-regulatory whereas most EWAS loci were located in trans. Eleven EWAS loci were associated with multiple biomarkers, including one in NLRC5 associated with CXCL11, CXCL9, IL-12, and IL-18 levels. All EWAS signals that overlapped with a GWAS locus were driven by underlying genetic variants and three EWAS signals were confounded by smoking. While some cis-regulatory SNPs for biomarkers appeared to have an effect also on DNA methylation levels, cis-regulatory SNPs for DNA methylation were not observed to affect biomarker levels. We present associations between protein biomarker and DNA methylation levels at numerous loci in the genome. The associations are likely to reflect the underlying pattern of genetic variants, specific environmental exposures, or represent secondary effects to the pathogenesis of disease.
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4.
  • Ameur, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • Ultra-deep sequencing of mouse mitochondrial DNA : Mutational patterns and their origins
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 7:3, s. e1002028-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Somatic mutations of mtDNA are implicated in the aging process, but there is no universally accepted method for their accurate quantification. We have used ultra-deep sequencing to study genome-wide mtDNA mutation load in the liver of normally- and prematurely-aging mice. Mice that are homozygous for an allele expressing a proof-reading-deficient mtDNA polymerase (mtDNA mutator mice) have 10-times-higher point mutation loads than their wildtype siblings. In addition, the mtDNA mutator mice have increased levels of a truncated linear mtDNA molecule, resulting in decreased sequence coverage in the deleted region. In contrast, circular mtDNA molecules with large deletions occur at extremely low frequencies in mtDNA mutator mice and can therefore not drive the premature aging phenotype. Sequence analysis shows that the main proportion of the mutation load in heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice and their wildtype siblings is inherited from their heterozygous mothers consistent with germline transmission. We found no increase in levels of point mutations or deletions in wildtype C57Bl/6N mice with increasing age, thus questioning the causative role of these changes in aging. In addition, there was no increased frequency of transversion mutations with time in any of the studied genotypes, arguing against oxidative damage as a major cause of mtDNA mutations. Our results from studies of mice thus indicate that most somatic mtDNA mutations occur as replication errors during development and do not result from damage accumulation in adult life.
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5.
  • Andersson, Göran (författare)
  • A functional regulatory variant of MYH3 influences muscle fiber-type composition and intramuscular fat content in pigs
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Muscle development and lipid accumulation in muscle critically affect meat quality of livestock. However, the genetic factors underlying myofiber-type specification and intramuscular fat (IMF) accumulation remain to be elucidated. Using two independent intercrosses between Western commercial breeds and Korean native pigs (KNPs) and a joint linkage-linkage disequilibrium analysis, we identified a 488.1-kb region on porcine chromosome 12 that affects both reddish meat color (a*) and IMF. In this critical region, only the MYH3 gene, encoding myosin heavy chain 3, was found to be preferentially overexpressed in the skeletal muscle of KNPs. Subsequently, MYH3-transgenic mice demonstrated that this gene controls both myofiber-type specification and adipogenesis in skeletal muscle. We discovered a structural variant in the promotor/regulatory region of MYH3 for which Q allele carriers exhibited significantly higher values of a* and IMF than q allele carriers. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation and cotransfection assays showed that the structural variant in the 5'-flanking region of MYH3 abrogated the binding of the myogenic regulatory factors (MYF5, MYOD, MYOG, and MRF4). The allele distribution of MYH3 among pig populations worldwide indicated that the MYH3 Q allele is of Asian origin and likely predates domestication. In conclusion, we identified a functional regulatory sequence variant in porcine MYH3 that provides novel insights into the genetic basis of the regulation of myofiber type ratios and associated changes in IMF in pigs. The MYH3 variant can play an important role in improving pork quality in current breeding programs.
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6.
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7.
  • Andersson, Rebecca, et al. (författare)
  • Differential role of cytosolic Hsp70s in longevity assurance and protein quality control
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) are essential chaperones of the protein quality control network; vital for cellular fitness and longevity. The four cytosolic Hsp70's in yeast, Ssa1-4, are thought to be functionally redundant but the absence of Ssa1 and Ssa2 causes a severe reduction in cellular reproduction and accelerates replicative aging. In our efforts to identify which Hsp70 activities are most important for longevity assurance, we systematically investigated the capacity of Ssa4 to carry out the different activities performed by Ssa1/2 by overproducing Ssa4 in cells lacking these Hsp70 chaperones. We found that Ssa4, when overproduced in cells lacking Ssa1/2, rescued growth, mitigated aggregate formation, restored spatial deposition of aggregates into protein inclusions, and promoted protein degradation. In contrast, Ssa4 overproduction in the Hsp70 deficient cells failed to restore the recruitment of the disaggregase Hsp104 to misfolded/aggregated proteins, to fully restore clearance of protein aggregates, and to bring back the formation of the nucleolus-associated aggregation compartment. Exchanging the nucleotide-binding domain of Ssa4 with that of Ssa1 suppressed this 'defect' of Ssa4. Interestingly, Ssa4 overproduction extended the short lifespan of ssa1 Delta ssa2 Delta mutant cells to a lifespan comparable to, or even longer than, wild type cells, demonstrating that Hsp104-dependent aggregate clearance is not a prerequisite for longevity assurance in yeast. Author summary All organisms have proteins that network together to stabilize and protect the cell throughout its lifetime. One of these types of proteins are the Hsp70s (heat shock protein 70). Hsp70 proteins take part in folding other proteins to their functional form, untangling proteins from aggregates, organize aggregates inside the cell and ensure that damaged proteins are destroyed. In this study, we investigated three closely related Hsp70 proteins in yeast; Ssa1, 2 and 4, in an effort to describe the functional difference of Ssa4 compared to Ssa1 and 2 and to answer the question: What types of cellular stress protection are necessary to reach a normal lifespan? We show that Ssa4 can perform many of the same tasks as Ssa1 and 2, but Ssa4 doesn't interact in the same manner as Ssa1 and 2 with other types of proteins. This leads to a delay in removing protein aggregates created after heat stress. Ssa4 also cannot ensure that misfolded proteins aggregate correctly inside the nucleus of the cell. However, this turns out not to be necessary for yeast cells to achieve a full lifespan, which shows us that as long as cells can prevent aggregates from forming in the first place, they can reach a full lifespan.
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8.
  • Arendt, Maja Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Study of Golden Retrievers Identifies Germ-Line Risk Factors Predisposing to Mast Cell Tumours
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 11:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Canine mast cell tumours (CMCT) are one of the most common skin tumours in dogs with a major impact on canine health. Certain breeds have a higher risk of developing mast cell tumours, suggesting that underlying predisposing germ-line genetic factors play a role in the development of this disease. The genetic risk factors are largely unknown, although somatic mutations in the oncogene C-KIT have been detected in a proportion of CMCT, making CMCT a comparative model for mastocytosis in humans where C-KIT mutations are frequent. We have performed a genome wide association study in golden retrievers from two continents and identified separate regions in the genome associated with risk of CMCT in the two populations. Sequence capture of associated regions and subsequent fine mapping in a larger cohort of dogs identified a SNP associated with development of CMCT in the GNAI2 gene (p = 2.2x10(-16)), introducing an alternative splice form of this gene resulting in a truncated protein. In addition, disease associated haplotypes harbouring the hyaluronidase genes HYAL1, HYAL2 and HYAL3 on cfa20 and HYAL4, SPAM1 and HYALP1 on cfa14 were identified as separate risk factors in European and US golden retrievers, respectively, suggesting that turnover of hyaluronan plays an important role in the development of CMCT.
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9.
  • Ayllon, Fernando, et al. (författare)
  • The vgll3 Locus Controls Age at Maturity in Wild and Domesticated Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Males
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 11:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon males display large variation for sea age at sexual maturation, which varies between 1-5 years. Previous studies have uncovered a genetic predisposition for variation of age at maturity with moderate heritability, thus suggesting a polygenic or complex nature of this trait. The aim of this study was to identify associated genetic loci, genes and ultimately specific sequence variants conferring sea age at maturity in salmon. We performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) using a pool sequencing approach (20 individuals per river and phenotype) of male salmon returning to rivers as sexually mature either after one sea winter (2009) or three sea winters (2011) in six rivers in Norway. The study revealed one major selective sweep, which covered 76 significant SNPs in which 74 were found in a 370 kb region of chromosome 25. Genotyping other smolt year classes of wild and domesticated salmon confirmed this finding. Genotyping domesticated fish narrowed the haplotype region to four SNPs covering 2386 bp, containing the vgll3 gene, including two missense mutations explaining 33-36% phenotypic variation. A single locus was found to have a highly significant role in governing sea age at maturation in this species. The SNPs identified may be both used as markers to guide breeding for late maturity in salmon aquaculture and in monitoring programs of wild salmon. Interestingly, a SNP in proximity of the VGLL3 gene in humans (Homo sapiens), has previously been linked to age at puberty suggesting a conserved mechanism for timing of puberty in vertebrates.
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10.
  • Baranowska, Izabella, et al. (författare)
  • Sensory ataxic neuropathy in golden retriever dogs is caused by a deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 5:5, s. e1000499-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sensory ataxic neuropathy (SAN) is a recently identified neurological disorder in golden retrievers. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected dogs belong to one maternal lineage, and a statistical analysis showed that the disorder has a mitochondrial origin. A one base pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) gene was identified at position 5304 in affected dogs after re-sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of seven individuals. The deletion was not found among dogs representing 18 different breeds or in six wolves, ruling out this as a common polymorphism. The mutation could be traced back to a common ancestor of all affected dogs that lived in the 1970s. We used a quantitative oligonucleotide ligation assay to establish the degree of heteroplasmy in blood and tissue samples from affected dogs and controls. Affected dogs and their first to fourth degree relatives had 0-11% wild-type (wt) sequence, while more distant relatives ranged between 5% and 60% wt sequence and all unrelated golden retrievers had 100% wt sequence. Northern blot analysis showed that tRNA(Tyr) had a 10-fold lower steady-state level in affected dogs compared with controls. Four out of five affected dogs showed decreases in mitochondrial ATP production rates and respiratory chain enzyme activities together with morphological alterations in muscle tissue, resembling the changes reported in human mitochondrial pathology. Altogether, these results provide conclusive evidence that the deletion in the mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) gene is the causative mutation for SAN.
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