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1.
  • Khrennikov, Andrei, 1958- (författare)
  • Quantum correlations from classical Gaussiancorrelations
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Russian Laser Research. - Berlin : Springer. - 1071-2836 .- 1573-8760. ; 30:5, s. 472-479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Already Schrödinger tried to proceed towards a purely wave theory of quantum phenomena. However, he should give up and accept Born’s probabilistic interpretation of the wave function. A simple mathematical fact was behind this crucial decision. The wave function of a composite system <em>S</em> = (<em>S</em> <sub>1</sub>, <em>S</em> <sub>2</sub>) belongs to the tensor product of two L2 spaces and not to their Cartesian product. It was impossible to consider it as a vector function <em>ψ</em>(<em>x</em>) = (<em>ψ</em> <sub>1</sub>(x), <em>ψ</em> <sub>2</sub>(<em>x</em>)), <em>x</em> ∈ <strong>R</strong> <sup>3</sup>. Here we solved this problem. It is shown that there exists a mathematical formalism that provides a possibility to describe composite quantum systems without appealing to the tensor product of the Hilbert state space, and one can proceed with their Cartesian product. It may have important consequences for the understanding of entanglement and applications to quantum information theory. It seems that “quantum algorithms” can be realized on the basis of classical wave mechanics. However, the interpretation of the proposed mathematical formalism is a difficult problem and needs additional studies.</p>
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3.
  • Aaltonen, Kirsimari, et al. (författare)
  • Cyclin D1 expression is associated with poor prognostic features in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 1573-7217. ; 113:1, s. 75-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cyclins D1 and E play an important role in breast carcinogenesis. High cyclin E expression is common in hormone receptor negative and high grade aggressive breast cancer, whereas cyclin D1 in hormone receptor positive and low grade breast cancer. Experimental data has suggested that cyclin D1 and E mediate cell proliferation by different mechanisms in estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancer. To test this hypotheses in large breast cancer material and to clarify the histopathological correlations of cyclin E and D1, especially the association with proliferation, we analyzed cyclin E and D1 immunohistochemical expression on breast tumour microarrays consisting of 1348 invasive breast cancers. High cyclin D1 expression was associated with high grade (P < 0.0005), high cyclin A (P < 0.0005) and Ki67 (P < 0.0005) expression among ER positive but with low grade (P = 0.05) and low Ki67 (P = 0.01) expression among ER negative breast cancers. Cyclin E and D1 expression correlated positively in ER positive (P < 0.0005) but had a negative correlation in ER negative tumours (P = 0.004). Cyclin E associated with high grade among all tumours (P < 0.0005). In conclusion, the findings of this study show that cyclin D1 has separate roles, and proliferation is driven by different mechanisms in ER positive and negative breast cancers.
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4.
  • Aaltonen, Kirsimari, et al. (författare)
  • Cyclin D1 expression is associated with poor prognostic features in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - 0167-6806 .- 1573-7217. ; 113:1, s. 75-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Cyclins D1 and E play an important role in breast carcinogenesis. High cyclin E expression is common in hormone receptor negative and high grade aggressive breast cancer, whereas cyclin D1 in hormone receptor positive and low grade breast cancer. Experimental data has suggested that cyclin D1 and E mediate cell proliferation by different mechanisms in estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancer. To test this hypotheses in large breast cancer material and to clarify the histopathological correlations of cyclin E and D1, especially the association with proliferation, we analyzed cyclin E and D1 immunohistochemical expression on breast tumour microarrays consisting of 1348 invasive breast cancers. High cyclin D1 expression was associated with high grade (P&lt;0.0005), high cyclin A (P&lt;0.0005) and Ki67 (P&lt;0.0005) expression among ER positive but with low grade (P=0.05) and low Ki67 (P=0.01) expression among ER negative breast cancers. Cyclin E and D1 expression correlated positively in ER positive (P&lt;0.0005) but had a negative correlation in ER negative tumours (P=0.004). Cyclin E associated with high grade among all tumours (P&lt;0.0005). In conclusion, the findings of this study show that cyclin D1 has separate roles, and proliferation is driven by different mechanisms in ER positive and negative breast cancers.</p>
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6.
  • Agrup, Måns, et al. (författare)
  • C-erbB-2 overexpression and survival in early onset breast cancer
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - 0167-6806 .- 1573-7217. ; 63:1, s. 23-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Young breast cancer patients have a decreased survival rate and it has been demonstrated that young age is an independent predictor of adverse prognosis. Overexpression of c-erbB-2 protein (also known as <em>HER-2/neu</em>) has been shown to be a prognostic indicator in breast cancer in general and especially among patients with axillary nodal metastases. The present study was initiated to determine the prognostic significance of c-erbB-2 protein overexpression in early onset breast cancer.</p><p>A population consisting of 110 young breast cancer patients, ≤ 36-year-old at diagnosis, was analyzed with immunohistochemical staining for c-erbB-2 protein.</p><p>Thirty patients (27%) were found to overexpress the c-erbB-2 protein. C-erbB-2 positivity was significantly associated with poor survival when all patients were included in the analysis (<em>P</em> = 0.002) and for patients with axillary nodal metastases (<em>P</em> = 0.0007). No such association was found for node-negative patients. Furthermore, the difference in prognosis in relation to <em>c-erbB-2</em> among node-positive patients was maintained, when these were stratified in groups treated or not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.</p><p>The study indicates that overexpression of c-erbB-2 protein is a strong prognostic factor in young breast cancer patients with axillary nodal metastases. Moreover, the adverse prognosis associated with <em>c-erbB-2</em> overexpression in node-positive patients was observed whether or not the patients had received adjuvant chemotherapy.</p>
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7.
  • Ahlin, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • High expression of cyclin D1 is associated to high proliferation rate and increased risk of mortality in women with ER-positive but not in ER-negative breast cancers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - SPRINGER. - 0167-6806 .- 1573-7217. ; 164:3, s. 667-678
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Cyclin D1 has a central role in cell cycle control and is an important component of estrogen regulation of cell cycle progression. We have previously shown that high cyclin D expression is related to aggressive features of ER-positive but not ER-negative breast cancer. The aims of the present study were to validate this differential ER-related effect and furthermore explore the relationship between cyclin D overexpression and CCND1 gene amplification status in a node-negative breast cancer case-control study. Immunohistochemical nuclear expression of cyclin D1 (n = 364) and amplification of the gene CCND1 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (n = 255) was performed on tissue microarray sections from patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancer. Patients given adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. The primary event was defined as breast cancer death. Breast cancer-specific survival was analyzed in univariate and multivariable models using conditional logistic regression. Expression of cyclin D1 above the median (61.7%) in ER breast cancer was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer death (OR 3.2 95% CI 1.5-6.8) also when adjusted for tumor size and grade (OR 3.1). No significant prognostic impact of cyclin D1 expression was found among ER-negative cases. Cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated to high expression of the proliferation markers cyclins A (rho 0.19, p = 0.006) and B (rho 0.18, p = 0.003) in ER-positive tumors, but not in ER-negative cases. There was a significant association between CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression (p = 0.003), but CCND1 amplification was not statistically significantly prognostic (HR 1.4, 95% CI 0.4-4.4). We confirmed our previous observation that high cyclin D1 expression is associated to high proliferation and a threefold higher risk of death from breast cancer in ER-positive breast cancer.</p>
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8.
  • Ahnström Waltersson, Marie, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Role of cyclin D1 in ErbB2-positive breast cancer and tamoxifen resistance.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - 0167-6806 .- 1573-7217. ; 91:2, s. 145-151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Cyclin D1 plays an important role in the regulation of the G1 phase in the cell cycle. In mammary epithelial cells the expression of cyclin D1 is regulated through the oestrogen receptor and via ErbB2 signalling. Here we investigated the prognostic significance of cyclin D1 among 230 breast cancer patients randomised for tamoxifen, CMF chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The importance of combined cyclin D1 and ErbB2 overexpression was also analysed. Immunohistochemical analysis of the cyclin D1 expression resulted in 69 (29.8%) weakly positive, 107 (46.5%) moderately positive and 54 (23.7%) strongly positive cases. The prognostic importance of ErbB2 was significantly greater for patients whose tumours overexpressed cyclin D1 than for other patients (p = 0.026). In the former group, ErbB2 overexpression was strongly associated with increased risk of recurrence (RR = 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1-10.4) and breast cancer death (RR = 5.4; 95% CI, 2.3-12.6). This result is in accordance with experimental studies demonstrating a link between cyclin D1 and ErbB2 in oncogenesis. Among oestrogen receptor positive patients, those with moderate cyclin D1 expression significantly did benefit from tamoxifen treatment (RR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82) whereas those with weak or strong expression did not. Therefore cyclin D1 might be a predictive marker for tamoxifen resistance.</p>
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9.
10.
  • Andersson, Yvette, et al. (författare)
  • Do clinical trials truly mirror their target population? An external validity analysis of national register versus trial data from the Swedish prospective SENOMIC trial on sentinel node micrometastases in breast cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - SPRINGER. - 0167-6806 .- 1573-7217. ; 177:2, s. 469-475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) may be omitted in breast cancer patients with limited axillary nodal metastases. However, the representativeness of trial participants for the original clinical practice population, and thus, the generalizability of published trials have been questioned. We propose the use of background data from national registers as a means to assess whether trial participants mirror their target population and to strengthen the generalizability and implementation of trial outcomes.</p><p>Methods: The Swedish prospective SENOMIC trial, omitting a completion ALND in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node micrometastases, reached full target accrual in 2017. To assess the generalizability of trial results for the target population, a comparative analysis of trial participants versus cases reported to the Swedish National Breast Cancer Register (NKBC) was performed.</p><p>Results: Comparing 548 trial participants and 1070 NKBC cases, there were no significant differences in age, tumor characteristics, breast surgery, or adjuvant treatment. Only the mean number of sentinel lymph nodes with micrometastasis per individual was lower in trial participants than in register cases (1.06 vs. 1.09, p=0.037).</p><p>Conclusions: Patients included in the SENOMIC trial are acceptably representative of the Swedish breast cancer target population. There were some minor divergences between trial participants and the NKBC population, but taking these into consideration, upcoming trial outcomes should be generalizable to breast cancer patients with micrometastases in their sentinel lymph node biopsy.</p>
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