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Sökning: L773:1753 2000 OR L773:1753 2000

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1.
  • Guadagnino, E., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of some parameters on the approximation of European Pharmacopoeia and ISO Standard 4802 : Reasons for harmonization - a collaborative study of ICG/TC2, `Chemical Durability and Analysis'
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Glass Technology. - 1753-3554. ; 41:3, s. 91-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The most widely used Standards to test the inner surface of glass containers for pharmaceutical use, European Pharmacopoeia and ISO 4802, may differ significantly in the results because of relevant differences in the procedures. In this study the rinsing procedures, effect of prolonging the cooling time to 95 °C, as prescribed by EN norms on safe operation practice, and the combination of the two factors were investigated. Nine laboratories participated in the collaborative study, the resulting extract solutions were analyzed both by titration and flame photometry. Results were evaluated by two way ANOVA with the aim of estimating three sources of variation: between procedures, between laboratories and random variation due to experimental error. For soda-lime-silica glass there is evidence that the different procedures influence the hydrolytic resistance of the inner surface of glass containers whichever method is used. Differences between laboratories were, however, much greater and results vary more due to which laboratory conducted the measurement rather than which procedure is employed. For borosilicate glass variations between procedures were found not to be significant. It is strongly recommended that ISO and EP shall adopt measures to minimize those factors that proved to exert great influence on reproducibility of results.
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  • Zetterqvist, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents: Support for a specific distress – function relationship.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1753-2000. ; 8:23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study has investigated the specific relationship between childhood adversities, individual trauma symptoms and the functions of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim was to examine whether different self-reported adverse experiences and trauma symptoms predict the need to engage in NSSI, either to regulate emotions or to communicate with and influence others. Method: The participants were a community sample of 816 adolescents aged 15–17 years with NSSI. Hierarchical multiple regression was used, controlling for NSSI frequency and gender. The dependent variables were the automatic and social functions of NSSI, respectively. The predictors entered in the model were several different maltreatment and adversity experiences as well as individual trauma symptoms. Mediation analyses were also performed using the bootstrapping method with bias-corrected confidence estimates. Results: Frequency of NSSI, gender (female), emotional abuse, prolonged illness or handicap during upbringing and symptoms of depression uniquely predicted the automatic functions of NSSI in the final regression model, but not the social functions. Symptoms of anxiety uniquely predicted social but not automatic functions. Having experienced physical abuse, having made a suicide attempt and symptoms of dissociation were significant predictors in both final models. The model for automatic functions explained more of the variance (62%) than the social model (28%). The relationship between childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse and performing NSSI for automatic reasons was mediated by symptoms of depression and dissociation. The relationship between physical abuse and the social functions of NSSI was mediated by symptoms of anxiety and dissociation. Conclusions: It is important to understand the specific context in which NSSI has developed and is maintained. Experiences of emotional abuse and symptoms of depression could guide clinical work in the direction of emotion regulation skills since in this study these variables were uniquely associated with the need to engage in NSSI to regulate emotions, to self-punish or to generate feelings. The presence of physical abuse, a suicide attempt and symptoms of dissociation could alert clinicians to a broad treatment approach since they were associated with performing NSSI to regulate both social and automatic experiences.
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5.
  • Green-Landell, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for use in adolescents.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. - : BioMed Central. - 1753-2000 .- 1753-2000. ; 3:1, s. 36-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Social phobia (social anxiety disorder - SAD) is a rather common but often undetected and undertreated psychiatric condition in youths. Screening of SAD in young individuals in community samples is thus important in preventing negative outcomes. The present study is the first report on the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire for Children and adolescents (SPSQ-C). METHODS: The SPSQ-C was administered to a community sample of high-school students. Test-retest reliability over three weeks was evaluated (n = 127) and internal consistency was calculated for items measuring level of fear in eight social situations. To measure concurrent validity, subjects who reported SAD on at least one occasion and randomly selected non-cases were blindly interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I), as gold standard (n = 51). RESULTS: A moderate test-retest reliability, r = .60 (P < .01), and a satisfactory alpha coefficient of .78 was found. Values of sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 86% respectively, and area under the curve (AUC) was .79. Positive likelihood ratio (LR+) showed that a positive screening result was five times more likely to be correct than to reflect a non-case. Negative likelihood ratio (LR -) was .34. In addition, positive predictive value was 45% and negative predictive value was 95%. The prevalence of self-reported SAD was found to be 7.2% at the first assessment. CONCLUSION: The SPSQ-C is a short and psychometrically sound questionnaire for screening of SAD in adolescents, with the advantage of being based on the DSM-IV criteria.
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6.
  • Agnafors, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems : a longitudinal study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. - 1753-2000 .- 1753-2000. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Depression is a common and disabling condition with a high relapse frequency. Maternal mental health problems and experience of traumatic life events are known to increase the risk of behavior problems in children. Recently, genetic factors, in particular gene-by-environment interaction models, have been implicated to explain depressive etiology. However, results are inconclusive.METHODS:Study participants were members of the SESBiC-study. A total of 889 mothers and their children were followed during the child's age of 3 months to 12 years. Information on maternal depressive symptoms was gathered postpartum and at a 12 year follow-up. Mothers reported on child behavior and traumatic life events experienced by the child at age 12. Saliva samples were obtained from children for analysis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms.RESULTS:Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, and internalizing problems in 12-year-old children (OR 5.72, 95% CI 3.30-9.91). Furthermore, carriers of two short alleles (s/s) of the 5-HTTLPR showed a more than 4-fold increased risk of internalizing problems at age 12 compared to l/l carriers (OR 4.73, 95% CI 2.14-10.48). No gene-by-environment interaction was found and neither depressive symptoms postpartum or traumatic experiences during childhood stayed significant in the final model.CONCLUSIONS:Concurrent maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety are significant risk factors for behavior problems in children, which need to be taken into account in clinical practice. Furthermore, we found a main effect of 5-HTTLPR on internalizing symptoms in 12-year-old children, a finding that needs to be confirmed in future studies.
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7.
  • Agnafors, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems - a longitudinal study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. - : BioMed Central. - 1753-2000 .- 1753-2000. ; 7:1, s. 10-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and disabling condition with a high relapse frequency. Maternal mental health problems and experience of traumatic life events are known to increase the risk of behavior problems in children. Recently, genetic factors, in particular gene-by-environment interaction models, have been implicated to explain depressive etiology. However, results are inconclusive.METHODS: Study participants were members of the SESBiC-study. A total of 889 mothers and their children were followed during the child's age of 3 months to 12 years. Information on maternal depressive symptoms was gathered postpartum and at a 12 year follow-up. Mothers reported on child behavior and traumatic life events experienced by the child at age 12. Saliva samples were obtained from children for analysis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms.RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, and internalizing problems in 12-year-old children (OR 5.72, 95% CI 3.30-9.91). Furthermore, carriers of two short alleles (s/s) of the 5-HTTLPR showed a more than 4-fold increased risk of internalizing problems at age 12 compared to l/l carriers (OR 4.73, 95% CI 2.14-10.48). No gene-by-environment interaction was found and neither depressive symptoms postpartum or traumatic experiences during childhood stayed significant in the final model.CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety are significant risk factors for behavior problems in children, which need to be taken into account in clinical practice. Furthermore, we found a main effect of 5-HTTLPR on internalizing symptoms in 12-year-old children, a finding that needs to be confirmed in future studies.
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8.
  • Arnberg, Filip K, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress : from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. - London : BioMed Central. - 1753-2000. ; 5:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods: This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash) and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash) were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102), 4 years (N = 51), and 20 years (N = 40) after the event. Psychological distresswas assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale–Revised. Results: Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69%) and avoidance (59%) being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60%) and feelings of guilt (50%) were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps < .05). After 20 years, the directly affected had a higher prevalence of PTS (p = .003), but not decreased general mental health (p = .14), than those indirectly affected. Conclusions: The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health.
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10.
  • Björnsdotter, Annika, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Psychometric properties of online administered parental Strengths and Difficulties Questionnarie (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. - 1753-2000 .- 1753-2000. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveTo examine the psychometric properties of the online administered parental version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and to provide parental norms from a nationwide Swedish sample.MethodsA total of 1443 parents from of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years completed the SDQ online or as usual (i.e., using paper-and-pencil).ResultsThe SDQ subscales obtained from the online administration showed high internal consistency (polychoric ordinal alpha), and confirmatory factor analysis of the SDQ five factor model resulted in excellent fit. The Total Difficulties score of the SDQ and its other subscales were significantly related to the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) rating scale. Norms for the parent version of SDQ obtained from the Internet were identical to those collected using paper-and-pencil. They were thus combined and are presented sorted by child gender and age.ConclusionsThe SDQ seems to be a reliable and valid instrument given its high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other instruments capturing the intended constructs. Findings in the present study support its use for online data collection, as well as using norms obtained through paper-and-pencil-administration even when SDQ has been administrated online.
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