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Sökning: L773:1680 7316 > Kulmala M.

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1.
  • Asmi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Aerosol decadal trends - Part 2: In-situ aerosol particle number concentrations at GAW and ACTRIS stations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Gmb. - 1680-7316. ; 13:2, s. 895-916
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have analysed the trends of total aerosol particle number concentrations (N) measured at long-term measurement stations involved either in the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and/or EU infrastructure project ACTRIS. The sites are located in Europe, North America, Antarctica, and on Pacific Ocean islands. The majority of the sites showed clear decreasing trends both in the full-length time series, and in the intra-site comparison period of 2001-2010, especially during the winter months. Several potential driving processes for the observed trends were studied, and even though there are some similarities between N trends and air temperature changes, the most likely cause of many northern hemisphere trends was found to be decreases in the anthropogenic emissions of primary particles, SO2 or some co-emitted species. We could not find a consistent agreement between the trends of N and particle optical properties in the few stations with long time series of all of these properties. The trends of N and the proxies for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were generally consistent in the few European stations where the measurements were available. This work provides a useful comparison analysis for modelling studies of trends in aerosol number concentrations.
2.
  • Asmi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Number size distributions and seasonality of submicron particles in Europe 2008-2009
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus GmbH. - 1680-7316. ; 11:11, s. 5505-5538
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two years of harmonized aerosol number size distribution data from 24 European field monitoring sites have been analysed. The results give a comprehensive overview of the European near surface aerosol particle number concentrations and number size distributions between 30 and 500 nm of dry particle diameter. Spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols in the particle sizes most important for climate applications are presented. We also analyse the annual, weekly and diurnal cycles of the aerosol number concentrations, provide log-normal fitting parameters for median number size distributions, and give guidance notes for data users. Emphasis is placed on the usability of results within the aerosol modelling community.
3.
  • Beddows, D. C. S., et al. (författare)
  • Variations in tropospheric submicron particle size distributions across the European continent 2008-2009
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus. - 1680-7316. ; 14:8, s. 4327-4348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cluster analysis of particle number size distributions from background sites across Europe is presented. This generated a total of nine clusters of particle size distributions which could be further combined into two main groups, namely: a south-to-north category (four clusters) and a west-to-east category (five clusters). The first group was identified as most frequently being detected inside and around northern Germany and neighbouring countries, showing clear evidence of local afternoon nucleation and growth events that could be linked to movement of air masses from south to north arriving ultimately at the Arctic contributing to Arctic haze. The second group of particle size spectra proved to have narrower size distributions and collectively showed a dependence of modal diameter upon the longitude of the site (west to east) at which they were most frequently detected. These clusters indicated regional nucleation (at the coastal sites) growing to larger modes further inland. The apparent growth rate of the modal diameter was around 0.6-0.9 nm h(-1). Four specific air mass back-trajectories were successively taken as case studies to examine in real time the evolution of aerosol size distributions across Europe. While aerosol growth processes can be observed as aerosol traverses Europe, the processes are often obscured by the addition of aerosol by emissions en route. This study revealed that some of the 24 stations exhibit more complex behaviour than others, especially when impacted by local sources or a variety of different air masses. Overall, the aerosol size distribution clustering analysis greatly simplifies the complex data set and allows a description of aerosol aging processes, which reflects the longer-term average development of particle number size distributions as air masses advect across Europe.
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4.
  • Hakkinen, S. A. K., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term volatility measurements of submicron atmospheric aerosol in Hyytiala, Finland
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 12:22, s. 10771-10786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The volatility of submicron atmospheric aerosol particles was investigated at a boreal forest site in Hyytiala, Finland from January 2008 to May 2010. These long-term observations allowed for studying the seasonal behavior of aerosol evaporation with a special focus on compounds that remained in the aerosol phase at 280 degrees C. The temperature-response of evaporation was also studied by heating the aerosol sample step-wise to six temperatures ranging from 80 degrees C to 280 degrees C. The mass fraction remaining after heating (MFR) was determined from the measured particle number size distributions before and after heating assuming a constant particle density (1.6 g cm(-3)). On average 19% of the total aerosol mass remained in the particulate phase at 280 degrees C. The particles evaporated less at low ambient temperatures during winter as compared with the warmer months. Black carbon (BC) fraction of aerosol mass correlated positively with the MFR at 280 degrees C, but could not explain it completely: most of the time a notable fraction of this nonvolatile residual was something other than BC. Using additional information on ambient meteorological conditions and results from an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), the chemical composition of MFR at 280 degrees C and its seasonal behavior was further examined. Correlation analysis with ambient temperature and mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) indicated that MFR at 280 degrees C is probably affected by anthropogenic emissions. On the other hand, results from the AMS analysis suggested that there may be very low-volatile organics, possibly organonitrates, in the non-volatile (at 280 degrees C) fraction of aerosol mass.
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5.
  • Hakkinen, S. A. K., et al. (författare)
  • Semi-empirical parameterization of size-dependent atmospheric nanoparticle growth in continental environments
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 13:15, s. 7665-7682
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The capability to accurately yet efficiently represent atmospheric nanoparticle growth by biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organics is a challenge for current atmospheric large-scale models. It is, however, crucial to predict nanoparticle growth accurately in order to reliably estimate the atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. In this work we introduce a simple semi-empirical parameterization for sub-20 nm particle growth that distributes secondary organics to the nanoparticles according to their size and is therefore able to reproduce particle growth observed in the atmosphere. The parameterization includes particle growth by sulfuric acid, secondary organics from monoterpene oxidation (SORG(MT)) and an additional condensable vapor of non-monoterpene organics (background). The performance of the proposed parameterization was investigated using ambient data on particle growth rates in three diameter ranges (1.5-3 nm, 3-7 nm and 7-20 nm). The growth rate data were acquired from particle / air ion number size distribution measurements at six continental sites over Europe. The longest time series of 7 yr (2003-2009) was obtained from a boreal forest site in Hyytiala, Finland, while about one year of data (2008-2009) was used for the other stations. The extensive ambient measurements made it possible to test how well the parameterization captures the seasonal cycle observed in sub-20 nm particle growth and to determine the weighing factors for distributing the SORG(MT) for different sized particles as well as the background mass flux (concentration). Besides the monoterpene oxidation products, background organics with a concentration comparable to SORGMT, around 6x10(7) cm(-3) (consistent with an additional global SOA yield of 100 Tg yr(-1)) was needed to reproduce the observed nanoparticle growth. Simulations with global models suggest that the background could be linked to secondary biogenic organics that are formed in the presence of anthropogenic pollution.
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6.
  • Hong, J., et al. (författare)
  • Hygroscopicity, CCN and volatility properties of submicron atmospheric aerosol in a boreal forest environment during the summer of 2010
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 14:9, s. 4733-4748
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (VH-TDMA) was applied to study the hygroscopicity and volatility properties of submicron atmospheric aerosol particles in a boreal forest environment in Hyytiala, Finland during the summer of 2010. Aitken and accumulation mode internally mixed particles (50 nm, 75 nm and 110 nm in diameter) were investigated. Hygroscopicity was found to increase with particle size. The relative mass fraction of organics and SO42- is probably the major contributor to the fluctuation of the hygroscopicity for all particle sizes. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCNC)-derived hygroscopicity parameter kappa was observed to be slightly higher than kappa calculated from VH-TDMA data under sub-saturated conditions, potential reasons for this behavior are discussed shortly. Also, the size-resolved volatility properties of particles were investigated. Upon heating, more small particles evaporated compared to large particles. There was a significant amount of aerosol volume (non-volatile material) left, even at heating temperatures of 280 degrees C. Using size resolved volatility-hygroscopicity analysis, we concluded that there was always hygroscopic material remaining in the particles at different heating temperatures, even at 280 degrees C. This indicates that the observed non-volatile aerosol material did not consist solely of black carbon.
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7.
  • Hussein, T., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation and modeling of the size fractionated aerosol particle number concentration measurements nearby a major road in Helsinki - Part II : Aerosol measurements within the SAPPHIRE project
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 7:15, s. 4081-4094
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study presents an evaluation and modeling exercise of the size fractionated aerosol particle number concentrations measured nearby a major road in Helsinki during 23 August-19 September 2003 and 14 January-11 February 2004. The available information also included electronic traffic counts, on-site meteorological measurements, and urban background particle number size distribution measurement. The ultrafine particle (UFP, diameter < 100 nm) number concentrations at the roadside site were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those at the urban background site during daytime and downwind conditions. Both the modal structure analysis of the particle number size distributions and the statistical correlation between the traffic density and the UFP number concentrations indicate that the UFP were evidently from traffic related emissions. The modeling exercise included the evolution of the particle number size distribution nearby the road during downwind conditions. The model simulation results revealed that the evaluation of the emission factors of aerosol particles might not be valid for the same site during different time.
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8.
  • Hussein, T., et al. (författare)
  • Time span and spatial scale of regional new particle formation events over Finland and Southern Sweden
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9:14, s. 4699-4716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the time span and spatial scale of regional new particle formation (NPF) events in Finland and Southern Sweden using measured particle number size distributions at five background stations. We define the time span of a NPF event as the time period from the first moment when the newly formed mode of aerosol particles is observable below 25 nm until the newly formed mode is not any more distinguishable from other background modes of aerosol particles after growing to bigger sizes. We identify the spatial scale of regional NPF events based on two independent approaches. The first approach is based on the observation within a network of stationary measurement stations and the second approach is based on the time span and the history of air masses back-trajectories. According to the second approach, about 60% and 28% of the events can be traced to distances longer than 220 km upwind from where the events were observed in Southern Finland (Hyytiälä) and Northern Finland (Värriö), respectively. The analysis also showed that the observed regional NPF events started over the continents but not over the Atlantic Ocean. The first approach showed that although large spatial scale NPF events are frequently observed at several locations simultaneously, they are rarely identical (similar characteristics and temporal variations) due to differences in the initial meteorological and geographical conditions between the stations. The growth of the newly formed particles during large spatial scale events can be followed for more than 30 h where the newly formed aerosol particles end up in the Aitken mode (diameter 25–100 nm) and accumulation mode size ranges (diameter 0.1–1 μm). This study showed clear evidence that regional NPF events can pose a significant source for accumulation mode particles over the Scandinavian continent provided that these findings can be generalized to many of the air masses traveling over the European continent.
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9.
  • Kalivitis, Nikos, et al. (författare)
  • Night time enhanced atmospheric ion concentrations in the marine boundary layer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 12:8, s. 3627-3638
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of atmospheric ions in the size range 0.8-42 nm were conducted at the environmental research station of the University of Crete at Finokalia from April 2008 to April 2009 in the frame of the EUCAARI project. Both positive and negative atmospheric ions were found to have a clear annual cycle, with minimum concentrations in summer. Their concentrations were found to vary with the prevailing meteorology and the abundance of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. High concentrations of ions were observed during new particle formation events. There were 53 nucleation events recorded. It was found that under certain atmospheric conditions enhanced ion concentrations can be observed during night. Overall, 39 night-time events were observed, all of them observed for the negatively charged particles while only 21 were observed for the positively charged particles. Night-time enhanced ion concentrations were more frequent during spring and autumn and no such events were recorded from July to September. A strong anti-correlation was found between air ion concentrations, especially at cluster sizes (1.25-1.66 nm), and condensation and coagulation sinks. Enhanced ion concentrations at night were found to be more frequent when air masses had traveled over the island of Crete, indicating possible association with local biogenic sources.
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10.
  • Kerminen, V-M, et al. (författare)
  • Cloud condensation nuclei production associated with atmospheric nucleation:
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Gmb. - 1680-7316. ; 12:24, s. 12037-12059
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper synthesizes the available scientific information connecting atmospheric nucleation with subsequent cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) formation. We review both observations and model studies related to this topic, and discuss the potential climatic implications. We conclude that CCN production associated with atmospheric nucleation is both frequent and widespread phenomenon in many types of continental boundary layers, and probably also over a large fraction of the free troposphere. The contribution of nucleation to the global CCN budget spans a relatively large uncertainty range, which, together with our poor understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions, results in major uncertainties in the radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols. In order to better quantify the role of atmospheric nucleation in CCN formation and Earth System behavior, more information is needed on (i) the factors controlling atmospheric CCN production and (ii) the properties of both primary and secondary CCN and their interconnections. In future investigations, more emphasis should be put on combining field measurements with regional and large-scale model studies.
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