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1.
  • Lindner, Philip, et al. (författare)
  • Studying Gambling Behaviors and Responsible Gambling Tools in a Simulated Online Casino Integrated With Amazon Mechanical Turk : Development and Initial Validation of Survey Data and Platform Mechanics of the Frescati Online Research Casino
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology. - 1664-1078 .- 1664-1078 .- 1664-0640. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Online gambling, popular among both problem and recreational gamblers, simultaneously entails both heightened addiction risks as well as unique opportunities for prevention and intervention. There is a need to bridge the growing literature on learning and extinction mechanisms of gambling behavior, with account tracking studies using real-life gambling data. In this study, we describe the development and validation of the Frescati Online Research Casino (FORC): a simulated online casino where games, visual themes, outcome sizes, probabilities, and other variables of interest can be experimentally manipulated to conduct behavioral analytic studies and evaluate the efficacy of responsible gambling tools.Methods: FORC features an initial survey for self-reporting of gambling and gambling problems, along with several games resembling regular real-life casino games, designed to allow Pavlovian and instrumental learning. FORC was developed with maximum flexibility in mind, allowing detailed experiment specification by setting parameters using an online interface, including the display of messages. To allow convenient and rapid data collection from diverse samples, FORC is independently hosted yet integrated with the popular crowdsourcing platform Amazon Mechanical Turk through a reimbursement key mechanism. To validate the survey data quality and game mechanics of FORC, n = 101 participants were recruited, who answered an questionnaire on gambling habits and problems, then played both slot machine and card-draw type games. Questionnaire and trial-by-trial behavioral data were analyzed using standard psychometric tests, and outcome distribution modeling.Results: The expected associations among variables in the introductory questionnaire were found along with good psychometric properties, suggestive of good quality data. Only 6% of participants provided seemingly poor behavioral data. Game mechanics worked as intended: gambling outcomes showed the expected pattern of random sampling with replacement and were normally distributed around the set percentages, while balances developed according to the set return to player rate.Conclusions: FORC appears to be a valid paradigm for simulating online gambling and for collecting survey and behavioral data, offering a valuable compromise between stringent experimental paradigms with lower external validity, and real-world gambling account tracking data with lower internal validity.
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2.
  • Alegiry, Mohamed H., et al. (författare)
  • Attitudes Toward Psychological Disorders and Alternative Medicine in Saudi Participants
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry. - 1664-0640 .- 1664-0640. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study was designed to investigate Saudis' attitudes toward mental distress and psychotropic medication, attribution of causes, expected side effects, and to analyze participants' expectations toward alternative or complementary medicine using aromatic and medicinal plants, through a survey.Method: The study included 674 participants (citizens and residents in Saudi Arabia) who were randomly contacted via email and social media and gave their consent to complete a questionnaire dealing with 39 items that can be clustered in six parts. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square for cross-tabulation were generated using SPSS.Results: Among the 664 participants, 73.4% believed that there are some positive and negative outcomes of psychotropic medication. Participants (72.0%) think that the most important reason leading to psychological disorders is mainly due to the loss of a relative or beloved person, and 73.9% considered psychic session as one of the possible treatments of psychological disorders. Surprisingly, only 18.8% of the participants agreed that medicinal and aromatic plants could be a possible treatment of the psychological disorder. Participants (82%) consider that physicians are the most trustful and preferred source of information about alternative and complementary medicine.
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3.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Response and Remission Rates in Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy : An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-0640 .- 1664-0640. ; 10
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) was developed over 20 years ago and has since undergone a number of controlled trials, as well as several systematic reviews and meta-analyses. However, the crucial question of response rates remains to be systematically investigated. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis (IPDMA) was to use a large dataset of trials conducted in Sweden to determine reliable change and recovery rates across trials for a range of conditions.Methods: We used previously collected and aggregated data from 2,866 patients in 29 Swedish clinical trials of ICBT for three categories of conditions: anxiety disorders, depression, and others. Raw scores at pre-treatment and post-treatment were used in an IPDMA to determine the rate of reliable change and recovery. Jacobson and Truax’s, (1991) reliable change index (RCI) was calculated for each primary outcome measure in the trials as well as the recovery rates for each patient, with the additional requirement of having improved substantially. We subsequently explored potential predictors using binomial logistic regression.Results: In applying an RCI of z = 1.96, 1,162 (65.6%) of the patients receiving treatment were classified as achieving recovery, and 620 (35.0%) were classified as reaching remission. In terms of predictors, patients with higher symptom severity on the primary outcome measure at baseline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.36] and being female (OR = 2.22) increased the odds of responding to treatment. Having an anxiety disorder was found to decrease the response to treatment (OR = 0.51). Remission was predicted by diagnosis in the same direction (OR = 0.28), whereas symptom severity was inversely predictive of worse outcome (OR = 0.81). Conclusions: Response seems to occur among approximately half of all clients administered ICBT, whereas about a third reach remission. This indicates that the efficacy of ICBT is in line with that of CBT based in prior trials, with a possible caveat being the lower remission rates. Having more symptoms and being female might increase the chances of improvement, and a small negative effect of having anxiety disorder versus depression and other conditions may also exist. A limitation of the IPDMA was that only studies conducted in Sweden were included.
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9.
  • Berg, Matilda, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Learning Support and Chat-Sessions in Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Anxiety: A Factorial Design Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-0640 .- 1664-0640. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Increased awareness of anxiety in adolescents emphasises the need for effective interventions. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) could be a resource-effective and evidence-based treatment option, but little is known about how to optimize ICBT or which factors boost outcomes. Recently, the role of knowledge in psychotherapy has received increased focus. Further, chat-sessions are of interest when trying to optimize ICBT for youths. This study aimed to evaluate the role of learning support and chat-sessions during ICBT for adolescent anxiety, using a factorial design. Method A total of 120 adolescents were randomised to one of four treatment groups, in a 2x2 design with two factors: with or without learning support and/or chat-sessions. Results Anxiety and depressive symptoms were reduced (Beck Anxiety Inventory- BAI; Cohensd=0.72; Beck Depression Inventory- BDI;d=0.97). There was a main effect of learning support on BAI (d=0.38), and learning support increased knowledge gain (d =0.42). There were no main effects or interactions related to the chat-sessions. Treatment effects were maintained at 6-months, but the added effect of learning support had by then vanished. Conclusion ICBT can be an effective alternative when treating adolescents with anxiety. Learning support could be of importance to enhance short-term treatment effects, and should be investigated further.
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