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Sökning: L773:1573 7276

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  • Nordstrand, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Establishment and validation of an in vitro co-culture model to study the interactions between bone and prostate cancer cells
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical & experimental metastasis. - 0262-0898 .- 1573-7276. ; 26:8, s. 945-953
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone is the preferred site for prostate cancer (PCa) metastases. Once the tumor has established itself within the bone there is virtually no cure. To better understand the interactions between the PCa cells and bone environment in the metastatic process new model systems are needed. We have established a two-compartment in vitro co-culturing model that can be used to follow the trans-activation of bone and/or tumor cells. The model was validated using two PCa tumor cell lines (PC-3; lytic and LNCaP; mixed/osteoblastic) and one osteolytic inducing factor, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (D3). Results were in accordance with the expected bone phenotypes; PC-3 cells and D3 gave osteolytic gene expression profiles in calvariae, with up-regulation of genes needed for osteoclast differentiation, activation and function; Rankl, CathK, Trap and MMP-9, and down-regulation of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization; Alp, Ocl and Dkk-1. LNCaP cells activated genes in the calvarial bones associated with osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, with marginal effects on osteolytic genes. The results were strengthened by similar changes in protein expression for a selection of the analyzed genes. Furthermore, the osteolytic gene expression profiles in calvarial bones co-cultured with PC-3 cells or with D3 were correlated with the actual ongoing resorptive process, as assessed by the release of collagen fragments from the calvariae. Our results show that the model can be used to follow tumor-induced bone remodeling, and by measuring changes in gene expression in the tumor cells we can also study how they respond to the bone microenvironment.
  • Almholt, Kasper, et al. (författare)
  • Spontaneous lung and lymph node metastasis in transgenic breast cancer is independent of the urokinase receptor uPAR
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis. - : Springer. - 1573-7276. ; 32:6, s. 543-554
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is an extracellular protease that plays a pivotal role in tumor progression. uPA activity is spatially restricted by its anchorage to high-affinity uPA receptors (uPAR) at the cell surface. High tumor tissue expression of uPA and uPAR is associated with poor prognosis in lung, breast, and colon cancer patients in clinical studies. Genetic deficiency of uPA leads to a significant reduction in metastases in the murine transgenic MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model, demonstrating a causal role for uPA in cancer dissemination. To investigate the role of uPAR in cancer progression, we analyze the effect of uPAR deficiency in the same cancer model. uPAR is predominantly expressed in stromal cells in the mouse primary tumors, similar to human breast cancer. In a cohort of MMTV-PyMT mice [uPAR-deficient (n = 31) or wild type controls (n = 33)], tumorigenesis, tumor growth, and tumor histopathology were not significantly affected by uPAR deficiency. Lung and lymph node metastases were also not significantly affected by uPAR deficiency, in contrast to the significant reduction seen in uPA-deficient mice. Taken together, our data show that the genetic absence of uPAR does not influence the outcome of the MMTV-PyMT cancer model.
  • Birkeland, Einar, et al. (författare)
  • Low BRAF and NRAS expression levels are associated with clinical benefit from DTIC therapy and prognosis in metastatic melanoma
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis. - : Springer. - 1573-7276. ; 30:7, s. 867-876
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metastatic melanoma is characterized by a poor response to chemotherapy. Furthermore, there is a lack of established predictive and prognostic markers. In this single institution study, we correlated mutation status and expression levels of BRAF and NRAS to dacarbazine (DTIC) treatment response as well as progression-free and overall survival in a cohort of 85 patients diagnosed with advanced melanoma. Neither BRAF nor NRAS mutation status correlated to treatment response. However, patients with tumors harboring NRAS mutations had a shorter overall survival (p < 0.001) compared to patients with tumors wild-type for NRAS. Patients having a clinical benefit (objective response or stable disease at 3 months) on DTIC therapy had lower BRAF and NRAS expression levels compared to patients progressing on therapy (p = 0.037 and 0.003, respectively). For BRAF expression, this association was stronger among patients with tumors wild-type for BRAF (p = 0.005). Further, low BRAF as well as NRAS expression levels were associated with a longer progression-free survival in the total population (p = 0.004 and < 0.001, respectively). Contrasting low NRAS expression levels, which were associated with improved overall survival in the total population (p = 0.01), low BRAF levels were associated with improved overall survival only among patients with tumors wild-type for BRAF (p = 0.013). These findings indicate that BRAF and NRAS expression levels may influence responses to DTIC as well as prognosis in patients with advanced melanoma.
  • Blomqvist, G, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in lodgement of tumour cells in muscle and liver
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis. - : Springer. - 1573-7276. ; 6:4, s. 285-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Differences in the lodgement of circulating tumour cells in various organs are considered an important factor in metastatic organ selection. The present vital microscopic studies show that the pattern of intravascular arrest of tumour cells in muscle after intra-arterial injection is similar to that observed earlier, in the liver, after intraportal injection. However, parallel isotope studies on the lodgement process (at 5 min and 3 h after injection) showed that the tumour cells trapped in the muscle microvasculature were destroyed at a higher rate than in the liver. Tumour cells kept in test tubes, and thus not being subjected to the shearing forces of the circulation, had a higher survival rate than cells trapped in the muscle. The results indicate that stronger retardation forces acting on the tumour cells in muscle (arterial dissemination) than in the liver (venous dissemination) may be one mechanism behind the increased tumour cell destruction in muscle.
  • Bruce, Benjamin, et al. (författare)
  • Expression of the cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin in human cancers
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis. - : Springer. - 1573-7276. ; 24:2, s. 69-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Expression of the metastasis-associated protein, ezrin, in over 5,000 human cancers and normal tissues was analyzed using tissue microarray immunohistochemistry. Ezrin staining was compared between cancers and their corresponding normal tissues, between cancers of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, in the context of the putative inhibitor protein, merlin, and against clinicopathological data available for breast, lung, prostate cancers and sarcomas. Ezrin was found in most cancers and normal tissues at varying levels of intensity. In general ezrin was expressed at higher levels in sarcomas than in carcinomas. By normalizing the expression of ezrin in each cancer using ezrin expression found in the corresponding normal tissue, significant associations between ezrin were found in advancing histological grade in sarcomas (P = 0.02) and poor outcome in breast cancer (P = 0.025). Clinicopathologic associations were not changed by simultaneous assessment of ezrin and merlin in each patient sample for the cancer types examined. These data support a role for ezrin in the biology of human cancers and the need for additional studies in breast cancer and sarcoma patients that may validate ezrin as a marker of cancer progression and as a potential target for cancer therapy.
  • Carlinfante, G, et al. (författare)
  • Differential expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein in bone metastasis of breast and prostate carcinoma
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis. - : Springer. - 1573-7276 .- 0262-0898. ; 20:5, s. 437-444
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast and prostate cancer often metastasise to the skeleton. Interestingly, the histopathological characteristics of the bone lesions that arise from these two cancer types differ. Breast tumours give rise to metastases in the skeleton with a mixed lytic/sclerotic pattern, whereas a predominantly sclerotic pattern is seen in metastases from prostate tumours. Osteopontin (OPN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) are bone matrix proteins that have been implicated in the selective affinity of cancer cells for bone. In the present study, 21 patient cases with skeletal metastasis and their respective primary tumours ( 12 with breast cancer, 9 with prostate cancer) were investigated by immunohistochemistry in order to assess the level of OPN and BSP. Moderate to strong OPN expression was found in 42% of all breast tumours and in 56% of all prostate tumours. Significantly more breast cancer bone metastases exhibited high OPN expression, 83%, as compared with prostate tumour bone metastases, 11% ( P = 0.0019). In contrast, moderate to strong BSP expression was found in 33% of breast tumours and in 89% of prostate tumours. In the bone lesions, only 33% of breast tumour metastases showed moderate/strong BSP expression compared to 100% of prostate tumour metastases ( P = 0.0046). This divergent pattern of OPN/BSP expression could be an important determinant for the different characteristics of these two types of bone metastasis, i.e., lytic vs. sclerotic, consistent with the proposed role of OPN in differentiation and activation of osteoclasts and of BSP as a stimulator of bone mineralisation.
  • Hagberg Thulin, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Osteoblasts stimulate the osteogenic and metastatic progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer in a novel model for in vitro and in vivo studies.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical & experimental metastasis. - 1573-7276. ; 31:3, s. 269-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is strongly associated with sclerotic bone metastases and poor prognosis. Models that mimic human CRPC are needed to identify the mechanisms for prostate cancer (PC) growth in bone and to develop new therapeutic strategies. We characterize a new model, LNCaP-19, and investigate the interaction between tumor cells and osteoblasts in the sclerotic tumor response of CRPC. Osteogenic profiling of PC cell lines (LNCaP-19, LNCaP, C4-2B4, and PC-3) was performed by gene expression arrays and mineral staining. Conditioned medium from MC3T3-E1 was used for osteoblast stimulation of CRPC cells. The capacity of LNCaP-19 cells to induce sclerotic lesions was assessed in intratibial xenografts and verified by serum markers, histological analysis and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The CRPC cell line LNCaP-19 expresses a pronounced osteogenic profile compared to its parental androgen-dependent cell line LNCaP. Osteoblast-derived factors further increase the expression of genes known to enhance metastatic progression of PC. LNCaP-19 forms sclerotic tumors in tibia of castrated mice as evident by increased total BMD (P < 0.01). There was a strong correlation between serum osteocalcin and BMD (total: R (2) 0.811, P < 0.01, trabecular: R (2) 0.673, P < 0.05). For the first time we demonstrate that a CRPC cell line generated in vitro has osteogenic capacity and that osteomimicry can be an inherent feature of these cells. Osteoblast-derived factors further promote the osteogenic and metastatic phenotype in CRPC cells. Altogether, our model demonstrates that both tumor cells and osteoblasts are mediators of the bone forming process of CRPC.
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