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Sökning: L773:1568 7864 OR L773:1568 7856

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1.
  • Elmroth, K., et al. (författare)
  • Cleavage of cellular DNA by calicheamicin γ1
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: DNA Repair. - 1568-7864 .- 1568-7856. ; 2:4, s. 363-374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is assumed that the efficient antitumor activity of calicheamicin γ1 is mediated by its ability to introduce DNA double-strand breaks in cellular DNA. To test this assumption we have compared calicheamicin γ1-mediated cleavage of cellular DNA and purified plasmid DNA. Cleavage of purified plasmid DNA was not inhibited by excess tRNA or protein indicating that calicheamicin γ1 specifically targets DNA. Cleavage of plasmid DNA was not affected by incubation temperature. In contrast, cleavage of cellular DNA was 45-fold less efficient at 0°C as compared to 37° due to poor cell permeability at low temperatures. The ratio of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) to single-stranded breaks (SSB) in cellular DNA was 1:3, close to the 1:2 ratio observed when calicheamicin γ1 cleaved purified plasmid DNA. DNA strand breaks introduced by calicheamicin γ1 were evenly distributed in the cell population as measured by the comet assay. Calicheamicin γ1-induced DSBs were repaired slowly but completely and resulted in high levels of H2AX phosphorylation and efficient cell cycle arrest. In addition, the DSB-repair deficient cell line Mo59J was hyper sensitive to calicheamicin γ. The data indicate that DSBs is the crucial damage after calicheamicin γ1 and that calicheamicin γ1-induced DSBs are recognized normally. The high DSB:SSB ratio, specificity for DNA and the even damage distribution makes calicheamicin γ1 a superior drug for studies of the DSB-response and emphasizes its usefulness in treatment of malignant disease.
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2.
  • Andersen, Sonja, et al. (författare)
  • Monoclonal B-cell hyperplasia and leukocyte imbalance precede development of B-cell malignancies in uracil-DNA glycosylase deficient mice
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: DNA Repair. - 1568-7864 .- 1568-7856. ; 4:12, s. 1432-1441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ung-deficient mice have reduced class switch recombination, skewed somatic hypermutation, lymphatic hyperplasia and a 22-fold increased risk of developing B-cell lymphomas. We find that lymphomas are of follicular (FL) and diffuse large B-cell type (DLBCL). All FLs and 75% of the DLBCLs were monoclonal while 25% were biclonal. Monoclonality was also observed in hyperplasia, and could represent an early stage of lymphoma development. Lymphoid hyperplasia occurs very early in otherwise healthy Ung-deficient mice, observed as a significant increase of splenic B-cells. Furthermore, loss of Ung also causes a significant reduction of T-helper cells, and 50% of the young Ung(-/-) mice investigated have no detectable NK/NKT-cell population in their spleen. The immunological imbalance is confirmed in experiments with spleen cells where the production of the cytokines interferon gamma, interleukin 6 and interleukin 2 is clearly different in wild type and in Ung-deficient mice. This suggests that Ung-proteins, directly or indirectly, have important functions in the immune system, not only in the process of antibody maturation, but also for production and functions of immunologically important cell types. The immunological imbalances shown here in the Ung-deficient mice may be central in the development of lymphomas in a background of generalised lymphoid hyperplasia.
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3.
  • Berg, Ingrid L., et al. (författare)
  • MutS alpha deficiency increases tolerance to DNA damage in yeast lacking postreplication repair
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: DNA Repair. - 1568-7864 .- 1568-7856. ; 91-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By combining mutations in DNA repair genes, important and unexpected interactions between different repair pathways can be discovered. In this study, we identified a novel link between mismatch repair (MMR) genes and postreplication repair (PRR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains lacking Rad5 (HLTF in mammals), a protein important for restarting stalled replication forks in the error-free PRR pathway, were supersensitive to the DNA methylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Deletion of the mismatch repair genes, MSH2 or MSH6, which together constitutes the MutS alpha complex, partially suppressed the MMS super-sensitivity of the rad5 Delta, strain. Deletion of MSH2 also suppressed the MMS sensitivity of mms2 Delta, which acts together with Rad5 in error-free PRR. However, inactivating the mismatch repair genes MSH3 and MLH1 did not suppress rad5 Delta, showing that the suppression was specific for disabling MutS alpha. The partial suppression did not require translesion DNA synthesis (REV1, REV3 or RAD30), base excision repair (MAGI) or homologous recombination (RAD51). Instead, the underlying mechanism was dependent on RAD52 while independent of established pathways involving RAD52, like single-strand annealing and break-induced replication. We propose a Rad5- and Rad51-independent template switch pathway, capable of compensating for the loss of the error-free template-switch subpathway of postreplication repair, triggered by the loss of MutS alpha.
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4.
  • Blundred, Rachel, et al. (författare)
  • Human RECQL5 overcomes thymidine-induced replication stress.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: DNA Repair. - 1568-7864 .- 1568-7856. ; 9:9, s. 964-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accurate DNA replication is essential to genome integrity and is controlled by five human RecQ helicases, of which at least three prevent cancer and ageing. Here, we have studied the role of RECQL5, which is the least characterised of the five human RecQ helicases. We demonstrate that overexpressed RECQL5 promotes survival during thymidine-induced slowing of replication forks in human cells. The RECQL5 protein relocates specifically to stalled replication forks and suppresses thymidine-induced RPA foci, CHK1 signalling, homologous recombination and gammaH2AX activation. It is unlikely that RECQL5 promotes survival through translesion synthesis as PCNA ubiquitylation is also reduced. Interestingly, we also found that overexpressing RECQL5 relieves cells of the cell cycle arrest normally imposed by thymidine, but without causing mutations. In conclusion, we propose that RECQL5 stabilises the replication fork allowing replication to overcome the effects of thymidine and complete the cell cycle.
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5.
  • Bochman, Matthew L, et al. (författare)
  • Unwinding the functions of the Pif1 family helicases
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: DNA Repair. - 1568-7864 .- 1568-7856. ; 9:3, s. 237-249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Helicases are ubiquitous enzymes found in all organisms that are necessary for all (or virtually all) aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. The Pif1 helicase family is a group of 5'-->3' directed, ATP-dependent, super family IB helicases found in nearly all eukaryotes. Here, we review the discovery, evolution, and what is currently known about these enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScPif1 and ScRrm3), Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpPfh1), Trypanosoma brucei (TbPIF1, 2, 5, and 8), mice (mPif1), and humans (hPif1). Pif1 helicases variously affect telomeric, ribosomal, and mitochondrial DNA replication, as well as Okazaki fragment maturation, and in at least some cases affect these processes by using their helicase activity to disrupt stable nucleoprotein complexes. While the functions of these enzymes vary within and between organisms, it is evident that Pif1 family helicases are crucial for both nuclear and mitochondrial genome maintenance.
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6.
  • Chen, Jiang, et al. (författare)
  • A catalytic and non-catalytic role for the Yen1 nuclease in maintaining genome integrity in Kluyveromyces lactis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: DNA Repair. - 1568-7864 .- 1568-7856. ; 11:10, s. 833-843
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Yen1 is a nuclease identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that cleaves the Holliday junction (HJ) intermediate formed during homologous recombination. Alternative routes to disjoin HJs are performed by the Mus81/Mms4- and Sgs1/Top3/Rmi1-complexes. Here, we investigate the role of the Yen1 protein in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. We demonstrate that both yen1 mus81 and yen1 sgs1 double mutants displayed negative genetic interactions in the presence of DNA-damaging chemicals. To test if these phenotypes required the catalytic activity of Yen1, we introduced point mutations targeting the catalytic site of Yen1, which abolished the nuclease activity in vitro. Remarkably, catalytically inactive Yen1 did not exacerbate the hydroxyurea sensitivity of the sgs1Δ strain, which the yen1Δ allele did. In addition, overexpression of catalytically inactive Yen1 partially rescued the DNA damage sensitivity of both mus81 and sgs1 mutant strains albeit less efficiently than WT Yen1. These results suggest that Yen1 serves both a catalytic and non-catalytic role in its redundant function with Mus81 and Sgs1. Diploids lacking Mus81 had a severe defect in sporulation efficiency and crossover frequency, but diploids lacking both Mus81 and Yen1 showed no further reduction in spore formation. Hence, Yen1 had no evident role in meiosis. However, overexpression of WT Yen1, but not catalytically inactive Yen1 partially rescued the crossover defect in mus81/mus81 mutant diploids. Yen1 is a member of the RAD2/XPG-family of nucleases, but genetic analyses revealed no genetic interaction between yen1 and other family members (rad2, exo1 and rad27). In addition, yen1 mutants had normal nonhomologous end-joining efficiency. We discuss the similarities and differences between K. lactis Yen1 and Yen1/GEN1 from other organisms.
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7.
  • Cohen, Rotem, et al. (författare)
  • Ribonucleotide reductase from Fusarium oxysporum does not Respond to DNA replication stress
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: DNA Repair. - : Elsevier. - 1568-7864 .- 1568-7856. ; 83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the rate limiting step in dNTP biosynthesis and is tightly regulated at the transcription and activity levels. One of the best characterized responses of yeast to DNA damage is up-regulation of RNR transcription and activity and consequently, elevation of the dNTP pools. Hydroxyurea is a universal inhibitor of RNR that causes S phase arrest. It is used in the clinic to treat certain types of cancers. Here we studied the response of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum to hydroxyurea in order to generate hypotheses that can be used in the future in development of a new class of pesticides. F. oxysporum causes severe damage to more than 100 agricultural crops and specifically threatens banana cultivation world-wide. Although the recovery of F. oxysporum from transient hydroxyurea exposure was similar to the one of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, colony formation was strongly inhibited in F. oxysporum in comparison with S. cerevisiae. As expected, genomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of F. oxysporum conidia (spores) exposed to hydroxyurea showed hallmarks of DNA replication perturbation and activation of recombination. Unexpectedly and strikingly, RNR was not induced by either hydroxyurea or the DNA-damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate as determined at the RNA and protein levels. Consequently, dNTP concentrations were significantly reduced, even in response to a low dose of hydroxyurea. Methyl methanesulfonate treatment did not induce dNTP pools in F. oxysporum, in contrast to the response of RNR and dNTP pools to DNA damage and hydroxyurea in several tested organisms. Our results are important because the lack of a feedback mechanism to increase RNR expression in F. oxysporum is expected to sensitize the pathogen to a fungal-specific ribonucleotide inhibitor. The potential impact of our observations on F. oxysporum genome stability and genome evolution is discussed.
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8.
  • Dmowski, Michal, et al. (författare)
  • Increased contribution of DNA polymerase delta to the leading strand replication in yeast with an impaired CMG helicase complex
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: DNA Repair. - : Elsevier. - 1568-7864 .- 1568-7856. ; 110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA replication is performed by replisome proteins, which are highly conserved from yeast to humans. The CMG [Cdc45-Mcm2–7-GINS(Psf1–3, Sld5)] helicase unwinds the double helix to separate the leading and lagging DNA strands, which are replicated by the specialized DNA polymerases epsilon (Pol ε) and delta (Pol δ), respectively. This division of labor was confirmed by both genetic analyses and in vitro studies. Exceptions from this rule were described mainly in cells with impaired catalytic polymerase ε subunit. The central role in the recruitment and establishment of Pol ε on the leading strand is played by the CMG complex assembled on DNA during replication initiation. In this work we analyzed the consequences of impaired functioning of the CMG complex for the division labor between DNA polymerases on the two replicating strands. We showed in vitro that the GINSPsf1–1 complex poorly bound the Psf3 subunit. In vivo, we observed increased rates of L612M Pol δ-specific mutations during replication of the leading DNA strand in psf1–1 cells. These findings indicated that defective functioning of GINS impaired leading strand replication by Pol ε and necessitated involvement of Pol δ in the synthesis on this strand with a possible impact on the distribution of mutations and genomic stability. These are the first results to imply that the division of labor between the two main replicases can be severely influenced by a defective nonpolymerase subunit of the replisome.
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9.
  • Fahrer, Jörg, et al. (författare)
  • Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a radiomimetic agent and induces persistent levels of DNA double-strand breaks in human fibroblasts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: DNA Repair. - : Elsevier. - 1568-7864 .- 1568-7856. ; 18, s. 31-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a unique genotoxin produced by several pathogenic bacteria. The tripartite protein toxin is internalized into mammalian cells via endocytosis followed by retrograde transport to the ER. Upon translocation into the nucleus, CDT catalyzes the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) due to its intrinsic endonuclease activity. In the present study, we compared the DNA damage response (DDR) in human fibroblasts triggered by recombinant CDT to that of ionizing radiation (IR), a well-known DSB inducer. Furthermore, we dissected the pathways involved in the detection and repair of CDT-induced DNA lesions. qRT-PCR array-based mRNA and western blot analyses showed a partial overlap in the DDR pattern elicited by CDT and IR, with strong activation of both the ATM-Chk2 and the ATR-Chk1 axis. In line with its in vitro DNase I-like activity on plasmid DNA, neutral and alkaline Comet assay revealed predominant induction of DSBs in CDT-treated fibroblasts, whereas irradiation of cells generated higher amounts of SSBs and alkali-labile sites. Using confocal microscopy, the dynamics of the DSB surrogate marker γ-H2AX was monitored after pulse treatment with CDT or IR. In contrast to the fast induction and disappearance of γ-H2AX-foci observed in irradiated cells, the number of γ-H2AX-foci induced by CDT were formed with a delay and persisted. 53BP1 foci were also generated following CDT treatment and co-localized with γ-H2AX foci. We further demonstrated that ATM-deficient cells are very sensitive to CDT-induced DNA damage as reflected by increased cell death rates with concomitant cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1. Finally, we provided novel evidence that both homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) protect against CDT-elicited DSBs. In conclusion, the findings suggest that CDT functions as a radiomimetic agent and, therefore, is an attractive tool for selectively inducing persistent levels of DSBs and unveiling the associated cellular responses.
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10.
  • Farnebo, Lovisa, et al. (författare)
  • DNA repair genes XPC, XPD, XRCC1, and XRCC3 are associated with risk and survival of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: DNA Repair. - : Elsevier. - 1568-7864 .- 1568-7856. ; 31, s. 64-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are a heterogenous group of tumors with a high rate of early recurrences, second primary tumors, and mortality. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment over the past decades, the overall 5-year survival rate remains around 50%. Since the head-and neck-region is continuously exposed to potentially DNA-damaging exogenous and endogenous factors, it is reasonable to expect that the DNA repair genes play a part in the development, progression, and outcome of HNSCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the SNPs XPC A499V, XPD K751Q XRCC1 R399Q and XRCC3 T241M as potential risk factors and indicators of survival among Caucasian patients. One-hundred-sixty-nine patients as well as 344 healthy controls were included and genotyped with PCR-RFLP. We showed that XPC A499V was associated with increased risk of HNSCC, especially laryngeal carcinoma. Among women, XPD K751Q was associated with increased risk of oral SCC. Furthermore, XPD homozygous mutant individuals had the shortest survival time, a survival time that increased however after full dose radiotherapy. Wild-type individuals of XRCC3 T241M demonstrated an earlier age of onset. HPV-positive never smokers had lower frequencies of p53 mutation. Among HNSCC patients, HPV-positivity was significantly associated with XRCC1 R399Q homozygous mutant genotype. Moreover, combinations of putative risk alleles seemed to act synergistically, increasing the risk of HNSCC. In conclusion, our results suggest that SNPs of the DNA repair genes XPC, XPD, XRCC1, and XRCC3 may affect risk and survival of HNSCC. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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