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Sökning: L773:1559 1174

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1.
  • Abramsson, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • No association of LOXL1 gene polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 13:2, s. 160-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aggregation of amyloid-beta is one of the major characteristics in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although several mechanisms behind the formation of such aggregates have been suggested the regulatory factors are still unknown. The present study aimed at investigating the association of lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) polymorphisms with AD diagnosis and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) for the disease. Proteins of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family are involved in cross-linking extracellular matrix proteins to insoluble fibers and have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases including AD. Genetic polymorphisms in LOXL1 (rs1048661, rs3825942, and rs2165241) have been linked to exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma, conditions that have shown association with AD. The polymorphisms were genotyped by Taqman allelic discrimination in a study sample including AD patients (n = 318) and controls (n = 575). In a subgroup of the population, the polymorphisms were analyzed in relation to APOE epsilon 4 genotype and to CSF (T-tau, P-tau, and A beta(1-42)). No evidence for associations of these polymorphisms with risk for AD or any of the studied CSF biomarkers measured was found. These results do not support LOXL1 as being a major risk gene for AD.
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3.
  • Gu, Gucci Jijuan, et al. (författare)
  • Role of Individual MARK Isoforms in Phosphorylation of Tau at Ser(262) in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1535-1084 .- 1559-1174. ; 15:3, s. 458-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The microtubule-affinity regulating kinase (MARK) family consists of four highly conserved members that have been implicated in phosphorylation of tau protein, causing formation of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Understanding of roles by individual MARK isoform in phosphorylating tau has been limited due to lack of antibodies selective for each MARK isoform. In this study, we first applied the proximity ligation assay on cells to select antibodies specific for each MARK isoform. In cells, a CagA peptide specifically and significantly inhibited tau phosphorylation at Ser(262) mediated by MARK4 but not other MARK isoforms. We then used these antibodies to study expression levels of MARK isoforms and interactions between tau and individual MARK isoforms in postmortem human brains. We found a strong and significant elevation of MARK4 expression and MARK4-tau interactions in AD brains, correlating with the Braak stages of the disease. These results suggest the MARK4-tau interactions are of functional importance in the progression of AD and the results also identify MARK4 as a promising target for AD therapy.
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5.
  • Landgren, S, et al. (författare)
  • No Association of VEGF Polymorphims with Alzheimer's Disease.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 12:3, s. 224-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The vascular hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has brought the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into focus. The genomic region including the VEGF gene has been linked to AD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VEGF have in previous studies been associated with AD risk. To further evaluate these findings, we genotyped two SNPs in the VEGF gene (rs699947 [-2578]) and rs1570360 [-1154]) by TaqMan Allelic Discrimination in a study sample including AD patients (n = 801) and controls (n = 286). In a subgroup of the population these SNPs were analyzed in relation to APOE epsilon 4 genotype, to cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (T-tau, P-tau, and beta(42)-Amyloid) as well as to neuropathological markers for AD (neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques). No significant associations with risk for AD or any of the studied biomarkers could be found in this study, thus not supporting VEGF as being a major risk gene for AD.
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6.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid microglial markers in Alzheimer's disease: elevated chitotriosidase activity but lack of diagnostic utility.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 13:2, s. 151-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Activated microglial cells, which are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, surround amyloid beta-plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Inflammation including microglial activation may contribute in AD pathogenesis, and biomarkers for this process may thus be of value to study AD pathogenesis and might facilitate development of therapies targeting these cells. We therefore examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in patients with AD, other dementias, mild cognitive impairment and in healthy controls. Samples were analyzed for markers with known association to macrophage activity, including chitotriosidase, YKL-40 (CHI3L1, HC gp-39) and chemokine CC motif ligand 2 (CCL2, MCP1). Patients with AD had higher chitotriosidase activity than controls and patients with stable mild cognitive impairment, consistent with the presence of activated microglial cells in AD brains, but with large overlaps between groups. CCL2 and YKL-40 concentrations did not differ among groups. Microglial markers are unlikely to be useful for AD diagnosis, but might be useful for identification of distinct subgroups of patients, and for the development and implementation of drugs targeting microglial pathology.
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7.
  • Narkilahti, Susanna, et al. (författare)
  • Increased expression of caspase 2 in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1535-1084 .- 1559-1174. ; 9:2, s. 129-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often caused by a neurodegenerative brain insult that triggers epileptogenesis, and eventually results in spontaneous seizures, i.e., epilepsy. Understanding the mechanisms of cell death is a key for designing new drug therapies for preventing the neurodegeneration associated with TLE. Here, we investigated the expression of caspase 2, a protein involved in programmed cell death, during the course of epilepsy. We investigated caspase 2 expression in hippocampal samples derived from patients operated on for drug refractory TLE. To understand the evolution of altered-caspase 2 expression during the epileptic process, we also examined caspase 2 expression and activity in the rat hippocampus after status epilepticus-induced acute damage, during epileptogenesis, and after the onset of epilepsy. Caspase 2 expression was enhanced in the hippocampal neurons in chronic TLE patients. In rats, status epilepticus-induced caspase 2 labeling paralleled the progression of neurodegeneration. Proteolytic activation and cleavage of caspase 2 was also detected in the rat brain undergoing epileptogenesis. Our data suggest that caspase 2-mediated programmed cell death participates in the seizure-induced degenerative process in experimental and human TLE.
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8.
  • Nutu, Magdalena, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Aβ1-15/16 as a potential diagnostic marker in neurodegenerative diseases.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 15:1, s. 169-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) reflect brain biochemistry. Using combined immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we have shown that amyloid beta 1-15 (Aβ1-15) is produced by concerted β- and α-secretase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and that the relative levels of Aβ1-16 in AD compared to controls are increased. Furthermore, drug-induced γ-secretase inhibition enhances the relative levels of Aβ1-15 and Aβ1-16. Here, we investigate a novel immunoassay for Aβ1-15/16 in a broad range of neurodegenerative conditions. The CSF level of Aβ1-15/16 was measured by the bead-based amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (Alpha technology). Concentrations of Aβ1-15/16 were analyzed in subjects with Parkinson disease (PD; n = 90), PD with dementia (PDD) (n = 32), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n = 68), AD (n = 48), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (n = 45), multiple system atrophy (MSA) (n = 46), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) (n = 12). The detecting antibody is specific to the C-terminal epitope of Aβ15. We found that a carboxypeptidase (CPB) present in fetal bovine serum (FBS), a component of the buffers used, degrades Aβ1-16 to Aβ1-15, which is then detected by the Aβ1-15/16 assay. Significantly, lower levels of Aβ1-15/16 were detected in PD, PDD, PSP, and MSA compared to other neurodegenerative diseases and controls. Using the specific Aβ1-15/16 assay, a reliable quantification of Aβ1-15 or Aβ1-15/16 in CSF samples is obtained. We found reduced levels of Aβ1-15 in parkinsonian disease groups. The molecular mechanism behind this reduction is at present unknown.
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10.
  • Rosen, C, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid profiles of amyloid β-related biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neuromolecular medicine. - 1559-1174. ; 14:1, s. 65-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The amyloid cascade hypothesis on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) states that amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is a key factor that initiates the neurodegenerative process. Aβ is generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavages by BACE1 (the major β-secretase in the brain) and γ-secretase. The purpose of this study was to characterize APP metabolism in vivo in AD patients versus cognitively healthy subjects by examining alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. We measured BACE1 activity and concentrations of α- and β-cleaved soluble APP (sAPPα and sAPPβ, respectively) and Aβ40 in CSF, biomarkers that all reflect the metabolism of APP, in 75 AD patients and 65 cognitively healthy controls. These analytes were also applied in a multivariate model to determine whether they provided any added diagnostic value to the core CSF AD biomarkers Aβ42, T-tau, and P-tau. We found no significant differences in BACE1 activity or sAPPα, sAPPβ, and Aβ40 concentrations between AD patients and controls. A multivariate model created with all analytes did not improve the separation of AD patients from controls compared with using the core AD biomarkers alone, highlighting the strong diagnostic performance of Aβ42, T-tau, and P-tau for AD. However, AD patients in advanced clinical stage, as determined by low MMSE score (≤20), had lower BACE1 activity and sAPPα, sAPPβ, and Aβ40 concentrations than patients with higher MMSE score, suggesting that these markers may be related to the severity of the disease.
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