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Sökning: L773:1680 7316 > Brenninkmeijer C A M

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  • Andersson, Sandra, et al. (författare)
  • Composition and evolution of volcanic aerosol from eruptions of Kasatochi, Sarychev and Eyjafjallajokull in 2008-2010 based on CARIBIC observations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 13:4, s. 1781-1796
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large volcanic eruptions impact significantly on climate and lead to ozone depletion due to injection of particles and gases into the stratosphere where their residence times are long. In this the composition of volcanic aerosol is an important but inadequately studied factor. Samples of volcanically influenced aerosol were collected following the Kasatochi (Alaska), Sarychev (Russia) and also during the Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) eruptions in the period 2008-2010. Sampling was conducted by the CARIBIC platform during regular flights at an altitude of 10-12 km as well as during dedicated flights through the volcanic clouds from the eruption of Eyjafjallajokull in spring 2010. Elemental concentrations of the collected aerosol were obtained by accelerator-based analysis. Aerosol from the Eyjafjallajokull volcanic clouds was identified by high concentrations of sulphur and elements pointing to crustal origin, and confirmed by trajectory analysis. Signatures of volcanic influence were also used to detect volcanic aerosol in stratospheric samples collected following the Sarychev and Kasatochi eruptions. In total it was possible to identify 17 relevant samples collected between 1 and more than 100 days following the eruptions studied. The volcanically influenced aerosol mainly consisted of ash, sulphate and included a carbonaceous component. Samples collected in the volcanic cloud from Eyjafjallajokull were dominated by the ash and sulphate component (similar to 45% each) while samples collected in the tropopause region and LMS mainly consisted of sulphate (50-77%) and carbon (21-43%). These fractions were increasing/decreasing with the age of the aerosol. Because of the long observation period, it was possible to analyze the evolution of the relationship between the ash and sulphate components of the volcanic aerosol. From this analysis the residence time (1/e) of sulphur dioxide in the studied volcanic cloud was estimated to be 45 +/- 22 days.
  • Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Civil Aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: The new CARIBIC system
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 7:18, s. 4953-4976
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com). Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance) in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O-3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O-2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter). Furthermore, an optical particle counter (OPC) and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) are incorporated. Aerosol samples are collected for analysis of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases (including isotopic composition of CO2) in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS) with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. The flying observatory, its equipment and examples of measurement results are reported.
  • Heue, K. -P., et al. (författare)
  • Observations of the 2008 Kasatochi volcanic SO2 plume by CARIBIC aircraft DOAS and the GOME-2 satellite
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 10:10, s. 4699-4713
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The 2008 Kasatochi volcanic eruption emitted 1.5-2.5 Tg SO2 into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Parts of the main volcanic plume (gases and particles) reached central Europe a week after the eruption and were detected there by the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for Regular investigation of the Atmosphere based on an Instrument Container) flying observatory. The plume was also observed by the GOME-2 satellite instrument, only a few hours after the CARIBIC aircraft had crossed the plume, thus giving a unique opportunity to compare results. Trajectories and local wind speeds are investigated in detail using the GOME-2 and CARIBIC observations for better comparison of the results from these two observational systems. A comparison of the satellite spatial pattern with the local observations of the wind speed and the trajectory model TRAJKS showed a slight discrepancy, which has to be considered for satellite validation. Hence, it appears that detailed analyses of wind speeds are required. Emitted and secondary particles, partly measured and sampled by the CARIBIC in situ instruments, affected the DOAS SO2 measurements, of both CARIBIC and GOME-2. Overall GOME-2 and the CARIBIC SO2 measurements agree very well. The major uncertainties remain the actual wind speed needed to properly correct for the advection of the plume between the different overpass times and effects of aerosols on DOAS retrievals. The good agreement can be seen as validation for both GOME-2 and CARIBIC DOAS observations.
  • Heue, K-P, et al. (författare)
  • SO2 and BrO observation in the plume of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano 2010: CARIBIC and GOME-2 retrievals
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 11:6, s. 2973-2989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ash cloud of the Eyjafjallajokull (also referred to as: Eyjafjalla (e.g. Schumann et al., 2011), Eyjafjoll or Eyjafjoll (e.g. Ansmann et al., 2010)) volcano on Iceland caused closure of large parts of European airspace in April and May 2010. For the validation and improvement of the European volcanic ash forecast models several research flights were performed. Also the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory, which routinely measures at cruise altitude (approximate to 11 km) performed three dedicated measurements flights through sections of the ash plume. Although the focus of these flights was on the detection and quantification of the volcanic ash, we report here on sulphur dioxide (SO2) and bromine monoxide (BrO) measurements with the CARIBIC DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument during the second of these special flights on 16 May 2010. As the BrO and the SO2 observations coincide, we assume the BrO to have been formed inside the volcanic plume. Average SO2 and BrO mixing ratios of approximate to 40 ppb and approximate to 5 ppt respectively are retrieved inside the plume. The BrO to SO2 ratio retrieved from the CARIBIC observation is approximate to 1.3x10(-4). Both SO2 and BrO observations agree well with simultaneous satellite (GOME-2) observations. SO2 column densities retrieved from satellite observations are often used as an indicator for volcanic ash. As the CARIBIC O-4 column densities changed rapidly during the plume observation, we conclude that the aerosol and the SO2 plume are collocated. For SO2 some additional information on the local distribution can be derived from a comparison of forward and back scan GOME-2 data. More details on the local plume size and position are retrieved by combining CARIBIC and GOME-2 data.
  • Rauthe-Schoech, A., et al. (författare)
  • CARIBIC aircraft measurements of Eyjafjallajokull volcanic clouds in April/May 2010
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 12:2, s. 879-902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) project investigates physical and chemical processes in the Earth's atmosphere using a Lufthansa Airbus long-distance passenger aircraft. After the beginning of the explosive eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano on Iceland on 14 April 2010, the first CARIBIC volcano-specific measurement flight was carried out over the Baltic Sea and Southern Sweden on 20 April. Two more flights followed: one over Ireland and the Irish Sea on 16 May and the other over the Norwegian Sea on 19 May 2010. During these three special mission flights the CARIBIC container proved its merits as a comprehensive flying laboratory. The elemental composition of particles collected over the Baltic Sea during the first flight (20 April) indicated the presence of volcanic ash. Over Northern Ireland and the Irish Sea (16 May), the DOAS system detected SO2 and BrO co-located with volcanic ash particles that increased the aerosol optical depth. Over the Norwegian Sea (19 May), the optical particle counter detected a strong increase of particles larger than 400 nm diameter in a region where ash clouds were predicted by aerosol dispersion models. Aerosol particle samples collected over the Irish Sea and the Norwegian Sea showed large relative enhancements of the elements silicon, iron, titanium and calcium. Non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations in whole air samples collected on 16 and 19 May 2010 showed a pattern of removal of several hydrocarbons that is typical for chlorine chemistry in the volcanic clouds. Comparisons of measured ash concentrations and simulations with the FLEXPART dispersion model demonstrate the difficulty of detailed volcanic ash dispersion modelling due to the large variability of the volcanic cloud sources, extent and patchiness as well as the thin ash layers formed in the volcanic clouds.
  • Slemr, F., et al. (författare)
  • Gaseous mercury distribution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere observed onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 9:6, s. 1957-1969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was measured onboard a passenger aircraft during monthly CARIBIC flights (Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) made between May 2005 and March 2007 on the routes Frankfurt-Sao Paulo-Santiago de Chile and back and Frankfurt-Guangzhou-Manila and back. The data provide for the first time an insight into the seasonal distributions of TGM in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) of both hemispheres and demonstrate the importance of mercury emissions from biomass burning in the Southern Hemisphere. Numerous plumes were observed in the upper troposphere, the larger of which could be characterized in terms of Hg/CO emission ratios and their probable origins. During the flights to China TGM correlated with CO in the upper troposphere with a seasonally dependent slope reflecting the longer lifetime of elemental mercury when compared to that of CO. A pronounced depletion of TGM was always observed in the extratropical lowermost stratosphere. TGM concentrations there were found to decrease with the increasing concentrations of particles. Combined with the large concentrations of particle bond mercury in the stratosphere observed by others, this finding suggests either a direct conversion of TGM to particle bound mercury or an indirect conversion via a semivolatile bivalent mercury compound. Based on concurrent measurements of SF6 during two flights, the rate of this conversion is estimated to 0.4 ng m(-3) yr(-1). A zero TGM concentration was not observed during some 200 flight hours in the lowermost stratosphere suggesting an equilibrium between the gaseous and particulate mercury.
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