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Sökning: L773:1559 1182

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2.
  • Bazov, Igor, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Dynorphin and κ-Opioid Receptor Dysregulation in the Dopaminergic Reward System of Human Alcoholics.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Neurobiology. - Springer. - 0893-7648 .- 1559-1182. ; 55:8, s. 7049-7061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Molecular changes induced by excessive alcohol consumption may underlie formation of dysphoric state during acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal which leads to craving and relapse. A main molecular addiction hypothesis is that the upregulation of the dynorphin (DYN)/κ-opioid receptor (KOR) system in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-dependent individuals causes the imbalance in activity of D1- and D2 dopamine receptor (DR) expressing neural circuits that results in dysphoria. We here analyzed post-mortem NAc samples of human alcoholics to assess changes in prodynorphin (PDYN) and KOR (OPRK1) gene expression and co-expression (transcriptionally coordinated) patterns. To address alterations in D1- and D2-receptor circuits, we studied the regulatory interactions between these pathways and the DYN/KOR system. No significant differences in PDYN and OPRK1 gene expression levels between alcoholics and controls were evident. However, PDYN and OPRK1 showed transcriptionally coordinated pattern that was significantly different between alcoholics and controls. A downregulation of DRD1 but not DRD2 expression was seen in alcoholics. Expression of DRD1 and DRD2 strongly correlated with that of PDYN and OPRK1 suggesting high levels of transcriptional coordination between these gene clusters. The differences in expression and co-expression patterns were not due to the decline in neuronal proportion in alcoholic brain and thereby represent transcriptional phenomena. Dysregulation of DYN/KOR system and dopamine signaling through both alterations in co-expression patterns of opioid genes and decreased DRD1 gene expression may contribute to imbalance in the activity of D1- and D2-containing pathways which may lead to the negative affective state in human alcoholics.
3.
  • Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O., et al. (författare)
  • Acute Cocaine Enhances Dopamine D2R Recognition and Signaling and Counteracts D2R Internalization in Sigma1R-D2R Heteroreceptor Complexes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Neurobiology. - 0893-7648 .- 1559-1182. ; 56:10, s. 7045-7055
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current study was performed to establish the actions of nanomolar concentrations of cocaine, not blocking the dopamine transporter, on dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-sigma 1 receptor (delta 1R) heteroreceptor complexes and the D2R protomer recognition, signaling and internalization in cellular models. We report the existence of D2R-delta 1R heteroreceptor complexes in subcortical limbic areas as well as the dorsal striatum, with different distribution patterns using the in situ proximity ligation assay. Also, through BRET, these heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, saturation binding assay demonstrated that in membrane preparations of HEK293 cells coexpressing D2R and delta 1R, cocaine (1 nM) significantly increased the D2R B-max values over cells singly expressing D2R. CREB reporter luc-gene assay indicated that coexpressed delta 1R significantly reduced the potency of the D2R-like agonist quinpirole to inhibit via D2R activation the forskolin induced increase of the CREB signal. In contrast, the addition of 100 nM cocaine was found to markedly increase the quinpirole potency to inhibit the forskolin-induced increase of the CREB signal in the D2R-delta 1R cells. These events were associated with a marked reduction of cocaine-induced internalization of D2R protomers in D2R-delta 1R heteromer-containing cells vs D2R singly expressing cells as studied by means of confocal analysis of D2R-delta 1R trafficking and internalization. Overall, the formation of D2R-delta 1R heteromers enhanced the ability of cocaine to increase the D2R protomer function associated with a marked reduction of its internalization. The existence of D2R-delta 1R heteromers opens up a new understanding of the acute actions of cocaine.
4.
  • Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O., et al. (författare)
  • Disruption of A2AR-D2R Heteroreceptor Complexes After A2AR Transmembrane 5 Peptide Administration Enhances Cocaine Self-Administration in Rats
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Neurobiology. - Springer. - 0893-7648 .- 1559-1182. ; 55:8, s. 7038-7048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes counteract cocaine self-administration and cocaine seeking in rats as seen in biochemical and behavioral experiments. It was shown that the human A2AR transmembrane five (TM5) was part of the interface of the human A2AR-D2R receptor heteromer. In the current paper, the rat A2AR synthetic TM5 (synthTM5) peptide disrupts the A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complex in HEK293 cells as shown by the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer method. Rat A2AR synthTM5 peptide, microinjected into the nucleus accumbens, produced a complete counteraction of the inhibitory effects of the A2AR agonist CGS21680 on cocaine self-administration. It was linked to a disappearance of the accumbal A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complexes and the A2AR agonist induced inhibition of D2R recognition using proximity ligation assay and biochemical binding techniques. However, possible effects of the A2AR synthTM5 peptide on accumbal A2AR-D3R and A2AR-D4R heteroreceptor complexes remain to be excluded. Evidence is provided that accumbal A2AR-D2R-like heteroreceptor complexes with their antagonistic receptor-receptor interactions can be major targets for treatment of cocaine use disorder.
5.
  • Brehm, N., et al. (författare)
  • A Genetic Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease Shows Involuntary Movements and Increased Postsynaptic Sensitivity to Apomorphine
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Neurobiology. - Humana Press. - 1559-1182. ; 52:3, s. 1152-1164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alpha-synuclein (SNCA) protein aggregation plays a causal role in Parkinson's disease (PD). The SNCA protein modulates neurotransmission via the SNAP receptor (SNARE) complex assembly and presynaptic vesicle trafficking. The striatal presynaptic dopamine deficit is alleviated by treatment with levodopa (l-DOPA), but postsynaptic plastic changes induced by this treatment lead to a development of involuntary movements (dyskinesia). While this process is currently modeled in rodents harboring neurotoxin-induced lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway, we have here explored the postsynaptic supersensitivity of dopamine receptor-mediated signaling in a genetic mouse model of early PD. To this end, we used mice with prion promoter-driven overexpression of A53T-SNCA in the nigrostriatal and corticostriatal projections. At a symptomatic age (18 months), mice were challenged with apomorphine (5 mg/kg s.c.) and examined using both behavioral and molecular assays. After the administration of apomorphine, A53T-transgenic mice showed more severe stereotypic and dystonic movements in comparison with wild-type controls. Molecular markers of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and Fos messenger RNA (mRNA), were examined in striatal tissue at 30 and 100 min after apomorphine injection. At 30 min, wild-type and transgenic mice showed a similar induction of phosphorylated ERK1/2, Dusp1, and Dusp6 mRNA (two MAPK phosphatases). At the same time point, Fos mRNA was induced more strongly in mutant mice than in wild-type controls. At 100 min after apomorphine treatment, the induction of both Fos, Dusp1, and Dusp6 mRNA was significantly larger in mutant mice than wild-type controls. At this time point, apomorphine caused a reduction in phospho-ERK1/2 levels specifically in the transgenic mice. Our results document for the first time a disturbance of ERK1/2 signaling regulation associated with apomorphine-induced involuntary movements in a genetic mouse model of synucleinopathy. This mouse model will be useful to identify novel therapeutic targets that can counteract abnormal dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity during both prodromal and manifest stages of PD.
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6.
  • Chang, Hong, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a Bipolar Disorder Vulnerable Gene CHDH at 3p21.1.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular neurobiology. - 1559-1182. ; 54:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide analysis (GWA) is an effective strategy to discover extreme effects surpassing genome-wide significant levels in studying complex disorders; however, when sample size is limited, the true effects may fail to achieve genome-wide significance. In such case, there may be authentic results among the pools of nominal candidates, and an alternative approach is to consider nominal candidates but are replicable across different samples. Here, we found that mRNA expression of the choline dehydrogenase gene (CHDH) was uniformly upregulated in the brains of bipolar disorder (BPD) patients compared with healthy controls across different studies. Follow-up genetic analyses of CHDH variants in multiple independent clinical datasets (including 11,564 cases and 17,686 controls) identified a risk SNP rs9836592 showing consistent associations with BPD (P meta = 5.72 × 10(-4)), and the risk allele indicated an increased CHDH expression in multiple neuronal tissues (lowest P = 6.70 × 10(-16)). These converging results may identify a nominal but true BPD susceptibility gene CHDH. Further exploratory analysis revealed suggestive associations of rs9836592 with childhood intelligence (P = 0.044) and educational attainment (P = 0.0039), a "proxy phenotype" of general cognitive abilities. Intriguingly, the CHDH gene is located at chromosome 3p21.1, a risk region implicated in previous BPD genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but CHDH is lying outside of the core GWAS linkage disequilibrium (LD) region, and our studied SNP rs9836592 is ∼1.2 Mb 3' downstream of the previous GWAS loci (e.g., rs2251219) with no LD between them; thus, the association observed here is unlikely a reflection of previous GWAS signals. In summary, our results imply that CHDH may play a previously unknown role in the etiology of BPD and also highlight the informative value of integrating gene expression and genetic code in advancing our understanding of its biological basis.
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7.
  • Chen, Meng, et al. (författare)
  • Increased Neuronal Differentiation of Neural Progenitor Cells Derived from Phosphovimentin-Deficient Mice.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular neurobiology. - 1559-1182. ; 55:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vimentin is an intermediate filament (also known as nanofilament) protein expressed in several cell types of the central nervous system, including astrocytes and neural stem/progenitor cells. Mutation of the vimentin serine sites that are phosphorylated during mitosis (VIMSA/SA) leads to cytokinetic failures in fibroblasts and lens epithelial cells, resulting in chromosomal instability and increased expression of cell senescence markers. In this study, we investigated morphology, proliferative capacity, and motility of VIMSA/SAastrocytes, and their effect on the differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells. VIMSA/SAastrocytes expressed less vimentin and more GFAP but showed a well-developed intermediate filament network, exhibited normal cell morphology, proliferation, and motility in an in vitro wound closing assay. Interestingly, we found a two- to fourfold increased neuronal differentiation of VIMSA/SAneurosphere cells, both in a standard 2D and in Bioactive3D cell culture systems, and determined that this effect was neurosphere cell autonomous and not dependent on cocultured astrocytes. Using BrdU in vivo labeling to assess neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in the hippocampus of adult mice, one of the two major adult neurogenic regions, we found a modest increase (by 8%) in the fraction of newly born and surviving neurons. Thus, mutation of the serine sites phosphorylated in vimentin during mitosis alters intermediate filament protein expression but has no effect on astrocyte morphology or proliferation, and leads to increased neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells.
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  • de la Villarmois, Emilce, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacological NOS-1 Inhibition Within the Hippocampus Prevented Expression of Cocaine Sensitization : Correlation with Reduced Synaptic Transmission
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Neurobiology. - 0893-7648 .- 1559-1182. ; 57:1, s. 450-460
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants hyperlocomotor effect is a useful model of addiction and craving. Particularly, cocaine sensitization in rats enhanced synaptic plasticity within the hippocampus, an important brain region for the associative learning processes underlying drug addiction. Nitric oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter involved in both, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cocaine sensitization. It has been previously demonstrated a key role of NOS-1/NO/sGC/cGMP signaling pathway in the development of cocaine sensitization and in the associated enhancement of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether NOS-1 inhibition after development of cocaine sensitization was able to reverse it, and to characterize the involvement of the hippocampus in this phenomenon. Male Wistar rats were administered only with cocaine (15 mg/kg/day i.p.) for 5 days. Then, animals received 7-nitroindazole (NOS-1 inhibitor) either systemically for the next 5 days or a single intra-hippocampal administration. Development of sensitization and its expression after withdrawal were tested, as well as threshold for long-term potentiation in hippocampus, NOS-1, and CREB protein levels and gene expression. The results showed that NOS-1 protein levels and gene expression were increased only in sensitized animals as well as CREB gene expression. NOS-1 inhibition after sensitization reversed behavioral expression and the highest level of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In conclusion, NO signaling within the hippocampus is critical for the development and expression of cocaine sensitization. Therefore, NOS-1 inhibition or NO signaling pathways interferences during short-term withdrawal after repeated cocaine administration may represent plausible pharmacological targets to prevent or reduce susceptibility to relapse.
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