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  • Allen, James E., et al. (författare)
  • Assessing the State of Substitution Models Describing Noncoding RNA Evolution
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - 1759-6653 .- 1759-6653. ; 6:1, s. 65-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phylogenetic inference is widely used to investigate the relationships between homologous sequences. RNA molecules have played a key role in these studies because they are present throughout life and tend to evolve slowly. Phylogenetic inference has been shown to be dependent on the substitution model used. A wide range of models have been developed to describe RNA evolution, either with 16 states describing all possible canonical base pairs or with 7 states where the 10 mismatched nucleotides are reduced to a single state. Formal model selection has become a standard practice for choosing an inferential model and works well for comparing models of a specific type, such as comparisons within nucleotide models or within amino acid models. Model selection cannot function across different sized state spaces because the likelihoods are conditioned on different data. Here, we introduce statistical state-space projection methods that allow the direct comparison of likelihoods between nucleotide models and 7-state and 16-state RNA models. To demonstrate the general applicability of our new methods, we extract 287 RNA families from genomic alignments and perform model selection. We find that in 281/287 families, RNA models are selected in preference to nucleotide models, with simple 7-state RNA models selected for more conserved families with shorter stems and more complex 16-state RNA models selected for more divergent families with longer stems. Other factors, such as the function of the RNA molecule or the GC-content, have limited impact on model selection. Our models and model selection methods are freely available in the open-source software.
  • Barrett, C. F., et al. (författare)
  • Ancient Polyploidy and Genome Evolution in Palms
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - 1759-6653. ; 11:5, s. 1501-1511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanisms of genome evolution are fundamental to our understanding of adaptation and the generation and maintenance of biodiversity, yet genome dynamics are still poorly characterized in many clades. Strong correlations between variation in genomic attributes and species diversity across the plant tree of life suggest that polyploidy or other mechanisms of genome size change confer selective advantages due to the introduction of genomic novelty. Palms (order Arecales, family Arecaceae) are diverse, widespread, and dominant in tropical ecosystems, yet little is known about genome evolution in this ecologically and economically important clade. Here, we take a phylogenetic comparative approach to investigate palm genome dynamics using genomic and transcriptomic data in combination with a recent, densely sampled, phylogenetic tree. We find conclusive evidence of a paleopolyploid event shared by the ancestor of palms but not with the sister clade, Dasypogonales. We find evidence of incremental chromosome number change in the palms as opposed to one of recurrent polyploidy. We find strong phylogenetic signal in chromosome number, but no signal in genome size, and further no correlation between the two when correcting for phylogenetic relationships. Palms thus add to a growing number of diverse, ecologically successful clades with evidence of whole-genome duplication, sister to a species-poor clade with no evidence of such an event. Disentangling the causes of genome size variation in palms moves us closer to understanding the genomic conditions facilitating adaptive radiation and ecological dominance in an evolutionarily successful, emblematic tropical clade.
  • Bensch, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of Haemoproteus tartakovskyi and its relationship to human malaria parasites
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - : Oxford University Press. - 1759-6653. ; 8:5, s. 73-1361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The phylogenetic relationships among hemosporidian parasites, including the origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent malaria parasite of humans, have been heavily debated for decades. Studies based on multiple-gene sequences have helped settle many of these controversial phylogenetic issues. However, denser taxon sampling and genome-wide analyses are needed to confidently resolve the evolutionay relationships among hemosporidian parasites. Genome sequences of several Plasmodium parasites are available but only for species infecting primates and rodents. To root the phylogenetic tree of Plasmodium, genomic data from related parasites of birds or reptiles are required. Here, we use a novel approach to isolate parasite DNA from microgametes and describe the first genome of a bird parasite in the sister genus to Plasmodium, Haemoproteus tartakovskyi Similar to Plasmodium parasites, H. tartakovskyi has a small genome (23.2 Mb, 5,990 genes) and a GC content (25.4%) closer to P. falciparum (19.3%) than to Plasmodium vivax (42.3%). Combined with novel transcriptome sequences of the bird parasite Plasmodium ashfordi, our phylogenomic analyses of 1,302 orthologous genes demonstrate that mammalian-infecting malaria parasites are monophyletic, thus rejecting the repeatedly proposed hypothesis that the ancestor of Laverania parasites originated from a secondary host shift from birds to humans. Genes and genomic features previously found to be shared between P. falciparum and bird malaria parasites, but absent in other mammal malaria parasites, are therefore signatures of maintained ancestral states. We foresee that the genome of H. tartakovskyi will open new directions for comparative evolutionary analyses of malarial adaptive traits.
  • Berg, P. R., et al. (författare)
  • Adaptation to Low Salinity Promotes Genomic Divergence in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - 1759-6653. ; 7:6, s. 1644-1663
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • How genomic selection enables species to adapt to divergent environments is a fundamental question in ecology and evolution. We investigated the genomic signatures of local adaptation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) along a natural salinity gradient, ranging from 35% in the North Sea to 7% within the Baltic Sea. By utilizing a 12K SNPchip, we simultaneously assessed neutral and adaptive genetic divergence across the Atlantic cod genome. Combining outlier analyses with a landscape genomic approach, we identified a set of directionally selected loci that are strongly correlated with habitat differences in salinity, oxygen, and temperature. Our results show that discrete regions within the Atlantic cod genome are subject to directional selection and associated with adaptation to the local environmental conditions in the Baltic-and the North Sea, indicating divergence hitchhiking and the presence of genomic islands of divergence. We report a suite of outlier single nucleotide polymorphisms within or closely located to genes associated with osmoregulation, as well as genes known to play important roles in the hydration and development of oocytes. These genes are likely to have key functions within a general osmoregulatory framework and are important for the survival of eggs and larvae, contributing to the buildup of reproductive isolation between the low-salinity adapted Baltic cod and the adjacent cod populations. Hence, our data suggest that adaptive responses to the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea may contribute to a strong and effective reproductive barrier, and that Baltic cod can be viewed as an example of ongoing speciation.
  • Berglund, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Germ line Methylation Patterns Determine the Distribution of Recombination Events in the Dog Genome
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - 1759-6653 .- 1759-6653. ; 7:2, s. 522-530
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The positive-regulatory domain containing nine gene, PROMO, which strongly associates with the location of recombination events in several vertebrates, is inferred to be inactive in the dog genome. Here, we address several questions regarding the control of recombination and its influence on genome evolution in dogs. First, we address whether the association between CpG islands (CGIs) and recombination hotspots is generated by lack of methylation, GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), or both. Using a genome-wide dog single nucleotide polymorphism data set and comparisons of the dog genome with related species, we show that recombination-associated CGIs have low CpG mutation rates, and that CpG mutation rate is negatively correlated with recombination rate genome wide, indicating that nonmethylation attracts the recombination machinery. We next use a neighbor-dependent model of nucleotide substitution to disentangle the effects of CpG mutability and gBGC and analyze the effects that loss of PROMO has on these rates. We infer that methylation patterns have been stable during canid genome evolution, but that dog CGIs have experienced a drastic increase in substitution rate due to gBGC, consistent with increased levels of recombination in these regions. We also show that gBGC is likely to have generated many new CGIs in the dog genome, but these mostly occur away from genes, whereas the number of C GIs in gene promoter regions has not increased greatly in recent evolutionary history. Recombination has a major impact on the distribution of CGIs that are detected in the dog genome due to the interaction between methylation and gBGC. The results indicate that germline methylation patterns are the main determinant of recombination rates in the absence of PRDM9.
  • Bisch, Gaelle, et al. (författare)
  • Genome Evolution of Bartonellaceae Symbionts of Ants at the Opposite Ends of the Trophic Scale
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 10:7, s. 1687-1704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many insects rely on bacterial symbionts to supply essential amino acids and vitamins that are deficient in their diets, but metabolic comparisons of closely related gut bacteria in insects with different dietary preferences have not been performed. Here, we demonstrate that herbivorous ants of the genus Dolichoderus from the Peruvian Amazon host bacteria of the family Bartonellaceae, known for establishing chronic or pathogenic infections in mammals. We detected these bacteria in all studied Dolichoderus species, and found that they reside in the midgut wall, that is, the same location as many previously described nutritional endosymbionts of insects. The genomic analysis of four divergent strains infecting different Dolichoderus species revealed genes encoding pathways for nitrogen recycling and biosynthesis of several vitamins and all essential amino acids. In contrast, several biosynthetic pathways have been lost, whereas genes for the import and conversion of histidine and arginine to glutamine have been retained in the genome of a closely related gut bacterium of the carnivorous ant Harpegnathos saltator. The broad biosynthetic repertoire in Bartonellaceae of herbivorous ants resembled that of gut bacteria of honeybees that likewise feed on carbohydrate-rich diets. Taken together, the broad distribution of Bartonellaceae across Dolichoderus ants, their small genome sizes, the specific location within hosts, and the broad biosynthetic capability suggest that these bacteria are nutritional symbionts in herbivorous ants. The results highlight the important role of the host nutritional biology for the genomic evolution of the gut microbiota-and conversely, the importance of the microbiota for the nutrition of hosts.
  • Cossu, Rosa Maria, et al. (författare)
  • LTR Retrotransposons Show Low Levels of Unequal Recombination and High Rates of Intraelement Gene Conversion in Large Plant Genomes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - : Oxford University Press. - 1759-6653 .- 1759-6653. ; 9:12, s. 3449-3462
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The accumulat on and removal of transposable elements (TEs) is a major driver of genome size evolution in eukaryotes. In plants, long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) represent the majority of TEs and form most of the nuclear DNA in large genomes. Unequal recombination (UR) between LTRs leads to removal of intervening sequence and formation of solo-LTRs. UR is a major mechanism of LTR-RT removal in many angiosperms, but our understanding of LTR-RT-associated recombination within the large, LTR-RT-rich genomes of conifers is quite limited. We employ a novel read based methodology to estimate the relative rates of LTR-RT-associated UR within the genomes of four conifer and seven angiosperm species. We found the lowest rates of UR in the largest genomes studied, conifers and the angiosperm maize. Recombination may also resolve as gene conversion, which does not remove sequence, so we analyzed LTR-RT-associated gene conversion events (GCEs) in Norway spruce and six angiosperms. Opposite the trend for UR, we found the highest rates of GCEs in Norway spruce and maize. Unlike previous work in angiosperms, we found no evidence that rates of UR correlate with retroelement structural features in the conifers, suggesting that another process is suppressing UR in these species. Recent results from diverse eukaryotes indicate that heterochromatin affects the resolution of recombination, by favoring gene conversion over crossing-over, similar to our observation of opposed rates of UR and GCEs. Control of LTR-RT proliferation via formation of heterochromatin would be a likely step toward large genomes in eukaryotes carrying high LTR-RT content.
  • Da Silva, Vinicius (författare)
  • The Genomic Complexity of a Large Inversion in Great Tits
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - : Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy C - Option B / Oxford University Press. - 1759-6653. ; 11, s. 1870-1881
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chromosome inversions have clear effects on genome evolution and have been associated with speciation, adaptation, and the evolution of the sex chromosomes. In birds, these inversions may play an important role in hybridization of species and disassortative mating. We identified a large (approximate to 64 Mb) inversion polymorphism in the great tit (Parus major) that encompasses almost 1,000 genes and more than 90% of Chromosome 1A. The inversion occurs at a low frequency in a set of over 2,300 genotyped great tits in the Netherlands with only 5% of the birds being heterozygous for the inversion. In an additional analysis of 29 resequenced birds from across Europe, we found two heterozygotes. The likely inversion breakpoints show considerable genomic complexity, including multiple copy number variable segments. We identified different haplotypes for the inversion, which differ in the degree of recombination in the center of the chromosome. Overall, this remarkable genetic variant is widespread among distinct great tit populations and future studies of the inversion haplotype, including how it affects the fitness of carriers, may help to understand the mechanisms that maintain it.
  • Das, Ranajit, et al. (författare)
  • Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to Primeval Villages in the Ancient Iranian Lands of Ashkenaz
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology and Evolution. - : Oxford University Press. - 1759-6653. ; 8:4, s. 49-1132
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Yiddish language is over 1,000 years old and incorporates German, Slavic, and Hebrew elements. The prevalent view claims Yiddish has a German origin, whereas the opposing view posits a Slavic origin with strong Iranian and weak Turkic substrata. One of the major difficulties in deciding between these hypotheses is the unknown geographical origin of Yiddish speaking Ashkenazic Jews (AJs). An analysis of 393 Ashkenazic, Iranian, and mountain Jews and over 600 non-Jewish genomes demonstrated that Greeks, Romans, Iranians, and Turks exhibit the highest genetic similarity with AJs. The Geographic Population Structure analysis localized most AJs along major primeval trade routes in northeastern Turkey adjacent to primeval villages with names that may be derived from "Ashkenaz." Iranian and mountain Jews were localized along trade routes on the Turkey's eastern border. Loss of maternal haplogroups was evident in non-Yiddish speaking AJs. Our results suggest that AJs originated from a Slavo-Iranian confederation, which the Jews call "Ashkenazic" (i.e., "Scythian"), though these Jews probably spoke Persian and/or Ossete. This is compatible with linguistic evidence suggesting that Yiddish is a Slavic language created by Irano-Turko-Slavic Jewish merchants along the Silk Roads as a cryptic trade language, spoken only by its originators to gain an advantage in trade. Later, in the 9th century, Yiddish underwent relexification by adopting a new vocabulary that consists of a minority of German and Hebrew and a majority of newly coined Germanoid and Hebroid elements that replaced most of the original Eastern Slavic and Sorbian vocabularies, while keeping the original grammars intact.
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