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  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Hypoglycemic brain injury: metabolic and structural findings in rat cerebellar cortex during profound insulin-induced hypoglycemia and in the recovery period following glucose administration
  • 1981
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1559-7016. ; 1:1, s. 71-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous results have shown that severe, prolonged hypoglycemia leads to neuronal cell damage in, among other structures, the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus but not the cerebellum. In order to study whether or not this sparing of cerebellar cells is due to preservation of cerebellar energy stores, hypoglycemia of sufficient severity to abolish spontaneous EEG activity was induced for 30 and 60 min. At the end of these periods of hypoglycemia, as well as after a 30 min recovery period, cerebellar tissue was sampled for biochemical analyses or for histopathological analyses or for histopathological analyses by means of light and electron microscopy. After 30 min of hypoglycemia. the cerebellar energy state, defined in terms of the phosphocreatine, ATP, ADP, and AMP concentrations, was better preserved than in the cerebral cortex. After 60 min, gross deterioration of cerebellar energy state was observed in the majority of animals, and analyses of carbohydrate metabolites and amino acids demonstrated extensive consumption of endogenous substrates. In spite of this metabolic disturbance, histopathologic alterations were surprisingly discrete. After 30 min, no clear structural changes were observed. After 60 min, only small neurons in the molecular layer (basket cells) were affected, while Purkinje cells and granule cells showed few signs of damage. The results support our previous conclusion that the pathogenesis of cell damage in hypoglycemia is different from that in hypoxia-ischemia and indicate that other mechanisms than energy failure must contribute to neuronal cell damage in the brain.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Neurophysiological recovery after hypoglycemic coma in the rat: correlation with cerebral metabolism
  • 1983
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1559-7016. ; 3:1, s. 78-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recovery of electroencephalographic activity and somatosensory evoked responses was studied in paralyzed and lightly anesthetized (70% N2O) rats in which profound hypoglycemia had been induced by insulin administration. The duration of severe hypoglycemia was defined as the duration of a flat electroencephalogram (EEG) recording (5, 30, and 60 min, respectively) before restitution with glucose. The restitution period was followed by continuous EEG monitoring and repeated tests for evoked potentials. After 180 min of recovery, the brains were frozen in situ with liquid nitrogen and analyzed for energy metabolism. In accordance with earlier metabolic studies from this laboratory, the recovery after 60 min of severe hypoglycemia was incomplete, with signs of permanent failure of energy metabolism. There was persistent ATP reduction proportional to the duration of the hypoglycemia. The short-term recovery of EEG and sensory evoked responses was proportional to the duration of severe hypoglycemia. The neurophysiological recovery after 5 min of severe hypoglycemia was complete. After 30 min of severe hypoglycemia, the evoked responses recovered but showed a significant prolongation of latency, compared with normal. After 60 min of severe hypoglycemia, no early evoked response and scanty EEG activity were observed. The neurophysiological observations indicate a persistent deficit of synaptic transmission in the somatosensory pathway, including the cortical projection. This can be correlated with neuropathologic changes that are particularly prominent in intermediate cortical layers, as previously shown.
  • Ahnstedt, Hilda, et al. (författare)
  • U0126 attenuates cerebral vasoconstriction and improves long-term neurologic outcome after stroke in female rats.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1559-7016. ; 35:3, s. 454-460
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sex differences are well known in cerebral ischemia and may impact the effect of stroke treatments. In male rats, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 reduces ischemia-induced endothelin type B (ETB) receptor upregulation, infarct size and improves acute neurologic function after experimental stroke. However, responses to this treatment in females and long-term effects on outcome are not known. Initial experiments used in vitro organ culture of cerebral arteries, confirming ERK1/2 activation and increased ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in female cerebral arteries. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO, 120 minutes) was induced in female Wistar rats, with U0126 (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle administered at 0 and 24 hours of reperfusion, or with no treatment. Infarct volumes were determined and neurologic function was assessed by 6-point and 28-point neuroscores. ETB receptor-mediated contraction was studied with myograph and protein expression with immunohistochemistry. In vitro organ culture and tMCAO resulted in vascular ETB receptor upregulation and activation of ERK1/2 that was prevented by U0126. Although no effect on infarct size, U0126 improved the long-term neurologic function after experimental stroke in female rats. In conclusion, early prevention of the ERK1/2 activation and ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the cerebral vasculature after ischemic stroke in female rats improves the long-term neurologic outcome.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 10 December 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.217.
  • Alakurtti, Kati, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term test-retest reliability of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D-2/3 receptor binding : study with [C-11]raclopride and high-resolution PET
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. - 0271-678X .- 1559-7016. ; 35:7, s. 1199-1205
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We measured the long-term test-retest reliability of [C-11]raclopride binding in striatal subregions, the thalamus and the cortex using the bolus-plus-infusion method and a high-resolution positron emission scanner. Seven healthy male volunteers underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) [C-11]raclopride assessments, with a 5-week retest interval. D-2/3 receptor availability was quantified as binding potential using the simplified reference tissue model. Absolute variability (VAR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values indicated very good reproducibility for the striatum and were 4.5%/0.82, 3.9%/0.83, and 3.9%/0.82, for the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum, respectively. Thalamic reliability was also very good, with VAR of 3.7% and ICC of 0.92. Test-retest data for cortical areas showed good to moderate reproducibility (6.1% to 13.1%). Our results are in line with previous test-retest studies of [C-11]raclopride binding in the striatum. A novel finding is the relatively low variability of [C-11]raclopride binding, providing suggestive evidence that extrastriatal D-2/3 binding can be studied in vivo with [C-11]raclopride PET to be verified in future studies.
  • Ansar, Saema, et al. (författare)
  • ERK1/2 inhibition attenuates cerebral blood flow reduction and abolishes ET(B) and 5-HT(1B) receptor upregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rat.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1559-7016. ; 26:Nov 2, s. 846-856
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Upregulation of endothelin B (ETB) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT1B) receptors via transcription has been found after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and this is associated with enhanced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase ( ERK1/2). In the present study, we hypothesized that inhibition of ERK1/2 alters the ETB and 5-HT1B receptor upregulation and at the same time prevents the sustained cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction associated with SAH. The ERK1/2 inhibitor SB386023-b was injected intracisternally in conjunction with and after the induced SAH in rats. At 2 days after the SAH, cerebral arteries were harvested for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and analysis of contractile responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1; ETA and ETB receptor agonist) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 5-HT1 receptor agonist) in a sensitive myograph. To investigate if ERK1/2 inhibition had an influence on the local and global CBF after SAH, an autoradiographic technique was used. At 48 h after induced SAH, global and regional CBF were reduced by 50%. This reduction was prevented by treatment with SB386023-b. The ERK1/2 inhibition also decreased the maximum contraction elicited by application of ET-1 and 5-CT in cerebral arteries compared with SAH. In parallel, ERK1/2 inhibition downregulated ETB and 5-HT1B receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels compared with the SAH. Cerebral ischemia after SAH involves vasoconstriction and subsequent reduction in the CBF. The results suggest that ERK1/2 inhibition might be a potential treatment for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm and ischemia associated with SAH.
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