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Sökning: L773:1680 7316 > (2009)

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1.
  • Ahlm, Lars, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Aerosol number fluxes over the Amazon rain forest during the wet season
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9:24, s. 9381-9400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Number fluxes of particles with diameter larger than 10 nm were measured with the eddy covariance method over the Amazon rain forest during the wet season as part of the LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) campaign 2008. The primary goal was to investigate whether sources or sinks dominate the aerosol number flux in the tropical rain forest-atmosphere system. During the measurement campaign, from 12 March to 18 May, 60% of the particle fluxes pointed downward, which is a similar fraction to what has been observed over boreal forests. The net deposition flux prevailed even in the absolute cleanest atmospheric conditions during the campaign and therefore cannot be explained only by deposition of anthropogenic particles. The particle transfer velocity vt increased with increasing friction velocity and the relation is described by the equation vt=2.4×10−3×u* where u* is the friction velocity. Upward particle fluxes often appeared in the morning hours and seem to a large extent to be an effect of entrainment fluxes into a growing mixed layer rather than primary aerosol emission. In general, the number source of primary aerosol particles within the footprint area of the measurements was small, possibly because the measured particle number fluxes reflect mostly particles less than approximately 200 nm. This is an indication that the contribution of primary biogenic aerosol particles to the aerosol population in the Amazon boundary layer may be low in terms of number concentrations. However, the possibility of horizontal variations in primary aerosol emission over the Amazon rain forest cannot be ruled out.
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3.
  • Ekström, Sanna, et al. (författare)
  • The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3-C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. - 1680-7316 ; 9:3, s. 973-980
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono-and polysaccharides) and polyols such as the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. Because of their high solubility these compounds are considered as potentially efficient CCN material. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Kohler curves for C3-C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what was expected, none of these compounds displayed a higher CCN efficiency than organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as saccharides and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation than other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, in contrary to recently suggested
4.
  • Engström, Anders, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Estimating trajectory uncertainties due to flow dependent errors in the atmospheric analysis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9:22, s. 8857-8867
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The uncertainty of a calculated trajectory is dependent on the uncertainty in the atmospheric analysis. Using the Ensemble Transform method (originally adapted for ensemble forecasting) we sample the analysis uncertainty in order to create an ensemble of analyses where a trajectory is started from each perturbed analysis. This method, called the Ensemble analysis method (EA), is compared to the Initial spread method (IS), where the trajectory receptor point is perturbed in the horizontal and vertical direction to create a set of trajectories used to estimate the trajectory uncertainty. The deviation growth is examined for one summer and one winter month and for 15 different geographical locations. We find up to a 40% increase in trajectory deviation in the mid-latitudes using the EA method. A simple model for trajectory deviation growth speed is set up and validated. It is shown that the EA method result in a faster error growth compared to the IS method. In addition, two case studies are examined to qualitatively illustrate how the flow dependent analysis uncertainty can impact the trajectory calculations. We find a more irregular behavior for the EA trajectories compared to the IS trajectories and a significantly increased uncertainty in the trajectory origin. We conclude that by perturbing the analysis in agreement with the analysis uncertainties the error in backward trajectory calculations can be more consistently estimated.
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6.
  • Jin, J.J., et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of CMAM simulations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) with observations from Odin/SMR, ACE-FTS, and Aura/MLS
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9, s. 3233-3252
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulations of CO, N2O and CH4 from a coupled chemistry-climate model (CMAM) are compared with satellite measurements from Odin Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (Odin/SMR), Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura/MLS). Pressure-latitude cross-sections and seasonal time series demonstrate that CMAM reproduces the observed global CO, N2O, and CH4 distributions quite well. Generally, excellent agreement with measurements is found between CO simulations and observations in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Differences between the simulations and the ACE-FTS observations are generally within 30%, and the differences between CMAM results and SMR and MLS observations are slightly larger. These differences are comparable with the difference between the instruments in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Comparisons of N2O show that CMAM results are usually within 15% of the measurements in the lower and middle stratosphere, and the observations are close to each other. However, the standard version of CMAM has a low N2O bias in the upper stratosphere. The CMAM CH4 distribution also reproduces the observations in the lower stratosphere, but has a similar but smaller negative bias in the upper stratosphere. The negative bias may be due to that the gravity drag is not fully resolved in the model. The simulated polar CO evolution in the Arctic and Antarctic agrees with the ACE and MLS observations. CO measurements from 2006 show evidence of enhanced descent of air from the mesosphere into the stratosphere in the Arctic after strong stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs). CMAM also shows strong descent of air after SSWs. In the tropics, CMAM captures the annual oscillation in the lower stratosphere and the semiannual oscillations at the stratopause and mesopause seen in Aura/MLS CO and N2O observations and in Odin/SMR N2O observations. The Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS N2O observations also show a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the upper stratosphere, whereas, the CMAM does not have QBO included. This study confirms that CMAM is able to simulate middle atmospheric transport processes reasonably well.
7.
  • Johansson, Mattias E.B., 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Mobile mini-DOAS measurement of the outflow of NO2 and HCHO from Mexico City
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9, s. 5647-5653
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We here present the results from mobile measurements using two ground-based zenith viewing Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments. The measurement was performed in a cross-section of the plume from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on 10 March 2006 as part of the MILAGRO field campaign. The two instruments operated in the UV and the visible wavelength region respectively and have been used to derive the differential vertical columns of HCHO and NO2 above the measurement route. This is the first time the mobile mini-DOAS instrument has been able to measure HCHO, one of the chemically most important and interesting gases in the polluted urban atmosphere. Using a mass-averaged wind speed and wind direction from the WRF model the instantaneous flux of HCHO and NO2 has been calculated from the measurements and the results are compared to the CAMx chemical model. The calculated flux through the measured cross-section was 1.9 (1.5–2.2) kg/s of HCHO and 4.4 (4.0–5.0) kg/s of NO2 using the UV instrument and 3.66 (3.63–3.73) kg/s of NO2 using the visible light instrument. The modeled values from CAMx for the outflow of both NO2 and HCHO, 1.1 and 3.6 kg/s, respectively, show a reasonable agreement with the measurement derived fluxes.
8.
  • Jones, Ashley, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapour time series studied with satellite measurements
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9, s. 6055-6075
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The long term evolution of stratospheric ozone and water vapour has been investigated by extending satellite time series to April 2008. For ozone, we examine monthly average ozone values from various satellite data sets for nine latitude and altitude bins covering 60° S to 60° N and 20–45 km and covering the time period of 1979–2008. Data are from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE I+II), the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), the Solar BackscatterUltraViolet-2 (SBUV/2) instrument, the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR), the Optical Spectrograph InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS), and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartograpY (SCIAMACHY). Monthly ozone anomalies are calculated by utilising a linear regression model, which also models the solar, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and seasonal cycle contributions. Individual instrument ozone anomalies are combined producing an all instrument average. Assuming a turning point of 1997 and that the all instrument average is represented by good instrumental long term stability, the largest statistically significant ozone declines (at two sigma) from 1979–1997 are seen at the mid-latitudes between 35 and 45 km, namely −7.2%±0.9%/decade in the Northern Hemisphere and −7.1%±0.9%/in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, for the period 1997 to 2008 we find that the same locations show the largest ozone recovery (+1.4% and +0.8%/decade respectively) compared to other global regions, although the estimated trend model errors indicate that the trend estimates are not significantly different from a zero trend at the 2 sigma level. An all instrument average is also constructed from water vapour anomalies during 1991–2008, using the SAGE II, HALOE, SMR, and the Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura/MLS) measurements. We report that the decrease in water vapour values after 2001 slows down around 2004–2005 in the lower tropical stratosphere (20–25 km) and has even shown signs of increasing until present. We show that a similar correlation is also seen with the temperature measured at 100 hPa during this same period.
9.
  • Khosrawi, Farahnaz, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of CLaMS, KASIMA and ECHAM5/MESSy1 simulations in the lower stratosphere using observations of Odin/SMR and ILAS/ILAS-II
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9:15, s. 5759-5783
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1-year data sets of monthly averaged nitrous oxide (N2O) and ozone (O3) derived from satellite measurements were used as a tool for the evaluation of atmospheric photochemical models. Two 1-year data sets, one solar occultation data set derived from the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS and ILAS-II) and one limb sounding data set derived from the Odin Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (Odin/SMR) were employed. Here, these data sets are used for the evaluation of two Chemical Transport Models (CTMs), the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA) and the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) as well as for one Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM), the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 (E5M1) in the lower stratosphere with focus on the Northern Hemisphere. Since the Odin/SMR measurements cover the entire hemisphere, the evaluation is performed for the entire hemisphere as well as for the low latitudes, midlatitudes and high latitudes using the Odin/SMR 1-year data set as reference. To assess the impact of using different data sets for such an evaluation study we repeat the evaluation for the polar lower stratosphere using the ILAS/ILAS-II data set. Only small differences were found using ILAS/ILAS-II instead of Odin/SMR as a reference, thus, showing that the results are not influenced by the particular satellite data set used for the evaluation. The evaluation of CLaMS, KASIMA and E5M1 shows that all models are in agreement with Odin/SMR and ILAS/ILAS-II. Differences are generally in the range of ±20%. Larger differences (up to −40%) are found in all models at 500±25 K for N2O mixing ratios greater than 200 ppbv, thus in air masses of tropical character. Generally, the largest differences were found for the tropics and the lowest for the polar regions. However, an underestimation of polar winter ozone loss was found both in KASIMA and E5M1 both in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere.
10.
  • Kulmala, M., et al. (författare)
  • Introduction: European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) : integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9, s. 2825-2841
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project EUCAARI is an EU Research Framework 6 integrated project focusing on understanding the interactions of climate and air pollution. EUCAARI works in an integrative and multidisciplinary way from nano-to global scale. EUCAARI brings together several leading European research groups, state-of-the-art infrastructure and some key scientists from third countries to investigate the role of aerosol on climate and air quality. Altogether 48 partners from 25 countries are participating in EUCAARI. During the first 16 months EUCAARI has built operational systems, e. g. established pan-European measurement network for Lagrangian studies and four stations in developing countries. Also an improved understanding of nanoscale processes (like nucleation) has been implemented in global models. Here we present the research methods, organisation, operations and first results of EUCAARI.
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