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Sökning: L773:1559 1174

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1.
  • Abramsson, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • No association of LOXL1 gene polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 13:2, s. 160-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aggregation of amyloid-beta is one of the major characteristics in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although several mechanisms behind the formation of such aggregates have been suggested the regulatory factors are still unknown. The present study aimed at investigating the association of lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) polymorphisms with AD diagnosis and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) for the disease. Proteins of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family are involved in cross-linking extracellular matrix proteins to insoluble fibers and have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases including AD. Genetic polymorphisms in LOXL1 (rs1048661, rs3825942, and rs2165241) have been linked to exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma, conditions that have shown association with AD. The polymorphisms were genotyped by Taqman allelic discrimination in a study sample including AD patients (n = 318) and controls (n = 575). In a subgroup of the population, the polymorphisms were analyzed in relation to APOE epsilon 4 genotype and to CSF (T-tau, P-tau, and A beta(1-42)). No evidence for associations of these polymorphisms with risk for AD or any of the studied CSF biomarkers measured was found. These results do not support LOXL1 as being a major risk gene for AD.
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2.
  • Andreasen, Niels, et al. (författare)
  • Kinesin Light Chain 1 Gene Haplotypes in Three Conformational Diseases.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 12:3, s. 229-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A functional intracellular transport system is essential to maintain cell shape and function especially in elongated cells, e.g. neurons and lens fibre cells. Impaired intracellular transport has been suggested as a common pathological mechanism for age-related diseases characterised by protein aggregation. Here, we hypothesise that common genetic variation in the transport protein kinesin may influence the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related cataract. This case-control study involves a PD material (165 cases and 190 controls), an AD material (653 cases and 845 controls) and a cataract material (495 cases and 183 controls). Genetic variation in the kinesin light chain 1-encoding gene (KLC1) was tagged by six tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Single SNPs and haplotypes were analysed for associations with disease risk, age parameters, mini-mental state examination scores and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for AD using logistic or linear regression. Genetic variation in KLC1 did not influence risk of PD. Weak associations with risk of AD were seen for rs8007903 and rs3212079 (P (c) = 0.04 and P (c) = 0.02, respectively). Two SNPs (rs8007903 and rs8702) influenced risk of cataract (P (c) = 0.0007 and P (c) = 0.04, respectively). However, the allele of rs8007903 that caused increased risk of AD caused reduced risk of cataract, speaking against a common functional effect of this particular SNP in the two diseases. Haplotype analyses did not add significantly to the associations found in the single SNP analyses. Altogether, these results do not convincingly support KLC1 as a major susceptibility gene in any of the studied diseases, although there is a small effect of KLC1 in relation to cataract.
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4.
  • Landgren, Sara, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • No Association of VEGF Polymorphims with Alzheimer's Disease.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 12:3, s. 224-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The vascular hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has brought the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into focus. The genomic region including the VEGF gene has been linked to AD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VEGF have in previous studies been associated with AD risk. To further evaluate these findings, we genotyped two SNPs in the VEGF gene (rs699947 -2578) and rs1570360 -1154) by TaqMan Allelic Discrimination in a study sample including AD patients (n = 801) and controls (n = 286). In a subgroup of the population these SNPs were analyzed in relation to APOE epsilon 4 genotype, to cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (T-tau, P-tau, and beta(42)-Amyloid) as well as to neuropathological markers for AD (neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques). No significant associations with risk for AD or any of the studied biomarkers could be found in this study, thus not supporting VEGF as being a major risk gene for AD.
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6.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid microglial markers in Alzheimer's disease: elevated chitotriosidase activity but lack of diagnostic utility.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 13:2, s. 151-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Activated microglial cells, which are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, surround amyloid beta-plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Inflammation including microglial activation may contribute in AD pathogenesis, and biomarkers for this process may thus be of value to study AD pathogenesis and might facilitate development of therapies targeting these cells. We therefore examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in patients with AD, other dementias, mild cognitive impairment and in healthy controls. Samples were analyzed for markers with known association to macrophage activity, including chitotriosidase, YKL-40 (CHI3L1, HC gp-39) and chemokine CC motif ligand 2 (CCL2, MCP1). Patients with AD had higher chitotriosidase activity than controls and patients with stable mild cognitive impairment, consistent with the presence of activated microglial cells in AD brains, but with large overlaps between groups. CCL2 and YKL-40 concentrations did not differ among groups. Microglial markers are unlikely to be useful for AD diagnosis, but might be useful for identification of distinct subgroups of patients, and for the development and implementation of drugs targeting microglial pathology.
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7.
  • Nutu, Magdalena, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Aβ1-15/16 as a potential diagnostic marker in neurodegenerative diseases.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 15:1, s. 169-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) reflect brain biochemistry. Using combined immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we have shown that amyloid beta 1-15 (Aβ1-15) is produced by concerted β- and α-secretase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and that the relative levels of Aβ1-16 in AD compared to controls are increased. Furthermore, drug-induced γ-secretase inhibition enhances the relative levels of Aβ1-15 and Aβ1-16. Here, we investigate a novel immunoassay for Aβ1-15/16 in a broad range of neurodegenerative conditions. The CSF level of Aβ1-15/16 was measured by the bead-based amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (Alpha technology). Concentrations of Aβ1-15/16 were analyzed in subjects with Parkinson disease (PD; n = 90), PD with dementia (PDD) (n = 32), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n = 68), AD (n = 48), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (n = 45), multiple system atrophy (MSA) (n = 46), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) (n = 12). The detecting antibody is specific to the C-terminal epitope of Aβ15. We found that a carboxypeptidase (CPB) present in fetal bovine serum (FBS), a component of the buffers used, degrades Aβ1-16 to Aβ1-15, which is then detected by the Aβ1-15/16 assay. Significantly, lower levels of Aβ1-15/16 were detected in PD, PDD, PSP, and MSA compared to other neurodegenerative diseases and controls. Using the specific Aβ1-15/16 assay, a reliable quantification of Aβ1-15 or Aβ1-15/16 in CSF samples is obtained. We found reduced levels of Aβ1-15 in parkinsonian disease groups. The molecular mechanism behind this reduction is at present unknown.
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8.
  • Rosén, Christoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid profiles of amyloid β-related biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 14:1, s. 65-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The amyloid cascade hypothesis on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) states that amyloid beta (A beta) accumulation in the brain is a key factor that initiates the neurodegenerative process. A beta is generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavages by BACE1 (the major beta-secretase in the brain) and gamma-secretase. The purpose of this study was to characterize APP metabolism in vivo in AD patients versus cognitively healthy subjects by examining alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. We measured BACE1 activity and concentrations of alpha- and beta-cleaved soluble APP (sAPP alpha and sAPP beta, respectively) and A beta 40 in CSF, biomarkers that all reflect the metabolism of APP, in 75 AD patients and 65 cognitively healthy controls. These analytes were also applied in a multivariate model to determine whether they provided any added diagnostic value to the core CSF AD biomarkers A beta 42, T-tau, and P-tau. We found no significant differences in BACE1 activity or sAPP alpha, sAPP beta, and A beta 40 concentrations between AD patients and controls. A multivariate model created with all analytes did not improve the separation of AD patients from controls compared with using the core AD biomarkers alone, highlighting the strong diagnostic performance of A beta 42, T-tau, and P-tau for AD. However, AD patients in advanced clinical stage, as determined by low MMSE score (a parts per thousand currency sign20), had lower BACE1 activity and sAPP alpha, sAPP beta, and A beta 40 concentrations than patients with higher MMSE score, suggesting that these markers may be related to the severity of the disease.
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