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2.
  • Rivarola Puntigliano, Andrés, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Prebisch and Myrdal : pioneers of development in the core and on the periphery
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Global History. - 1740-0228 .- 1740-0236. ; 6:1, s. 29-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ideas on development issues of two 'pioneers in development', Raul Prebisch and Gunnar Myrdal, are tracked in their formation and evolution. The central role of these two 'defiant bureaucrats' in the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and the Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL) are used to reflect on the interaction between intellectuals and international institutions in different historical contexts. Both men represented a liberal-universal strand in development thinking. Their divergent conclusions and assessments of the role of international institutions are compared, and are related to their different origins in core and periphery. It is argued that such roots influenced two different approaches to development problems within the UN system.
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3.
  • Brolin, John, et al. (författare)
  • Environmental factors in trade during the great transformation : Advancing the geographical coverage before 1950
  • Ingår i: Journal of Global History. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1740-0228. ; 15:2, s. 245-267
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the study of trade-embedded environmental factors (land, water, energy, or material flows), three conflicting interpretations prevail concerning what happened before 1950. The 'great specialization' narrative argues that trade served to lighten pressure on the environment by redistributing environmental services from where they were abundant to where they were scarce. The 'great divergence' sees an exploitative transfer from poor countries to rich and powerful ones or an environmental load displacement from rich to poor. The 'great acceleration' dismisses flows as insignificant either way. We review long-term national studies and find an almost exclusive focus on developed countries, mostly European and especially the UK, where more systematic studies tend to support 'specialization' and/or 'acceleration'. By contrast, more qualitative studies on individual exports from developing countries often support 'divergence', but, since imports are excluded by design, this can never be demonstrated. We propose widening the geographical scope of long-term national studies beyond Europe and extending existing studies with bilateral trade, and suggest that 'developing country' trade be quantified according to existing methods of environmental accounting.
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4.
  • Jerven, Morten (författare)
  • An Unlevel Playing Field : National Income Estimates and Reciprocal Comparison in Global Economic History
  • Ingår i: Journal of Global History. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1740-0228. ; 7:1, s. 107-128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • If we take recent income per capita estimates at face value, they imply that the average medieval European was at least five times ‘better off’ than the average Congolese today. This raises important questions regarding the meaning and applicability of national income estimates throughout time and space, and their use in the analysis of global economic history over the long term. This article asks whether national income estimates have a historical and geographical specificity that renders the ‘data’ increasingly unsuitable and misleading when assessed outside a specific time and place. Taking the concept of ‘reciprocal comparison’ as a starting point, it further questions whether national income estimates make sense in pre-and post-industrial societies, in decentralized societies, and in polities outside the temperate zone. One of the major challenges in global history is Eurocentrism. Resisting the temptation to compare the world according to the most conventional development measure might be a recommended step in overcoming this bias.
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5.
  • Rönnbäck, Klas, 1974 (författare)
  • New and old peripheries - Britain, the Baltic and the Americas in the Great Divergence
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Global History. - 1740-0228. ; 5:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In his seminal book The Great Divergence, Kenneth Pomeranz has argued that access to inputs from the vast acreages available in the Americas was crucial for the industrial revolution in Britain. But could no other regions of the world have provided the inputs in demand? Recent research claims that this could have been the case. This paper takes that research one step further by studying Britain’s trade with an old and important peripheral trading-partner, the Baltic, contrasting this to the British trade with America. This paper finds that production for export was not necessarily stagnating in the Baltic, as Pomeranz has claimed. Qualitative aspects of the factor endowment of land did however not enable the production of specific raw materials such as cotton, to meet the increasing demand. Thus, the decreasing role of the Baltic ought to a large extent be attributed to the patterns of British industrialization, and the demand it created for specific raw materials, rather than internal, institutional constraints in the Baltic region.
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6.
  • Rönnbäck, Klas, 1974 (författare)
  • On the economic importance of the slave plantation complex to the British economy during the eighteenth century: a value-added approach
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Global History. - 1740-0228. ; 13:3, s. 309-327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There has been a long-standing debate on the global importance of the African external slave trades. While many scholars believe these to have been detrimental to African development, they were clearly a determining factor in the development of the Americas. What role they played for the European colonial powers is, however, hotly debated. This article contributes to the debate by estimating value added in the Triangular Trade and the American plantation complex. The article empirically studies the case of British connections to the African slave trade and the American plantation complex during the eighteenth century, since these have been the focus of much previous scholarly debate. The estimates suggest that these trades grew substantially over the period, reaching a magnitude equivalent to about 11% of the British economy by the early nineteenth century.
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7.
  • Theodoridis, Dimitrios, 1987, et al. (författare)
  • Trade and overcoming land constraints in British industrialization: an empirical assessment
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Global History. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1740-0228. ; 13:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Land was an unambiguous constraint for growth in the pre-industrial period. In Britain it was 15 overcome partly through the transition from traditional land-based goods to coal (vertical 16 expansion) and partly through accessing overseas land, primarily from colonies (horizontal 17 expansion). Kenneth Pomeranz suggested that horizontal expansion may have outweighed 18 vertical expansion in the first decades of the nineteenth century. Taking a more complete 19 approach to trade, we find that Britain was a net exporter of land embodied in traded 20 commodities, apart from in the early nineteenth century, when potash (rather than cotton or 21 timber) constituted the major land-demanding import from North America. The vertical expan- 22 sion was generally larger than the horizontal expansion. In other words, Britain was not simply 23 appropriating flows of land and resources from abroad but simultaneously providing its trading 24 partners with even more land-expanding resources.
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