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Sökning: L773:1680 7316 > Baltensperger U.

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1.
  • Asmi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Aerosol decadal trends - Part 2: In-situ aerosol particle number concentrations at GAW and ACTRIS stations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 13:2, s. 895-916
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have analysed the trends of total aerosol particle number concentrations (N) measured at long-term measurement stations involved either in the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and/or EU infrastructure project ACTRIS. The sites are located in Europe, North America, Antarctica, and on Pacific Ocean islands. The majority of the sites showed clear decreasing trends both in the full-length time series, and in the intra-site comparison period of 2001-2010, especially during the winter months. Several potential driving processes for the observed trends were studied, and even though there are some similarities between N trends and air temperature changes, the most likely cause of many northern hemisphere trends was found to be decreases in the anthropogenic emissions of primary particles, SO2 or some co-emitted species. We could not find a consistent agreement between the trends of N and particle optical properties in the few stations with long time series of all of these properties. The trends of N and the proxies for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were generally consistent in the few European stations where the measurements were available. This work provides a useful comparison analysis for modelling studies of trends in aerosol number concentrations.
2.
  • Asmi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Number size distributions and seasonality of submicron particles in Europe 2008-2009
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 11:11, s. 5505-5538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two years of harmonized aerosol number size distribution data from 24 European field monitoring sites have been analysed. The results give a comprehensive overview of the European near surface aerosol particle number concentrations and number size distributions between 30 and 500 nm of dry particle diameter. Spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols in the particle sizes most important for climate applications are presented. We also analyse the annual, weekly and diurnal cycles of the aerosol number concentrations, provide log-normal fitting parameters for median number size distributions, and give guidance notes for data users. Emphasis is placed on the usability of results within the aerosol modelling community.
3.
  • Beddows, D. C. S., et al. (författare)
  • Variations in tropospheric submicron particle size distributions across the European continent 2008-2009
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 14:8, s. 4327-4348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cluster analysis of particle number size distributions from background sites across Europe is presented. This generated a total of nine clusters of particle size distributions which could be further combined into two main groups, namely: a south-to-north category (four clusters) and a west-to-east category (five clusters). The first group was identified as most frequently being detected inside and around northern Germany and neighbouring countries, showing clear evidence of local afternoon nucleation and growth events that could be linked to movement of air masses from south to north arriving ultimately at the Arctic contributing to Arctic haze. The second group of particle size spectra proved to have narrower size distributions and collectively showed a dependence of modal diameter upon the longitude of the site (west to east) at which they were most frequently detected. These clusters indicated regional nucleation (at the coastal sites) growing to larger modes further inland. The apparent growth rate of the modal diameter was around 0.6-0.9 nm h(-1). Four specific air mass back-trajectories were successively taken as case studies to examine in real time the evolution of aerosol size distributions across Europe. While aerosol growth processes can be observed as aerosol traverses Europe, the processes are often obscured by the addition of aerosol by emissions en route. This study revealed that some of the 24 stations exhibit more complex behaviour than others, especially when impacted by local sources or a variety of different air masses. Overall, the aerosol size distribution clustering analysis greatly simplifies the complex data set and allows a description of aerosol aging processes, which reflects the longer-term average development of particle number size distributions as air masses advect across Europe.
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4.
  • Crippa, M., et al. (författare)
  • Organic aerosol components derived from 25 AMS data sets across Europe using a consistent ME-2 based source apportionment approach
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 14:12, s. 6159-6176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organic aerosols (OA) represent one of the major constituents of submicron particulate matter (PM1) and comprise a huge variety of compounds emitted by different sources. Three intensive measurement field campaigns to investigate the aerosol chemical composition all over Europe were carried out within the framework of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) and the intensive campaigns of European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) during 2008 (May-June and September-October) and 2009 (February-March). In this paper we focus on the identification of the main organic aerosol sources and we define a standardized methodology to perform source apportionment using positive matrix factorization (PMF) with the multilinear engine (ME-2) on Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data. Our source apportionment procedure is tested and applied on 25 data sets accounting for two urban, several rural and remote and two high altitude sites; therefore it is likely suitable for the treatment of AMS-related ambient data sets. For most of the sites, four organic components are retrieved, improving significantly previous source apportionment results where only a separation in primary and secondary OA sources was possible. Generally, our solutions include two primary OA sources, i.e. hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and biomass burning OA (BBOA) and two secondary OA components, i.e. semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). For specific sites cooking-related (COA) and marine-related sources (MSA) are also separated. Finally, our work provides a large overview of organic aerosol sources in Europe and an interesting set of highly time resolved data for modeling purposes.
5.
  • Frosch, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • CCN activity and volatility of beta-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 13:4, s. 2283-2297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a series of smog chamber experiments, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of beta-caryophyllene was characterized by determining the CCN derived hygroscopicity parameter, kappa(CCN), from experimental data. Two types of CCN counters, operating at different temperatures, were used. The effect of semi-volatile organic compounds on the CCN activity of SOA was studied using a thermodenuder. Overall, SOA was only slightly CCN active (with kappa(CCN) in the range 0.001-0.16), and in dark experiments with no OH scavenger present, kappa(CCN) decreased when particles were sent through the thermodenuder (with a temperature up to 50 degrees C). SOA was generated under different experimental conditions: In some experiments, an OH scavenger (2-butanol) was added. SOA from these experiments was less CCN active than SOA produced in experiments without an OH scavenger (i.e. where OH was produced during ozonolysis). In other experiments, lights were turned on, either without or with the addition of HONO (OH source). This led to the formation of more CCN active SOA. SOA was aged up to 30 h through exposure to ozone and (in experiments with no OH scavenger present) to OH. In all experiments, the derived kappa(CCN) consistently increased with time after initial injection of beta-caryophyllene, showing that chemical ageing increases the CCN activity of beta-caryophyllene SOA. kappa(CCN) was also observed to depend on supersaturation, which was explained either as an evaporation artifact from semi-volatile SOA (only observed in experiments lacking light exposure) or, alternatively, by effects related to chemical composition depending on dry particle size. Using the method of Threshold Droplet Growth Analysis it was also concluded that the activation kinetics of the SOA do not differ significantly from calibration ammonium sulphate aerosol for particles aged for several hours.
6.
  • Mann, G. W., et al. (författare)
  • Intercomparison and evaluation of global aerosol microphysical properties among AeroCom models of a range of complexity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 14:9, s. 4679-4713
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations to be determined by fundamental aerosol processes, which should lead to a more physically based simulation of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. This study examines the global variation in particle size distribution simulated by 12 global aerosol microphysics models to quantify model diversity and to identify any common biases against observations. Evaluation against size distribution measurements from a new European network of aerosol supersites shows that the mean model agrees quite well with the observations at many sites on the annual mean, but there are some seasonal biases common to many sites. In particular, at many of these European sites, the accumulation mode number concentration is biased low during winter and Aitken mode concentrations tend to be overestimated in winter and underestimated in summer. At high northern latitudes, the models strongly underpredict Aitken and accumulation particle concentrations compared to the measurements, consistent with previous studies that have highlighted the poor performance of global aerosol models in the Arctic. In the marine boundary layer, the models capture the observed meridional variation in the size distribution, which is dominated by the Aitken mode at high latitudes, with an increasing concentration of accumulation particles with decreasing latitude. Considering vertical profiles, the models reproduce the observed peak in total particle concentrations in the upper troposphere due to new particle formation, although modelled peak concentrations tend to be biased high over Europe. Overall, the multimodel-mean data set simulates the global variation of the particle size distribution with a good degree of skill, suggesting that most of the individual global aerosol microphysics models are performing well, although the large model diversity indicates that some models are in poor agreement with the observations. Further work is required to better constrain size-resolved primary and secondary particle number sources, and an improved understanding of nucleation and growth (e. g. the role of nitrate and secondary organics) will improve the fidelity of simulated particle size distributions.
7.
  • Paramonov, M., et al. (författare)
  • A synthesis of cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) measurements within the EUCAARI network
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 15:21, s. 12211-12229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) measurements performed at 14 locations around the world within the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) framework have been analysed and discussed with respect to the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation and hygroscopic properties of the atmospheric aerosol. The annual mean ratio of activated cloud condensation nuclei (N-CCN) to the total number concentration of particles (N-CN), known as the activated fraction A, shows a similar functional dependence on supersaturation S at many locations - exceptions to this being certain marine locations, a free troposphere site and background sites in south-west Germany and northern Finland. The use of total number concentration of particles above 50 and 100 nm diameter when calculating the activated fractions (A(50) and A(100), respectively) renders a much more stable dependence of A on S; A(50) and A(100) also reveal the effect of the size distribution on CCN activation. With respect to chemical composition, it was found that the hygroscopicity of aerosol particles as a function of size differs among locations. The hygroscopicity parameter kappa decreased with an increasing size at a continental site in south-west Germany and fluctuated without any particular size dependence across the observed size range in the remote tropical North Atlantic and rural central Hungary. At all other locations kappa increased with size. In fact, in Hyytiala, Vavihill, Jungfraujoch and Pallas the difference in hygroscopicity between Aitken and accumulation mode aerosol was statistically significant at the 5% significance level. In a boreal environment the assumption of a size-independent kappa can lead to a potentially substantial overestimation of N-CCN at S levels above 0.6 %. The same is true for other locations where kappa was found to increase with size. While detailed information about aerosol hygroscopicity can significantly improve the prediction of N-CCN, total aerosol number concentration and aerosol size distribution remain more important parameters. The seasonal and diurnal patterns of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties vary among three long-term locations, highlighting the spatial and temporal variability of potential aerosol-cloud interactions in various environments.
8.
  • Reddington, C. L., et al. (författare)
  • Primary versus secondary contributions to particle number concentrations in the European boundary layer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 11:23, s. 12007-12036
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is important to understand the relative contribution of primary and secondary particles to regional and global aerosol so that models can attribute aerosol radiative forcing to different sources. In large-scale models, there is considerable uncertainty associated with treatments of particle formation (nucleation) in the boundary layer (BL) and in the size distribution of emitted primary particles, leading to uncertainties in predicted cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Here we quantify how primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation influence size-resolved particle number concentrations in the BL using a global aerosol microphysics model and aircraft and ground site observations made during the May 2008 campaign of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI). We tested four different parameterisations for BL nucleation and two assumptions for the emission size distribution of anthropogenic and wildfire carbonaceous particles. When we emit carbonaceous particles at small sizes (as recommended by the Aerosol Inter-comparison project, AEROCOM), the spatial distributions of campaign-mean number concentrations of particles with diameter >50 nm (N-50) and >100 nm (N-100) were well captured by the model (R-2 >= 0.8) and the normalised mean bias (NMB) was also small (-18% for N-50 and -1% for N-100). Emission of carbonaceous particles at larger sizes, which we consider to be more realistic for low spatial resolution global models, results in equally good correlation but larger bias (R-2 >= 0.8, NMB = -52% and -29%), which could be partly but not entirely compensated by BL nucleation. Within the uncertainty of the observations and accounting for the uncertainty in the size of emitted primary particles, BL nucleation makes a statistically significant contribution to CCN-sized particles at less than a quarter of the ground sites. Our results show that a major source of uncertainty in CCN-sized particles in polluted European air is the emitted size of primary carbonaceous particles. New information is required not just from direct observations, but also to determine the "effective emission size" and composition of primary particles appropriate for different resolution models.
9.
  • Fuzzi, S., et al. (författare)
  • Particulate matter, air quality and climate : lessons learned and future needs
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 15:14, s. 8217-8299
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which have allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and for climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol sciences and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. However, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important influences on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of the different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 degrees C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China and the USA. Thus, there is much that could be done to reduce the effects of atmospheric PM on the climate and the health of the environment and the human population. A prioritized list of actions to mitigate the full range of effects of PM is currently undeliverable due to shortcomings in the knowledge of aerosol science; among the shortcomings, the roles of PM in global climate and the relative roles of different PM precursor sources and their response to climate and land use change over the remaining decades of this century are prominent. In any case, the evidence from this paper strongly advocates for an integrated approach to air quality and climate policies.
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10.
  • Hallquist, Mattias, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: Current and emerging issues
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9:14, s. 5155-5236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with an update on the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and is followed by an overview of the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors, gas-particle partitioning theory and the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail: molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.
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