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Sökning: L773:1741 3850

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  • Cheng, Helen, et al. (författare)
  • Biomedical, psychological, environmental and behavioural factors associated with adult obesity in a nationally representative sample
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Public Health. - Springer. - 1741-3842 .- 1741-3850.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> To identify personality, biomedical and behavioural factors associated with adult obesity in a large longitudinal sample.</p><p><strong>METHOD:</strong> In total, 5360 participants with data on personality, neurological functioning, maternal smoking during pregnancy, education and occupation, physical exercise, adult self-reported BMI and obesity were included in the study. Obesity at 55 years was the outcome variable.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The rates of obesity increased from 9.5 to 22.8% from age 33 to 55 years. Logistic regression analyses (adjusted estimates) showed that childhood neurological functioning (OR = 1.32: 1.07-1.63, P &lt; 0.01), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.42: 1.22-1.65, P &lt; 0.001), educational qualifications (OR = 0.54: 0.37-0.79, P &lt; 0.01), trait conscientiousness (OR = 0.80:0.74-0.86, P &lt; 0.001) and physical exercise (OR = 0.87: 0.82-0.92, P &lt; 0.001) were significant predictors of obesity at age 55 years for both men and women. Trait extraversion for men (OR = 1.16: 1.07-1.26, P &lt; 0.001) and trait emotional stability for women (OR = 0.90: 0.82-0.99, P &lt; 0.05) were also significant predictors of the outcome variable.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Biomedical, psychological, environmental and behavioural factors were all associated with adult obesity.</p>
  • Jayasekara, Harindra, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol consumption for different periods in life, intake pattern over time and all-cause mortality
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Public Health. - 1741-3842 .- 1741-3850. ; 37:4, s. 625-633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Conventionally, cohort studies have assessed the association between alcohol and all-cause mortality by using alcohol intake at enrolment.</p><p>Methods: In theMelbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, participants were asked about usual frequency and quantity of beverage-specific alcoholintake for 10-year periods starting at age 20 from which current, past and lifetime intakes were calculated.We used Cox regression to estimate hazardratios for mortality for 39 577 participants of theMelbourne Collaborative Cohort Study aged 40–69 at baseline.</p><p>Results: After a mean follow-up of 15 years/person, we identified 4639 deaths. Associations between all-cause mortality and lifetime, current(baseline) and past intakewere J shaped, with lower mortality at low intake (e.g. ,40 g/day for men and 10 g/day for women using lifetime intake)and elevated mortality at higher intake. Formen, consistent light-to-moderate drinking (.0–39/.0–39 g/day) from age 20 to baseline agewasassociated with a 16% lower mortality, while heavy drinking at both ages (80/40 and 40/0 g/day) was associated with higher mortality comparedwith stable abstinence.</p><p>Conclusions: Our findings support a reduced mortality risk associated with low-dose drinking but also highlight a higher mortality risk for consistentheavy drinking from a young age.</p>
  • Mikaelsson, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • Physical capacity in physically active and non-active adolescents
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Public Health. - 1741-3842 .- 1741-3850. ; 19:2, s. 131-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in physical capacity between physically active and non-active men and women among graduates from upper secondary school. Subject and methods: Research participants were graduates (38 women and 61 men) from upper secondary school. Physical activity was determined using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and participants were dichotomously characterized as being physically active or physically non-active according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). Aerobic capacity was measured using the Åstrand cycle ergometer test. Participants also underwent tests of muscular strength and balance. Results: Maximum oxygen uptake differed significantly between physically active and non-active men (mean ± SD 3.6 ± 0.7 vs 3.0 ± 0.6 l/kg, p = 0.002) and women (3.0 ± 0.6 vs 2.5 ± 0.3 l/kg, p = 0.016). There was a difference among physically active and non-active men regarding push-ups (37.1 ± 9.0 vs 28.5 ± 7.0, p < 0.001) and sit-ups (59.2 ± 30.2 vs 39.6 ± 19.4, p = 0.010). No significant differences were found regarding vertical jump or grip strength among men, any of the muscle strength measurements among women, and balance (in any sex). Conclusion: Activity levels had impact on aerobic capacity in both sexes, but did not seem to have the same impact on muscular strength and balance, especially in women</p>
  • Nilson, Finn, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Trends in hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden 1987-2009
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Public Health. - Oxford : Oxford University Press. - 1741-3842 .- 1741-3850. ; 35:1, s. 125-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong> Previous trend studies have shown large increases in hip fracture incidence rates among the elderly. International research, however, suggests a levelling off, or decline, of hip fracture incidence rates, although for Sweden this remains to be studied.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong> Data were obtained regarding hip fractures among individuals 65 years and above from 1987 to 2009. Analysis was performed in three steps. First, age- and sex-specific trends in hip fracture rates per 100 000 and the mean age when sustaining a hip fracture were analysed. Secondly, the annual percentage change was used to compare time periods that helped to quantify changes in secular trends. Finally, linear and Poisson regression models were used to examine the trend data and observed rates.</p><p><strong>Results</strong> The absolute number of hip fractures among the elderly in Sweden has largely remained constant between 1987 and 2009, while incidence rates have decreased for all age- and sex-specific groups, with the largest changes in the younger age groups and among women. The mean age of sustaining a hip fracture has increased for both men and women.</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong> This study supports other international studies in showing a decrease in hip fracture incidence rates among the elderly, especially since the mid-1990s.</p>
  • Värnild, Astrid, et al. (författare)
  • Factors related to the increasing number of seriously injured cyclists and pedestrians in a Swedish urban region 2003–17
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Public Health. - 1741-3842 .- 1741-3850. ; s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background</p><p>The number of seriously injured unprotected road users has increased during implementation of a road safety policy Vision Zero. The aim of the study is to identify factors associated with the increase in serious injuries among cyclists and pedestrians (even single pedestrian accidents) that occurred in an urban road space in a Swedish region 2003–17. The urban road space includes roads, pavements and tracks for walking and cycling.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Data were retrieved from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and NVDB (National Road Database). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression with odds ratios for sex, age and part of road space were assessed.</p><p>Results</p><p>The number of seriously injured cyclists and pedestrians more than doubled from 2003 to 2017, with the greatest increase for pedestrians. Older age increased the probability of serious injury since 2012 for the group ≥ 80 years and since 2015 for the group 65–79 years. No significant effect of sex. Most injuries occur in areas not transformed by Vision Zero.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>An increasing number of elderly persons in the generation born in the 1940s and increased life expectancy are important factors. There is a need to increase road safety measures that also promote active mobility.</p>
  • Funestrand, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Substandard and falsified medical products are a global public health threat. A pilot survey of awareness among physicians in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Public Health. - Oxford University Press. - 1741-3850. ; 41:1, s. 95-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundSubstandard and falsified medical products are a public health threat, primarily associated with low- and middle-income countries. Today, the phenomenon also exists in high-income countries. Increased Internet access has opened a global market. Self-diagnosis and self-prescription have boosted the market for unregulated websites with access to falsified medicines.AimTo describe the state of knowledge and experience on SF medical products among emergency physicians (EPs) and general practitioners (GPs) in Sweden.MethodsAn online survey with anonymous answers from 100 EPs and 100 GPs. Physicians were recruited from TNS SIFO’s medical database. The term in the survey was ‘illegal and falsified medicines’ which was common in Sweden at that time. It corresponds well with the term ‘substandard and falsified medical products’ that the WHO launched shortly after our data collection. We report our results with this term.ResultsIn Sweden, 78.5% of the physicians had heard the term ‘illegal and falsified medicines’ and 36.5% had met patients they suspected had taken it. Physicians lacked awareness of the use of the reporting system and wanted more knowledge about how to deal with patients who have possibly used falsified medicines.ConclusionsTo meet the public health threat of SF medical products, physicians need more knowledge.
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