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Sökning: L773:1680 7316 > Baltensperger U.

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1.
  • Fuzzi, S., et al. (författare)
  • Particulate matter, air quality and climate : lessons learned and future needs
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 15:14, s. 8217-8299
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which have allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and for climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol sciences and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. However, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important influences on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of the different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 degrees C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China and the USA. Thus, there is much that could be done to reduce the effects of atmospheric PM on the climate and the health of the environment and the human population. A prioritized list of actions to mitigate the full range of effects of PM is currently undeliverable due to shortcomings in the knowledge of aerosol science; among the shortcomings, the roles of PM in global climate and the relative roles of different PM precursor sources and their response to climate and land use change over the remaining decades of this century are prominent. In any case, the evidence from this paper strongly advocates for an integrated approach to air quality and climate policies.
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3.
  • Kim, J., et al. (författare)
  • Hygroscopicity of nanoparticles produced from homogeneous nucleation in the CLOUD experiments
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 16:1, s. 293-304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sulfuric acid, amines and oxidized organics have been found to be important compounds in the nucleation and initial growth of atmospheric particles. Because of the challenges involved in determining the chemical composition of objects with very small mass, however, the properties of the freshly nucleated particles and the detailed pathways of their formation processes are still not clear. In this study,we focus on a challenging size range, i.e., particles that have grown to diameters of 10 and 15 nm following nucleation, and measure their water uptake. Water uptake is useful information for indirectly obtaining chemical composition of aerosol particles. We use a nanometer-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) at sub-saturated conditions (ca. 90% relative humidity at 293 K) to measure the hygroscopicity of particles during the seventh Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD7) campaign performed at CERN in 2012. In CLOUD7, the hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from alpha-pinene oxidation. The hygroscopicity parameter kappa decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles. No clear effect of the sulfuric acid concentration on the hygroscopicity of 10 nm particles produced from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine was observed, whereas the hygroscopicity of 15 nm particles sharply decreased with decreasing sulfuric acid concentrations. In particular, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 5.1 x 10(6) molecules cm(-3) in the gas phase, and the dimethylamine mixing ratio was 11.8 ppt, the measured kappa of 15 nm particles was 0.31 +/- 0.01: close to the value reported for dimethylaminium sulfate (DMAS) (kappa(DMAS) similar to 0.28). Furthermore, the difference in kappa between sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid-dimethylamine experiments increased with increasing particle size. The kappa values of particles in the presence of sulfuric acid and organics were much smaller than those of particles in the presence of sulfuric acid and dimethylamine. This suggests that the organics produced from alpha-pinene ozonolysis play a significant role in particle growth even at 10 nm sizes.
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4.
  • Kulmala, M., et al. (författare)
  • General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 11:24, s. 13061-13143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.
5.
  • Kulmala, M., et al. (författare)
  • Introduction: European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) : integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9, s. 2825-2841
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project EUCAARI is an EU Research Framework 6 integrated project focusing on understanding the interactions of climate and air pollution. EUCAARI works in an integrative and multidisciplinary way from nano-to global scale. EUCAARI brings together several leading European research groups, state-of-the-art infrastructure and some key scientists from third countries to investigate the role of aerosol on climate and air quality. Altogether 48 partners from 25 countries are participating in EUCAARI. During the first 16 months EUCAARI has built operational systems, e. g. established pan-European measurement network for Lagrangian studies and four stations in developing countries. Also an improved understanding of nanoscale processes (like nucleation) has been implemented in global models. Here we present the research methods, organisation, operations and first results of EUCAARI.
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6.
  • Spracklen, D. V., et al. (författare)
  • Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 10:10, s. 4775-4793
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We synthesised observations of total particle number (CN) concentration from 36 sites around the world. We found that annual mean CN concentrations are typically 300-2000 cm(-3) in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT) and 1000-10 000 cm(-3) in the continental boundary layer (BL). Many sites exhibit pronounced seasonality with summer time concentrations a factor of 2-10 greater than wintertime concentrations. We used these CN observations to evaluate primary and secondary sources of particle number in a global aerosol microphysics model. We found that emissions of primary particles can reasonably reproduce the spatial pattern of observed CN concentration (R-2=0.46) but fail to explain the observed seasonal cycle (R-2=0.1). The modeled CN concentration in the FT was biased low (normalised mean bias, NMB=-88%) unless a secondary source of particles was included, for example from binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water (NMB=-25%). Simulated CN concentrations in the continental BL were also biased low (NMB=-74%) unless the number emission of anthropogenic primary particles was increased or a mechanism that results in particle formation in the BL was included. We ran a number of simulations where we included an empirical BL nucleation mechanism either using the activation-type mechanism (nucleation rate, J, proportional to gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration to the power one) or kinetic-type mechanism (J proportional to sulfuric acid to the power two) with a range of nucleation coefficients. We found that the seasonal CN cycle observed at continental BL sites was better simulated by BL particle formation (R-2=0.3) than by increasing the number emission from primary anthropogenic sources (R-2=0.18). The nucleation constants that resulted in best overall match between model and observed CN concentrations were consistent with values derived in previous studies from detailed case studies at individual sites. In our model, kinetic and activation-type nucleation parameterizations gave similar agreement with observed monthly mean CN concentrations.
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7.
  • Zieger, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of relative humidity on aerosol light scattering : results from different European sites
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 13:21, s. 10609-10631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficient (sigma(sp)) is described in this study by comparing measurements from five European sites: the Jungfraujoch, located in the Swiss Alps at 3580 m a.s.l.; Ny-angstrom lesund, located on Spitsbergen in the Arctic; Mace Head, a coastal site in Ireland; Cabauw, a rural site in the Netherlands; and Melpitz, a regional background site in Eastern Germany. These sites were selected according to the aerosol type usually encountered at that location. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH, lambda) is the key parameter to describe the effect of water uptake on the particle light scattering. It is defined as the sigma(sp)(RH) at a certain relative humidity (RH) and wavelength lambda divided by its dry value. f(RH) at the five sites varied widely, starting at very low values of f(RH = 85%, lambda = 550 nm) around 1.28 for mineral dust, and reaching up to 3.41 for Arctic aerosol. Hysteresis behavior was observed at all sites except at the Jungfraujoch (due to the absence of sea salt). Closure studies and Mie simulations showed that both size and chemical composition determine the magnitude of f(RH). Both parameters are also needed to successfully predict f(RH). Finally, the measurement results were compared to the widely used aerosol model, OPAC (Hess et al., 1998). Significant discrepancies were seen, especially at intermediate RH ranges; these were mainly attributed to inappropriate implementation of hygroscopic growth in the OPAC model. Replacement of the hygroscopic growth with values from the recent literature resulted in a clear improvement of the OPAC model.
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