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Sökning: L773:1680 7316 > (2009)

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1.
  • Gunthe, S. S., et al. (författare)
  • Cloud condensation nuclei in pristine tropical rainforest air of Amazonia: size-resolved measurements and modeling of atmospheric aerosol composition and CCN activity
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 9:19, s. 7551-7575
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We have measured and characterized CCN at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S=0.10-0.82% in pristine tropical rainforest air during the AMAZE-08 campaign in central Amazonia. The effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosol particles varied in the range of kappa approximate to 0.1-0.4 (0.16+/-0.06 arithmetic mean and standard deviation). The overall median value of kappa approximate to 0.15 was by a factor of two lower than the values typically observed for continental aerosols in other regions of the world. Aitken mode particles were less hygroscopic than accumulation mode particles (kappa approximate to 0.1 at D approximate to 50 nm; kappa approximate to 0.2 at D approximate to 200 nm), which is in agreement with earlier hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) studies. The CCN measurement results are consistent with aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) data, showing that the organic mass fraction (f(org)) was on average as high as similar to 90% in the Aitken mode (D <= 100 nm) and decreased with increasing particle diameter in the accumulation mode (similar to 80% at D approximate to 200 nm). The kappa values exhibited a negative linear correlation with f(org) (R-2=0.81), and extrapolation yielded the following effective hygroscopicity parameters for organic and inorganic particle components: kappa(org)approximate to 0.1 which can be regarded as the effective hygroscopicity of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and kappa(inorg)approximate to 0.6 which is characteristic for ammonium sulfate and related salts. Both the size dependence and the temporal variability of effective particle hygroscopicity could be parameterized as a function of AMS-based organic and inorganic mass fractions (kappa(p)=kappa(org) x f(org)+kappa(inorg) x f(inorg)). The CCN number concentrations predicted with kappa(p) were in fair agreement with the measurement results (similar to 20% average deviation). The median CCN number concentrations at S=0.1-0.82% ranged from N-CCN,N-0.10 approximate to 35 cm(-3) to N-CCN,N-0.82 approximate to 160 cm(-3), the median concentration of aerosol particles larger than 30 nm was N-CN,N-30 approximate to 200 cm(-3), and the corresponding integral CCN efficiencies were in the range of N-CCN,N-0.10/NCN,N-30 approximate to 0.1 to N-CCN,N-0.82/NCN,N-30 approximate to 0.8. Although the number concentrations and hygroscopicity parameters were much lower in pristine rainforest air, the integral CCN efficiencies observed were similar to those in highly polluted megacity air. Moreover, model calculations of N-CCN,N-S assuming an approximate global average value of kappa approximate to 0.3 for continental aerosols led to systematic overpredictions, but the average deviations exceeded similar to 50% only at low water vapor supersaturation (0.1%) and low particle number concentrations (<= 100 cm(-3)). Model calculations assuming aconstant aerosol size distribution led to higher average deviations at all investigated levels of supersaturation: similar to 60% for the campaign average distribution and similar to 1600% for a generic remote continental size distribution. These findings confirm earlier studies suggesting that aerosol particle number and size are the major predictors for the variability of the CCN concentration in continental boundary layer air, followed by particle composition and hygroscopicity as relatively minor modulators. Depending on the required and applicable level of detail, the information and parameterizations presented in this paper should enable efficient description of the CCN properties of pristine tropical rainforest aerosols of Amazonia in detailed process models as well as in large-scale atmospheric and climate models.
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2.
  • Hussein, T., et al. (författare)
  • Time span and spatial scale of regional new particle formation events over Finland and Southern Sweden
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 9:14, s. 4699-4716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the time span and spatial scale of regional new particle formation (NPF) events in Finland and Southern Sweden using measured particle number size distributions at five background stations. We define the time span of a NPF event as the time period from the first moment when the newly formed mode of aerosol particles is observable below 25 nm until the newly formed mode is not any more distinguishable from other background modes of aerosol particles after growing to bigger sizes. We identify the spatial scale of regional NPF events based on two independent approaches. The first approach is based on the observation within a network of stationary measurement stations and the second approach is based on the time span and the history of air masses back-trajectories. According to the second approach, about 60% and 28% of the events can be traced to distances longer than 220 km upwind from where the events were observed in Southern Finland (Hyytiala) and Northern Finland (Varrio), respectively. The analysis also showed that the observed regional NPF events started over the continents but not over the Atlantic Ocean. The first approach showed that although large spatial scale NPF events are frequently observed at several locations simultaneously, they are rarely identical (similar characteristics and temporal variations) due to differences in the initial meteorological and geographical conditions between the stations. The growth of the newly formed particles during large spatial scale events can be followed for more than 30 h where the newly formed aerosol particles end up in the Aitken mode (diameter 25-100 nm) and accumulation mode size ranges (diameter 0.1-1 mu m). This study showed clear evidence that regional NPF events can pose a significant source for accumulation mode particles over the Scandinavian continent provided that these findings can be generalized to many of the air masses traveling over the European continent.
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3.
  • Lee, S. S., et al. (författare)
  • Sensitivity of aerosol and cloud effects on radiation to cloud types: comparison between deep convective clouds and warm stratiform clouds over one-day period
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 9:7, s. 2555-2575
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cloud and aerosol effects on radiation in two contrasting cloud types, a deep mesoscale convective system (MCS) and warm stratocumulus clouds, are simulated and compared. At the top of the atmosphere, 45-81% of shortwave cloud forcing (SCF) is offset by longwave cloud forcing (LCF) in the MCS, whereas warm stratiform clouds show the offset of less than similar to 20%. 28% of increased negative SCF is offset by increased LCF with increasing aerosols in the MCS at the top of the atmosphere. However, the stratiform clouds show the offset of just around 2-5%. Ice clouds as well as liquid clouds play an important role in the larger offset in the MCS. Lower cloud-top height and cloud depth, characterizing cloud types, lead to the smaller offset of SCF by LCF and the offset of increased negative SCF by increased LCF at high aerosol in stratocumulus clouds than in the MCS. Supplementary simulations show that this dependence of modulation of LCF on cloud depth and cloud-top height is also simulated among different types of convective clouds.
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4.
  • Schurgers, Guy, et al. (författare)
  • Process-based modelling of biogenic monoterpene emissions combining production and release from storage
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 9:10, s. 3409-3423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Monoterpenes, primarily emitted by terrestrial vegetation, can influence atmospheric ozone chemistry, and can form precursors for secondary organic aerosol. The short-term emissions of monoterpenes have been well studied and understood, but their long-term variability, which is particularly important for atmospheric chemistry, has not. This understanding is crucial for the understanding of future changes. In this study, two algorithms of terrestrial biogenic monoterpene emissions, the first one based on the short-term volatilization of monoterpenes, as commonly used for temperature-dependent emissions, and the second one based on long-term production of monoterpenes (linked to photosynthesis) combined with emissions from storage, were compared and evaluated with measurements from a Ponderosa pine plantation (Blodgett Forest, California). The measurements were used to parameterize the long-term storage of monoterpenes, which takes place in specific storage organs and which determines the temporal distribution of the emissions over the year. The difference in assumptions between the first (emission-based) method and the second (production-based) method, which causes a difference in upscaling from instantaneous to daily emissions, requires roughly a doubling of emission capacities to bridge the gap to production capacities. The sensitivities to changes in temperature and light were tested for the new methods, the temperature sensitivity was slightly higher than that of the short-term temperature dependent algorithm. Applied on a global scale, the first algorithm resulted in annual total emissions of 29.6 Tg C a(-1), the second algorithm resulted in 31.8 Tg Ca-1 when applying the correction factor 2 between emission capacities and production capacities. However, the exact magnitude of such a correction is spatially varying and hard to determine as a global average.
5.
  • Slemr, F., et al. (författare)
  • Gaseous mercury distribution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere observed onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 9:6, s. 1957-1969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was measured onboard a passenger aircraft during monthly CARIBIC flights (Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) made between May 2005 and March 2007 on the routes Frankfurt-Sao Paulo-Santiago de Chile and back and Frankfurt-Guangzhou-Manila and back. The data provide for the first time an insight into the seasonal distributions of TGM in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) of both hemispheres and demonstrate the importance of mercury emissions from biomass burning in the Southern Hemisphere. Numerous plumes were observed in the upper troposphere, the larger of which could be characterized in terms of Hg/CO emission ratios and their probable origins. During the flights to China TGM correlated with CO in the upper troposphere with a seasonally dependent slope reflecting the longer lifetime of elemental mercury when compared to that of CO. A pronounced depletion of TGM was always observed in the extratropical lowermost stratosphere. TGM concentrations there were found to decrease with the increasing concentrations of particles. Combined with the large concentrations of particle bond mercury in the stratosphere observed by others, this finding suggests either a direct conversion of TGM to particle bound mercury or an indirect conversion via a semivolatile bivalent mercury compound. Based on concurrent measurements of SF6 during two flights, the rate of this conversion is estimated to 0.4 ng m(-3) yr(-1). A zero TGM concentration was not observed during some 200 flight hours in the lowermost stratosphere suggesting an equilibrium between the gaseous and particulate mercury.
6.
  • Young, P. J., et al. (författare)
  • The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 9:8, s. 2793-2803
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O-3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O-3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O-3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv) vs. less polluted (O-3 increases of up to 10 ppbv) source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by similar to 7 months (6.6%). Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics (such as global radiative forcing) to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.
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7.
  • Ahlm, L., et al. (författare)
  • Aerosol number fluxes over the Amazon rain forest during the wet season
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9:24, s. 9381-9400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Number fluxes of particles with diameter larger than 10 nm were measured with the eddy covariance method over the Amazon rain forest during the wet season as part of the LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) campaign 2008. The primary goal was to investigate whether sources or sinks dominate the aerosol number flux in the tropical rain forest-atmosphere system. During the measurement campaign, from 12 March to 18 May, 60% of the particle fluxes pointed downward, which is a similar fraction to what has been observed over boreal forests. The net deposition flux prevailed even in the absolute cleanest atmospheric conditions during the campaign and therefore cannot be explained only by deposition of anthropogenic particles. The particle transfer velocity vt increased with increasing friction velocity and the relation is described by the equation vt=2.4×10?3×u* where u* is the friction velocity. Upward particle fluxes often appeared in the morning hours and seem to a large extent to be an effect of entrainment fluxes into a growing mixed layer rather than primary aerosol emission. In general, the number source of primary aerosol particles within the footprint area of the measurements was small, possibly because the measured particle number fluxes reflect mostly particles less than approximately 200 nm. This is an indication that the contribution of primary biogenic aerosol particles to the aerosol population in the Amazon boundary layer may be low in terms of number concentrations. However, the possibility of horizontal variations in primary aerosol emission over the Amazon rain forest cannot be ruled out.
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8.
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9.
  • Ekström, Sanna, et al. (författare)
  • The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3-C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. - 1680-7316 ; 9:3, s. 973-980
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono-and polysaccharides) and polyols such as the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. Because of their high solubility these compounds are considered as potentially efficient CCN material. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Kohler curves for C3-C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what was expected, none of these compounds displayed a higher CCN efficiency than organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as saccharides and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation than other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, in contrary to recently suggested
10.
  • Engström, Anders, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Estimating trajectory uncertainties due to flow dependent errors in the atmospheric analysis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9:22, s. 8857-8867
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The uncertainty of a calculated trajectory is dependent on the uncertainty in the atmospheric analysis. Using the Ensemble Transform method (originally adapted for ensemble forecasting) we sample the analysis uncertainty in order to create an ensemble of analyses where a trajectory is started from each perturbed analysis. This method, called the Ensemble analysis method (EA), is compared to the Initial spread method (IS), where the trajectory receptor point is perturbed in the horizontal and vertical direction to create a set of trajectories used to estimate the trajectory uncertainty. The deviation growth is examined for one summer and one winter month and for 15 different geographical locations. We find up to a 40% increase in trajectory deviation in the mid-latitudes using the EA method. A simple model for trajectory deviation growth speed is set up and validated. It is shown that the EA method result in a faster error growth compared to the IS method. In addition, two case studies are examined to qualitatively illustrate how the flow dependent analysis uncertainty can impact the trajectory calculations. We find a more irregular behavior for the EA trajectories compared to the IS trajectories and a significantly increased uncertainty in the trajectory origin. We conclude that by perturbing the analysis in agreement with the analysis uncertainties the error in backward trajectory calculations can be more consistently estimated.
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