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Sökning: L773:1553 7404 > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Baranowska, Izabella, et al. (författare)
  • Sensory ataxic neuropathy in golden retriever dogs is caused by a deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 5:5, s. e1000499-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sensory ataxic neuropathy (SAN) is a recently identified neurological disorder in golden retrievers. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected dogs belong to one maternal lineage, and a statistical analysis showed that the disorder has a mitochondrial origin. A one base pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) gene was identified at position 5304 in affected dogs after re-sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of seven individuals. The deletion was not found among dogs representing 18 different breeds or in six wolves, ruling out this as a common polymorphism. The mutation could be traced back to a common ancestor of all affected dogs that lived in the 1970s. We used a quantitative oligonucleotide ligation assay to establish the degree of heteroplasmy in blood and tissue samples from affected dogs and controls. Affected dogs and their first to fourth degree relatives had 0-11% wild-type (wt) sequence, while more distant relatives ranged between 5% and 60% wt sequence and all unrelated golden retrievers had 100% wt sequence. Northern blot analysis showed that tRNA(Tyr) had a 10-fold lower steady-state level in affected dogs compared with controls. Four out of five affected dogs showed decreases in mitochondrial ATP production rates and respiratory chain enzyme activities together with morphological alterations in muscle tissue, resembling the changes reported in human mitochondrial pathology. Altogether, these results provide conclusive evidence that the deletion in the mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) gene is the causative mutation for SAN.
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2.
  • Baranowska Körberg, Izabella, et al. (författare)
  • Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy in Golden Retriever Dogs Is Caused by a Deletion in the Mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) Gene
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sensory ataxic neuropathy (SAN) is a recently identified neurological disorder in golden retrievers. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected dogs belong to one maternal lineage, and a statistical analysis showed that the disorder has a mitochondrial origin. A one base pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) gene was identified at position 5304 in affected dogs after re-sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of seven individuals. The deletion was not found among dogs representing 18 different breeds or in six wolves, ruling out this as a common polymorphism. The mutation could be traced back to a common ancestor of all affected dogs that lived in the 1970s. We used a quantitative oligonucleotide ligation assay to establish the degree of heteroplasmy in blood and tissue samples from affected dogs and controls. Affected dogs and their first to fourth degree relatives had 0-11% wild-type (wt) sequence, while more distant relatives ranged between 5% and 60% wt sequence and all unrelated golden retrievers had 100% wt sequence. Northern blot analysis showed that tRNA(Tyr) had a 10-fold lower steady-state level in affected dogs compared with controls. Four out of five affected dogs showed decreases in mitochondrial ATP production rates and respiratory chain enzyme activities together with morphological alterations in muscle tissue, resembling the changes reported in human mitochondrial pathology. Altogether, these results provide conclusive evidence that the deletion in the mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) gene is the causative mutation for SAN.
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3.
  • Berger, Juerg, et al. (författare)
  • Systematic identification of genes that regulate neuronal wiring in the Drosophila visual system
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PLOS GENET. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 4:5, s. e1000085-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Forward genetic screens in model organisms are an attractive means to identify those genes involved in any complex biological process, including neural circuit assembly. Although mutagenesis screens are readily performed to saturation, gene identification rarely is, being limited by the considerable effort generally required for positional cloning. Here, we apply a systematic positional cloning strategy to identify many of the genes required for neuronal wiring in the Drosophila visual system. From a large-scale forward genetic screen selecting for visual system wiring defects with a normal retinal pattern, we recovered 122 mutations in 42 genetic loci. For 6 of these loci, the underlying genetic lesions were previously identified using traditional methods. Using SNP-based mapping approaches, we have now identified 30 additional genes. Neuronal phenotypes have not previously been reported for 20 of these genes, and no mutant phenotype has been previously described for 5 genes. The genes encode a variety of proteins implicated in cellular processes such as gene regulation, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal transport, and cell signalling. We conducted a comprehensive phenotypic analysis of 35 genes, scoring wiring defects according to 33 criteria. This work demonstrates the feasibility of combining large-scale gene identification with large-scale mutagenesis in Drosophila, and provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular mechanisms that regulate visual system wiring.
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4.
  • Eriksson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of the yellow skin gene reveals a hybrid origin of the domestic chicken
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 4:2, s. e1000010-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Yellow skin is an abundant phenotype among domestic chickens and is caused by a recessive allele (W*Y) that allows deposition of yellow carotenoids in the skin. Here we show that yellow skin is caused by one or more cis-acting and tissue-specific regulatory mutation(s) that inhibit expression of BCDO2 (beta-carotene dioxygenase 2) in skin. Our data imply that carotenoids are taken up from the circulation in both genotypes but are degraded by BCDO2 in skin from animals carrying the white skin allele (W*W). Surprisingly, our results demonstrate that yellow skin does not originate from the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus), the presumed sole wild ancestor of the domestic chicken, but most likely from the closely related grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii). This is the first conclusive evidence for a hybrid origin of the domestic chicken, and it has important implications for our views of the domestication process.
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5.
  • Fang, Meiying, et al. (författare)
  • Contrasting mode of evolution at a coat color locus in wild and domestic pigs
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 5:1, s. e1000341-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite having only begun ∼10,000 years ago, the process of domestication has resulted in a degree of phenotypic variation within individual species normally associated with much deeper evolutionary time scales. Though many variable traits found in domestic animals are the result of relatively recent human-mediated selection, uncertainty remains as to whether the modern ubiquity of long-standing variable traits such as coat color results from selection or drift, and whether the underlying alleles were present in the wild ancestor or appeared after domestication began. Here, through an investigation of sequence diversity at the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) locus, we provide evidence that wild and domestic pig (Sus scrofa) haplotypes from China and Europe are the result of strikingly different selection pressures, and that coat color variation is the result of intentional selection for alleles that appeared after the advent of domestication. Asian and European wild boar (evolutionarily distinct subspecies) differed only by synonymous substitutions, demonstrating that camouflage coat color is maintained by purifying selection. In domestic pigs, however, each of nine unique mutations altered the amino acid sequence thus generating coat color diversity. Most domestic MC1R alleles differed by more than one mutation from the wild-type, implying a long history of strong positive selection for coat color variants, during which time humans have cherry-picked rare mutations that would be quickly eliminated in wild contexts. This pattern demonstrates that coat color phenotypes result from direct human selection and not via a simple relaxation of natural selective pressures.
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6.
  • Fernius, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Bub1 kinase targets Sgo1 to ensure efficient chromosome biorientation in budding yeast mitosis.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 3:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During cell division all chromosomes must be segregated accurately to each daughter cell. Errors in this process give rise to aneuploidy, which leads to birth defects and is implicated in cancer progression. The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures high fidelity of chromosome segregation by inhibiting anaphase until all kinetochores have established bipolar attachments to spindle microtubules. Bub1 kinase is a core component of the spindle checkpoint, and cells lacking Bub1 fail to arrest in response to microtubule drugs and precociously segregate their DNA. The mitotic role(s) of Bub1 kinase activity remain elusive, and it is controversial whether this C-terminal domain of Bub1p is required for spindle checkpoint arrest. Here we make a detailed analysis of budding yeast cells lacking the kinase domain (bub1DeltaK). We show that despite being able to arrest in response to microtubule depolymerisation and kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects, bub1DeltaK cells are sensitive to microtubule drugs. This is because bub1DeltaK cells display significant chromosome mis-segregation upon release from nocodazole arrest. bub1DeltaK cells mislocalise Sgo1p, and we demonstrate that both the Bub1 kinase domain and Sgo1p are required for accurate chromosome biorientation after nocodazole treatment. We propose that Bub1 kinase and Sgo1p act together to ensure efficient biorientation of sister chromatids during mitosis.
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7.
  • Fernius, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Establishment of cohesion at the pericentromere by the Ctf19 kinetochore subcomplex and the replication fork-associated factor, Csm3
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 5:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cohesin complex holds sister chromatids together from the time of their duplication in S phase until their separation during mitosis. Although cohesin is found along the length of chromosomes, it is most abundant at the centromere and surrounding region, the pericentromere. We show here that the budding yeast Ctf19 kinetochore subcomplex and the replication fork-associated factor, Csm3, are both important mediators of pericentromeric cohesion, but they act through distinct mechanisms. We show that components of the Ctf19 complex direct the increased association of cohesin with the pericentromere. In contrast, Csm3 is dispensable for cohesin enrichment in the pericentromere but is essential in ensuring its functionality in holding sister centromeres together. Consistently, cells lacking Csm3 show additive cohesion defects in combination with mutants in the Ctf19 complex. Furthermore, delaying DNA replication rescues the cohesion defect observed in cells lacking Ctf19 complex components, but not Csm3. We propose that the Ctf19 complex ensures additional loading of cohesin at centromeres prior to passage of the replication fork, thereby ensuring its incorporation into functional linkages through a process requiring Csm3.
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8.
  • Friberg, Urban, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Sexually Antagonistic “Zygotic Drive” of the Sex Chromosomes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - : PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 4:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genomic conflict is perplexing because it causes the fitness of a species to decline rather than improve. Many diverse forms of genomic conflict have been identified, but this extant tally may be incomplete. Here, we show that the unusual characteristics of the sex chromosomes can, in principle, lead to a previously unappreciated form of sexual genomic conflict. The phenomenon occurs because there is selection in the heterogametic sex for sex-linked mutations that harm the sex of offspring that does not carry them, whenever there is competition among siblings. This harmful phenotype can be expressed as an antagonistic green-beard effect that is mediated by epigenetic parental effects, parental investment, and/or interactions among siblings. We call this form of genomic conflict sexually antagonistic “zygotic drive”, because it is functionally equivalent to meiotic drive, except that it operates during the zygotic and postzygotic stages of the life cycle rather than the meiotic and gametic stages. A combination of mathematical modeling and a survey of empirical studies is used to show that sexually antagonistic zygotic drive is feasible, likely to be widespread in nature, and that it can promote a genetic “arms race” between the homo- and heteromorphic sex chromosomes. This new category of genomic conflict has the potential to strongly influence other fundamental evolutionary processes, such as speciation and the degeneration of the Y and W sex chromosomes. It also fosters a new genetic hypothesis for the evolution of enigmatic fitness-reducing traits like the high frequency of spontaneous abortion, sterility, and homosexuality observed in humans.
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9.
  • Frith, Martin C., et al. (författare)
  • Pseudo-messenger RNA : Phantoms of the transcriptome
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 2:4, s. 504-514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mammalian transcriptome harbours shadowy entities that resist classification and analysis. In analogy with pseudogenes, we define pseudo-messenger RNA to be RNA molecules that resemble protein- coding mRNA, but cannot encode full-length proteins owing to disruptions of the reading frame. Using a rigorous computational pipeline, which rules out sequencing errors, we identify 10,679 pseudo - messenger RNAs ( approximately half of which are transposonassociated) among the 102,801 FANTOM3 mouse cDNAs: just over 10% of the FANTOM3 transcriptome. These comprise not only transcribed pseudogenes, but also disrupted splice variants of otherwise protein- coding genes. Some may encode truncated proteins, only a minority of which appear subject to nonsense- mediated decay. The presence of an excess of transcripts whose only disruptions are opal stop codons suggests that there are more selenoproteins than currently estimated. We also describe compensatory frameshifts, where a segment of the gene has changed frame but remains translatable. In summary, we survey a large class of non- standard but potentially functional transcripts that are likely to encode genetic information and effect biological processes in novel ways. Many of these transcripts do not correspond cleanly to any identifiable object in the genome, implying fundamental limits to the goal of annotating all functional elements at the genome sequence level.
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10.
  • Giraud, Antoine, et al. (författare)
  • Dissecting the genetic components of adaptation of Escherichia coli to the mouse gut
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While pleiotropic adaptive mutations are thought to be central for evolution, little is known on the downstream molecular effects allowing adaptation to complex ecologically relevant environments. Here we show that Escherichia coli MG1655 adapts rapidly to the intestine of germ-free mice by single point mutations in EnvZ/OmpR two-component signal transduction system, which controls more than 100 genes. The selective advantage conferred by the mutations that modulate EnvZ/OmpR activities was the result of their independent and additive effects on flagellin expression and permeability. These results obtained in vivo thus suggest that global regulators may have evolved to coordinate activities that need to be fine-tuned simultaneously during adaptation to complex environments and that mutations in such regulators permit adjustment of the boundaries of physiological adaptation when switching between two very distinct environments.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 46
  • [1]2345Nästa
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