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Sökning: L773:1680 7316 > Sellegri K.

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  • Kulmala, M., et al. (författare)
  • General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 11:24, s. 13061-13143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.
  • Laaksonen, A., et al. (författare)
  • The role of VOC oxidation products in continental new particle formation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8:10, s. 2657-2665
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aerosol physical and chemical properties and trace gas concentrations were measured during the QUEST field campaign in March-April 2003, in Hyytiala, Finland. Our aim was to understand the role of oxidation products of VOC's such as mono- and sesquiterpenes in atmospheric nucleation events. Particle chemical compositions were measured using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, and chemical compositions of aerosol samples collected with low-pressure impactors and a high volume sampler were analysed using a number of techniques. The results indicate that during and after new particle formation, all particles larger than 50 nm in diameter contained similar organic substances that are likely to be mono- and sesquiterpene oxidation products. The oxidation products identified in the high volume samples were shown to be mostly aldehydes. In order to study the composition of particles in the 10-50 nm range, we made use of Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer results. We found that during nucleation events, both 10 and 50 nm particle growth factors due to uptake of ethanol vapour correlate strongly with gas-phase monoterpene oxidation product (MTOP) concentrations, indicating that the organic constituents of particles smaller than 50 nm in diameter are at least partly similar to those of larger particles. We furthermore showed that particle growth rates during the nucleation events are correlated with the gas-phase MTOP concentrations. This indicates that VOC oxidation products may have a key role in determining the spatial and temporal features of the nucleation events. This conclusion was supported by our aircraft measurements of new 3-10 nm particle concentrations, which showed that the nucleation event on 28 March 2003, started at the ground layer, i.e. near the VOC source, and evolved together with the mixed layer. Furthermore, no new particle formation was detected upwind away from the forest, above the frozen Gulf of Bothnia.
  • Nieminen, T., et al. (författare)
  • Parameterization of ion-induced nucleation rates based on ambient = servations
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 11:7, s. 3393-3402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atmospheric ions participate in the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles, yet their exact role in this process has remained unclear. Here we derive a new simple parameterization for ion-induced nucleation or, more precisely, for the formation rate of charged 2-nm particles. The parameterization is semi-empirical in the sense that it is based on comprehensive results of one-year-long atmospheric cluster and particle measurements in the size range similar to 1-42 nm within the EUCAARI (European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions) project. Data from 12 field sites across Europe measured with different types of air ion and cluster mobility spectrometers were used in our analysis, with more in-depth analysis made using data from four stations with concomitant sulphuric acid measurements. The parameterization is given in two slightly different forms: a more accurate one that requires information on sulfuric acid and nucleating organic vapor concentrations, and a simpler one in which this information is replaced with the global radiation intensity. These new parameterizations are applicable to all large-scale atmospheric models containing size-resolved aerosol microphysics, and a scheme to calculate concentrations of sulphuric acid, condensing organic vapours and cluster ions.
  • Spracklen, D. V., et al. (författare)
  • Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 10:10, s. 4775-4793
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We synthesised observations of total particle number (CN) concentration from 36 sites around the world. We found that annual mean CN concentrations are typically 300-2000 cm(-3) in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT) and 1000-10 000 cm(-3) in the continental boundary layer (BL). Many sites exhibit pronounced seasonality with summer time concentrations a factor of 2-10 greater than wintertime concentrations. We used these CN observations to evaluate primary and secondary sources of particle number in a global aerosol microphysics model. We found that emissions of primary particles can reasonably reproduce the spatial pattern of observed CN concentration (R-2=0.46) but fail to explain the observed seasonal cycle (R-2=0.1). The modeled CN concentration in the FT was biased low (normalised mean bias, NMB=-88%) unless a secondary source of particles was included, for example from binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water (NMB=-25%). Simulated CN concentrations in the continental BL were also biased low (NMB=-74%) unless the number emission of anthropogenic primary particles was increased or a mechanism that results in particle formation in the BL was included. We ran a number of simulations where we included an empirical BL nucleation mechanism either using the activation-type mechanism (nucleation rate, J, proportional to gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration to the power one) or kinetic-type mechanism (J proportional to sulfuric acid to the power two) with a range of nucleation coefficients. We found that the seasonal CN cycle observed at continental BL sites was better simulated by BL particle formation (R-2=0.3) than by increasing the number emission from primary anthropogenic sources (R-2=0.18). The nucleation constants that resulted in best overall match between model and observed CN concentrations were consistent with values derived in previous studies from detailed case studies at individual sites. In our model, kinetic and activation-type nucleation parameterizations gave similar agreement with observed monthly mean CN concentrations.
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