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1.
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2.
  • Alafuzoff, Irina, et al. (författare)
  • Staged pathology in Parkinson's disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. - 1353-8020 .- 1873-5126. ; 20:Suppl. 1, s. S57-S61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There has been a tremendous development since a regional progression of pathology in subjects with Lewy bodies (LB) was initially proposed 30 years ago. The entity of dementia with Lewy bodies has been acknowledged, the main protein constituent of LBs--aggregated α-synuclein (αS)--has been identified and a stepwise progression of the pathology has been reported. Implementation of the staging strategies published provides a common ground for handling a case with a suspected α-synucleinopathy. It is always important to state the staging strategy implemented while assessing a case, as the strategy applied might influence both the reported stage of LB pathology and, ultimately, the final diagnosis of the patient.
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3.
  • Angot, Elodie, et al. (författare)
  • Dissecting the potential molecular mechanisms underlying alpha-synuclein cell-to-cell transfer in Parkinson's disease.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 1873-5126. ; 15 Suppl 3, s. 143-147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) aggregation is central to neuropathological changes in Parkinson's disease. The aggregates spread within the central nervous system according to a very predictable pattern. A prion-like transmission of alpha-syn aggregates has been recently proposed to explain this propagation pattern. First, we review the growing evidence for such a mechanism. This process is likely to occur in three consecutive steps: (i) exit of alpha-syn template from the donor cell, (ii) entry to the recipient cell and (iii) initiation of the nucleation. In a second part, we discuss the possible underlying mechanisms for each of these steps, based on our current knowledge about how cells handle alpha-syn but also other proteins involved in neurodegenerative diseases with a prion-like propagation. Finally, we discuss which molecular species of alpha-syn (monomer, oligomer, fibril) could be the seeding-competent species and whether this seeding process could be a common mechanism in neurodegenerative diseases.
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4.
  • Bech, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid-related biomarkers and axonal damage proteins in parkinsonian syndromes.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & related disorders. - 1873-5126. ; 18:1, s. 69-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinical differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes (PS) remains a challenge despite well-established clinical diagnostic criteria. Specific diagnostic biomarkers have yet to be identified, though in recent years, studies have been published on the aid of certain brain related proteins (BRP) in the diagnosing of PS. We investigated the levels of the light subunit of neurofilament triplet protein (NF-L), total tau and phosphorylated tau, amyloid-β(1-42), and the soluble α- and β-cleaved fragments of amyloid precursor proteins in a cohort of patients with various PS.
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5.
  • Blomstedt, Patric, et al. (författare)
  • Acute severe depression induced by intraoperative stimulation of the Substatia Nigra : a case-report
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 1353-8020 .- 1873-5126. ; 14:3, s. 253-256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We present a 62 years old man with Parkinson's disease (PD) who underwent bilateral stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). During the intraoperative evaluation, stimulation through the lowest contact in the right STN area, induced an acute depressive state, during which the patient was crying and expressing that he did not want to live. The patient returned to his normal state of mood within seconds after the cessation of stimulation. Repeated blinded stimulations resulted in the same response. Immediate postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that the lowest contact of the right electrode was located in the substantia nigra.
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6.
  • Blomstedt, Patric, et al. (författare)
  • Deep brain stimulation for movement disorders before DBS for movement disorders
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. - 1353-8020 .- 1873-5126. ; 16:7, s. 429-433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established surgical treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia. It is generally acknowledged that the development of DBS as we know it today started with the publication of Benabid, Pollak et al in 1987 on thalamic DBS for tremor. This technique gained momentum in the mid-Nineties after that Pollak and Benabid introduced the subthalamic nucleus as a target in advanced PD. This paper reviews the gestational pre-natal era of deep brain stimulation, before 1987. The origin of DBS can be traced back to the practice of intra-operative electrical stimulation, used for target exploration prior to lesioning, during the early years of stereotactic functional neurosurgery. During the 60s, Sem-Jacobsen and others implanted externalised electrodes which were used for intermittent stimulation and evaluation during weeks or months, prior to subsequent ablation of thalamic and other basal ganglia targets. In the early 70s Bechtereva treated PD patients using "therapeutic electrical stimulation" through electrodes implanted for up to 1.5 years. In the late 70s and early 80s the term Deep Brain Stimulation was coined and few groups attempted treatment of Parkinson's disease, non-Parkinsonian tremor and dystonia with high-frequency stimulation using chronically implanted DBS systems. Cumbersome, un-sophisticated DBS hardware, together with the general decline of all surgery for PD following the introduction of levodopa, may have contributed to the lack of popularity of old-times DBS. It is to the credit of the Grenoble Group to have reinvented, modernised and expanded modern DBS in surgical treatment of movement disorders.
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7.
  • Blomstedt, Patric, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of age, gender and severity of tremor on outcome after thalamic and subthalamic DBS for essential tremor
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. - 1353-8020 .- 1873-5126. ; 17:8, s. 617-620
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for essential tremor (ET). The nucleus ventralis intermedius thalami (Vim) is the target of choice, but promising results have been presented regarding DBS in the posterior subthalamic area (PSA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of gender, age and severity of disease on the outcome of these procedures. Sixty eight patients (34 Vim, 34 PSA) with ET were included in this non-randomised study. Evaluation using the Essential Tremor Rating Scale (ETRS) was performed before, and one year after surgery concerning PSA DBS, and at a mean of 28 ± 24 months concerning Vim DBS. Items 5/6 and 11-14 (hand tremor and hand function) were selected for analysis of tremor outcome. The efficacy of DBS on essential tremor was not related to age or gender. Nor was it associated with the severity of tremor when the percentual reduction of tremor on stimulation was taken into account. However, patients with a more severe tremor at baseline had a higher degree of residual tremor on stimulation. Tremor in the treated hand and hand function were improved with 70% in the Vim group and 89% in the PSA group.
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8.
  • Blomstedt, Patric, et al. (författare)
  • Pallidotomy versus pallidal stimulation
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. - 1353-8020 .- 1873-5126. ; 12:5, s. 296-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Both posteroventral pallidotomy and pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) have a documented effect on Parkinsonian symptoms. DBS is more costly and more laborious than pallidotomy. The aim of this study was to analyse the respective long-term effect of each surgical procedure on contralateral symptoms in the same patients. Five consecutive patients, two women and three men, who at first surgery had a mean age of 64 years and a mean duration of disease of 18 years, received a pallidotomy contralateral to the more symptomatic side of the body. At a mean of 14 months later, the same patients received a pallidal DBS on the side contralateral to the pallidotomy. All patients had on–off phenomena and dyskinesias. There were three left-sided and two right-sided pallidotomies, and, subsequently, two left-sided and three right-sided pallidal DBS. The latest evaluation was performed 37 months (range 22–60) after the pallidotomy and 22 months (range 12–33) after the pallidal DBS. Mean UPDRS motor score pre-operatively was 49 and at last follow-up 33 (32.7% improvement, p<0.05). Appendicular items 20–26 contralateral to pallidotomy remained improved more significantly than contralateral to DBS. Dyskinesia scores were also improved more markedly contralateral to the pallidotomy. Two patients exhibited moderate dysarthria and one patient severe dysphonia following DBS. Symptoms contralateral to the chronologically older pallidotomy, especially dyskinesias, rigidity and tremor, were still more improved than symptoms contralateral to the more recent pallidal DBS, despite numerous post-operative patient visits to optimise stimulation parameters.
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9.
  • Blomstedt, Patric, et al. (författare)
  • Unilateral caudal zona incerta deep brain stimulation for Parkinsonian tremor
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 1353-8020 .- 1873-5126. ; 18:10, s. 1062-1066
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The subthalamic nucleus is currently the target of choice in deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinsons disease (PD), while thalamic DBS is used in some cases of tremor-dominant PD. Recently, a number of studies have presented promising results from DBS in the posterior subthalamic area, including the caudal zona incerta (cZi). The aim of the current study was to evaluate cZi DBS in tremor-dominant Parkinsons disease. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: 14 patients with predominately unilateral tremor-dominant PD and insufficient relief from pharmacologic therapy were included and evaluated according to the motor part of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The mean age was 65 +/- 6.1 years and the disease duration 7 +/- 5.7 years. Thirteen patients were operated on with unilateral cZi DBS and 1 patient with a bilateral staged procedure. Five patients had non-L-dopa responsive symptoms. The patients were evaluated on/off medication before surgery and on/off medication and stimulation after a minimum of 12 months after surgery. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: At the follow-up after a mean of 18.1 months stimulation in the off-medication state improved the contralateral UPDRS III score by 47.7%. Contralateral tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia were improved by 82.2%, 34.3%, and 26.7%, respectively. Stimulation alone abolished tremor at rest in 10 (66.7%) and action tremor in 8 (533%) of the patients. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Unilateral cZi DBS seems to be safe and effective for patients with severe Parkinsonian tremor. The effects on rigidity and bradykinesia were, however, not as profound as in previous reports of DBS in this area.
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