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Sökning: L773:1680 7316 > Kerminen V. M

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  • Kerminen, V-M, et al. (författare)
  • Cloud condensation nuclei production associated with atmospheric nucleation: a synthesis based on existing literature and new results
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 12:24, s. 12037-12059
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper synthesizes the available scientific information connecting atmospheric nucleation with subsequent cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) formation. We review both observations and model studies related to this topic, and discuss the potential climatic implications. We conclude that CCN production associated with atmospheric nucleation is both frequent and widespread phenomenon in many types of continental boundary layers, and probably also over a large fraction of the free troposphere. The contribution of nucleation to the global CCN budget spans a relatively large uncertainty range, which, together with our poor understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions, results in major uncertainties in the radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols. In order to better quantify the role of atmospheric nucleation in CCN formation and Earth System behavior, more information is needed on (i) the factors controlling atmospheric CCN production and (ii) the properties of both primary and secondary CCN and their interconnections. In future investigations, more emphasis should be put on combining field measurements with regional and large-scale model studies.
  • Makkonen, R., et al. (författare)
  • Air pollution control and decreasing new particle formation lead to strong climate warming
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 12:3, s. 1515-1524
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The number concentration of cloud droplets determines several climatically relevant cloud properties. A major cause for the high uncertainty in the indirect aerosol forcing is the availability of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn is highly sensitive to atmospheric new particle formation. Here we present the effect of new particle formation on anthropogenic aerosol forcing in present-day (year 2000) and future (year 2100) conditions. The present-day total aerosol forcing is increased from -1.0 W m(-2) to -1.6 W m(-2) when nucleation is introduced into the model. Nucleation doubles the change in aerosol forcing between years 2000 and 2100, from +0.6 W m(-2) to +1.4 W m(-2). Two climate feedbacks are studied, resulting in additional negative forcings of -0.1 W m(-2) (+10% DMS emissions in year 2100) and -0.5 W m(-2) (+50% BVOC emissions in year 2100). With the total aerosol forcing diminishing in response to air pollution control measures taking effect, warming from increased greenhouse gas concentrations can potentially increase at a very rapid rate.
  • Makkonen, R., et al. (författare)
  • BVOC-aerosol-climate interactions in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 12:21, s. 10077-10096
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The biosphere emits volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) which, after oxidation in the atmosphere, can partition on the existing aerosol population or even form new particles. The large quantities emitted provide means for a large potential impact on both aerosol direct and indirect effects. Biogenic responses to atmospheric temperature change can establish feedbacks even in rather short timescales. However, due to the complexity of organic aerosol partitioning, even the sign of these feedbacks is of large uncertainty. We use the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2 to explore the effect of BVOC emissions on new particle formation, clouds and climate. Two BVOC emission models, MEGAN2 and LPJ-GUESS, are used. MEGAN2 shows a 25% increase while LPJ-GUESS shows a slight decrease in global BVOC emission between years 2000 and 2100. The change of shortwave cloud forcing from year 1750 to 2000 ranges from -1.4 to -1.8 W m(-2) with 5 different nucleation mechanisms. We show that the change in shortwave cloud forcing from the year 2000 to 2100 ranges from 1.0 to 1.5 W m(-2). Although increasing future BVOC emissions provide 3-5% additional CCN, the effect on the cloud albedo change is modest. Due to simulated decreases in future cloud cover, the increased CCN concentrations from BVOCs can not provide significant additional cooling in the future.
  • Manninen, H. E., et al. (författare)
  • EUCAARI ion spectrometer measurements at 12 European sites - analysis of new particle formation events
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 10:16, s. 7907-7927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present comprehensive results on continuous atmospheric cluster and particle measurements in the size range similar to 1-42 nm within the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) project. We focused on characterizing the spatial and temporal variation of new particle formation events and relevant particle formation parameters across Europe. Different types of air ion and cluster mobility spectrometers were deployed at 12 field sites across Europe from March 2008 to May 2009. The measurements were conducted in a wide variety of environments, including coastal and continental locations as well as sites at different altitudes (both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere). New particle formation events were detected at all of the 12 field sites during the year-long measurement period. From the data, nucleation and growth rates of newly formed particles were determined for each environment. In a case of parallel ion and neutral cluster measurements, we could also estimate the relative contribution of ion-induced and neutral nucleation to the total particle formation. The formation rates of charged particles at 2 nm accounted for 1-30% of the corresponding total particle formation rates. As a significant new result, we found out that the total particle formation rate varied much more between the different sites than the formation rate of charged particles. This work presents, so far, the most comprehensive effort to experimentally characterize nucleation and growth of atmospheric molecular clusters and nanoparticles at ground-based observation sites on a continental scale.
  • Paramonov, M., et al. (författare)
  • A synthesis of cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) measurements within the EUCAARI network
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 15:21, s. 12211-12229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) measurements performed at 14 locations around the world within the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) framework have been analysed and discussed with respect to the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation and hygroscopic properties of the atmospheric aerosol. The annual mean ratio of activated cloud condensation nuclei (N-CCN) to the total number concentration of particles (N-CN), known as the activated fraction A, shows a similar functional dependence on supersaturation S at many locations - exceptions to this being certain marine locations, a free troposphere site and background sites in south-west Germany and northern Finland. The use of total number concentration of particles above 50 and 100 nm diameter when calculating the activated fractions (A(50) and A(100), respectively) renders a much more stable dependence of A on S; A(50) and A(100) also reveal the effect of the size distribution on CCN activation. With respect to chemical composition, it was found that the hygroscopicity of aerosol particles as a function of size differs among locations. The hygroscopicity parameter kappa decreased with an increasing size at a continental site in south-west Germany and fluctuated without any particular size dependence across the observed size range in the remote tropical North Atlantic and rural central Hungary. At all other locations kappa increased with size. In fact, in Hyytiala, Vavihill, Jungfraujoch and Pallas the difference in hygroscopicity between Aitken and accumulation mode aerosol was statistically significant at the 5% significance level. In a boreal environment the assumption of a size-independent kappa can lead to a potentially substantial overestimation of N-CCN at S levels above 0.6 %. The same is true for other locations where kappa was found to increase with size. While detailed information about aerosol hygroscopicity can significantly improve the prediction of N-CCN, total aerosol number concentration and aerosol size distribution remain more important parameters. The seasonal and diurnal patterns of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties vary among three long-term locations, highlighting the spatial and temporal variability of potential aerosol-cloud interactions in various environments.
  • Roldin, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Modelling the contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds to new particle formation in the Julich plant atmosphere chamber
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 15:18, s. 10777-10798
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We used the Aerosol Dynamics gas- and particle-phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM) to simulate the contribution of BVOC plant emissions to the observed new particle formation during photooxidation experiments performed in the Julich Plant-Atmosphere Chamber and to evaluate how well smog chamber experiments can mimic the atmospheric conditions during new particle formation events. ADCHAM couples the detailed gas-phase chemistry from Master Chemical Mechanism with a novel aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module. Our model simulations reveal that the observed particle growth may have either been controlled by the formation rate of semi- and low-volatility organic compounds in the gas phase or by acid catalysed heterogeneous reactions between semi-volatility organic compounds in the particle surface layer (e.g. peroxyhemiacetal dimer formation). The contribution of extremely low-volatility organic gas-phase compounds to the particle formation and growth was suppressed because of their rapid and irreversible wall losses, which decreased their contribution to the nano-CN formation and growth compared to the atmospheric situation. The best agreement between the modelled and measured total particle number concentration (R-2 > 0.95) was achieved if the nano-CN was formed by kinetic nucleation involving both sulphuric acid and organic compounds formed from OH oxidation of BVOCs.
  • Vaananen, R., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of particle size distribution changes between three measurement sites in northern Scandinavia
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 13:23, s. 11887-11903
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated atmospheric aerosol particle dynamics in a boreal forest zone in northern Scandinavia. We used aerosol number size distribution data measured with either a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) or scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) at three stations (Varrio, Pallas and Abisko), and combined these data with the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) air mass trajectory analysis. We compared three approaches analysis of new particle formation events, investigation of aerosol particle number size distributions during the air mass transport from the ocean to individual stations with different overland transport times, and analysis of changes in aerosol particle number size distributions during the air mass transport from one measurement station to another. Aitken-mode particles were found to have apparent average growth rates of 0.6-0.7 nm h(-1) when the air masses traveled over land. Particle growth rates during the new particle formation (NPF) events were 3-6 times higher than the apparent particle growth during the summer period. When comparing aerosol dynamics for different overland transport times between the different stations, no major differences were found, except that in Abisko the NPF events were observed to take place in air masses with shorter overland times than at the other stations. We speculate that this is related to the meteorological differences along the paths of air masses caused by the land surface topology. When comparing air masses traveling in an east-to-west direction with those traveling in a west-to-east direction, clear differences in the aerosol dynamics were seen. Our results suggest that the condensation growth has an important role in aerosol dynamics even when NPF is not evident.
  • Gagne, S., et al. (författare)
  • Factors influencing the contribution of ion-induced nucleation in a boreal forest, Finland
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 10:8, s. 3743-3757
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the longest series of measurements so far (2 years and 7 months) made with an Ion-DMPS at the SMEAR II measurement station in Hyytiala, Southern Finland. We show that the classification into overcharged (implying some participation of ion-induced nucleation) and undercharged (implying no or very little participation of ion-induced nucleation) days, based on Ion-DMPS measurements, agrees with the fraction of ion-induced nucleation based on NAIS measurements. Those classes are based on the ratio of ambient charged particle to steady-state charged particle concentration, known as the charging state. We analyzed the influence of different parameters on the contribution of ion-induced nucleation to the total particle formation rate. We found that the fraction of ion-induced nucleation is typically higher on warmer, drier and sunnier days compared to colder days with less solar radiation and a higher relative humidity. Also, we observed that bigger concentrations of new particles were produced on days with a smaller fraction of ion-induced nucleation. Moreover, sulfuric acid saturation ratios were smaller for days with a bigger fraction of ion-induced nucleation. Finally, we propose explanations on how these different parameters could influence neutral and ion-induced nucleation, and show that the different mechanisms seem to take place at the same time during an event. For example, we propose that these observed differences could be due to high temperature and low vapors' saturation ratios (water and sulfuric acid) increasing the height of the energy barrier a particle has to reach before it can grow and thus limiting neutral nucleation.
  • Hong, J., et al. (författare)
  • Hygroscopicity, CCN and volatility properties of submicron atmospheric aerosol in a boreal forest environment during the summer of 2010
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 14:9, s. 4733-4748
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (VH-TDMA) was applied to study the hygroscopicity and volatility properties of submicron atmospheric aerosol particles in a boreal forest environment in Hyytiala, Finland during the summer of 2010. Aitken and accumulation mode internally mixed particles (50 nm, 75 nm and 110 nm in diameter) were investigated. Hygroscopicity was found to increase with particle size. The relative mass fraction of organics and SO42- is probably the major contributor to the fluctuation of the hygroscopicity for all particle sizes. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCNC)-derived hygroscopicity parameter kappa was observed to be slightly higher than kappa calculated from VH-TDMA data under sub-saturated conditions, potential reasons for this behavior are discussed shortly. Also, the size-resolved volatility properties of particles were investigated. Upon heating, more small particles evaporated compared to large particles. There was a significant amount of aerosol volume (non-volatile material) left, even at heating temperatures of 280 degrees C. Using size resolved volatility-hygroscopicity analysis, we concluded that there was always hygroscopic material remaining in the particles at different heating temperatures, even at 280 degrees C. This indicates that the observed non-volatile aerosol material did not consist solely of black carbon.
  • Kulmala, M., et al. (författare)
  • General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 11:24, s. 13061-13143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.
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