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  • Delhomme, N., et al. (författare)
  • Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. - 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ; 10:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation.
  • Aalaei, Kataneh, et al. (författare)
  • Early and advanced stages of Maillard reaction in infant formulas : Analysis of available lysine and carboxymethyl-lysine
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 14:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the literature on the Maillard reaction in infant formulas is extensive, most studies have focused on model systems, and in only a few cases on real food systems. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the status of the Maillard reaction, both the early and advanced phases, in a variety of commercial infant formulas available on the Swedish market. Ten powder and liquid milk-based infant formulas from three manufacturers were selected to determine available lysine and CML contents, the two established indicators of the reaction. The products were also characterized with respect to protein content, carbohydrates composition, water content and water activity. In order to be able to compare the impact of different processing steps applied on powder and liquid formulas, the solid formulas contained similar ingredients as their corresponding liquid ones. Our findings showed that powder and liquid formulas contained similar available lysine concentrations regardless of the manufacturer, showing 27.14–36.57% decrease in the available lysine, compared to the reference skim milk powder in this study. The CML concentrations were in a broad range of 68.77–507.99 mg/kg protein. In the case of one manufacturer, liquid infant formulas had significantly higher CML content, compared to the powder products (p < 0.05). The results from this study are a step taken towards better understanding of the extent of the Maillard reaction in real complex systems of infant formulas.
  • Abariute, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Uptake of nanowires by human lung adenocarcinoma cells
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 14:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used in optoelectronic devices. However, their effects on human health have not been assessed fully. Here, we investigate the effects of gallium phosphide nanowires on human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Four different geometries of nanowires were suspended in the cell culture for 48 hours. We show that cells internalize the nanowires and that the nanowires have no effect on cell proliferation rate, motility, viability and intracellular ROS levels. By blocking specific internalization pathways, we demonstrate that the nanowire uptake is the result of a combination of processes, requiring dynamin and actin polymerization, which suggests an internalization through macropinocytosis and phagocytosis.
  • Abbas, Abdul-Karim, 1959- (författare)
  • Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Did Not Interfere with Long-Term Depression Induced either Electrically in Juvenile Rats or Chemically in Middle-Aged Rats
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 11:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In testing the hypothesis that long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance depends on triggered protein synthesis, we found no effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTP stabilization. Similarly, some studies reported a lack of effect of PSIs on long-term depression (LTD); the lack of effect on LTD has been suggested to be resulting from the short time recordings. If this proposal were true, LTD might exhibit sensitivity to PSIs when the recording intervals were enough long. We firstly induced LTD by a standard protocol involving low frequency stimulation, which is suitable for eliciting NMDAR-LTD in CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats. This LTD was persistent for intervals in range of 8-10 h. Treating slices with anisomycin, however, did not interfere with the magnitude and persistence of this form of LTD. The failure of anisomycin to block synaptic-LTD might be relied on the age of animal, the type of protein synthesis inhibitors and/or the inducing protocol. To verify whether those variables altogether were determinant, NMDA or DHPG was used to chemically elicit LTD recorded up to 10 h on hippocampal slices obtained from middle-aged rats. In either form of LTD, cycloheximide did not interfere with LTD stabilization. Furthermore, DHPG application did show an increase in the global protein synthesis as assayed by radiolabeled methodology indicating that though triggered protein synthesis can occur but not necessarily required for LTD expression. The findings confirm that stabilized LTD in either juvenile, or middle-aged rats can be independent of triggered protein synthesis. Although the processes responsible for the independence of LTD stabilization on the triggered protein synthesis are not yet defined, these findings raise the possibility that de novo protein synthesis is not universally necessary.
  • Abdelfattah, Ahmed, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Bactrocera oleae on the fungal microbiota of ripe olive drupes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 13:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The olive fruit fly (OFF), Bactrocera oleae is the most devastating pest affecting olive fruit worldwide. Previous investigations have addressed the fungal microbiome associated with olive drupes or B. oleae, but the impact of the insect on fungal communities of olive fruit remains undescribed. In the present work, the fungal microbiome of olive drupes, infested and non-infested by the OFF, was investigated in four different localities and cultivars. Olive fruit fly infestations caused a general reduction of the fungal diversity, a higher quantity of the total DNA and an increase in taxa that remained unidentified or had unknown roles. The infestations led to imbalanced fungal communities with the growth of taxa that are usually outcompeted. While it was difficult to establish a cause-effect link between fly infestation and specific fungi, it is clear that the fly alters the natural microbial balance, especially the low abundant taxa. On the other hand, the most abundant ones, were not significantly influenced by the insect. In fact, despite the slight variation between the sampling locations, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria, were the dominant genera, suggesting the existence of a typical olive fungal microbiome.
  • Abdelmagid, N., et al. (författare)
  • Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 11:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines-generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89-174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11-2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE.
  • Abdelrahman, Islam, et al. (författare)
  • Division of overall duration of stay into operative stay and postoperative stay improves the overall estimate as a measure of quality of outcome in burn care.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 12:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients and Methods: Surgically managed burn patients admitted between 2010-14 were included. Operative stay was defined as the time from admission until the last operation, postoperative stay as the time from the last operation until discharge. The difference in variation was analysed with F-test. A retrospective review of medical records was done to explore reasons for extended postoperative stay. Multivariable regression was used to assess factors associated with operative stay and postoperative stay.less thanbr /greater thanResults: Operative stay/TBSA% showed less variation than total duration/TBSA% (F test = 2.38, pless than0.01). The size of the burn, and the number of operations, were the independent factors that influenced operative stay (R2 0.65). Except for the size of the burn other factors were associated with duration of postoperative stay: wound related, psychological and other medical causes, advanced medical support, and accommodation arrangements before discharge, of which the two last were the most important with an increase of (mean) 12 and 17 days (pless than0.001, R2 0.51).less thanbr /greater thanConclusion: Adjusted operative stay showed less variation than total hospital stay and thus can be considered a more accurate outcome measure for surgically managed burns. The size of burn and number of operations are the factors affecting this outcome measure.
  • Abebe Abiye, Shenkut, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic diversity of five local Swedish chicken breeds detected by microsatellite markers
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed at investigating the genetic diversity, relationship and population structure of 110 local Swedish chickens derived from five breeds (Gotlandshona, Hedemorahona, Olandsk dvarghona, Skansk blommehona, and Bohuslan-Dals svarthona, in the rest of the paper the shorter name Svarthona is used) using 24 microsatellite markers. In total, one hundred thirteen alleles were detected in all populations, with a mean of 4.7 alleles per locus. For the five chicken breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.225 to 0.408 and from 0.231 to 0.515, with the lowest scores for the Svarthona and the highest scores for the Skansk blommehona breeds, respectively. Similarly, the average within breed molecular kinship varied from 0.496 to 0.745, showing high coancestry, with Skansk blommehona having the lowest and Svarthona the highest coancestry. Furthermore, all breeds showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Across the five breeds, the global heterozygosity deficit (FIT) was 0.545, population differentiation index (F-ST) was 0.440, and the global inbreeding of individuals within breed (F-IS) was 0.187. The phylogenetic relationships of chickens were examined using neighbor-joining trees constructed at the level of breeds and individual samples. The neighbor-joining tree constructed at breed level revealed two main clusters, with Hedemorahona and Olandsk dvarghona breeds in one cluster, and Gotlandshona and Svarthona breeds in the second cluster leaving the Skansk blommehona in the middle. Based on the results of the STRUCTURE analysis, the most likely number of clustering of the five breeds was at K = 4, with Hedemorahona, Gotlandshona and Svarthona breeds forming their own distinct clusters, while Olandsk dvarghona and Skansk blommehona breeds clustered together. Losses in the overall genetic diversity of local Swedish chickens due to breeds extinction varied from -1.46% to -6.723%. The results of the current study can be used as baseline genetic information for genetic conservation program, for instance, to control inbreeding and to implement further genetic studies in local Swedish chickens.
  • Aboagye, Emmanuel, et al. (författare)
  • Individual preferences for physical exercise as secondary prevention for non-specific low back pain a discrete choice experiment
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public library science. - 1932-6203. ; 12:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Exercise is effective in improving non-specific low back pain (LBP). Certain components of physical exercise, such as the type, intensity and frequency of exercise, are likely to influence participation among working adults with non-specific LBP, but the value and relative importance of these components remain unknown. The study's aim was to examine such specific components and their influence on individual preferences for exercise for secondary prevention of non-specific LBP among working adults. Methods: In a discrete choice experiment, working individuals with non-specific LBP answered a webbased questionnaire. Each respondent was given ten pairs of hypothetical exercise programs and asked to choose one option from each pair. The choices comprised six attributes of exercise (i.e., type of training, design, intensity, frequency, proximity and incentives), each with either three or four levels. A conditional logit regression that reflected the random utility model was used to analyze the responses. Results: The final study population consisted of 112 participants. The participants' preferred exercise option was aerobic (i.e., cardiovascular) rather than strength training, group exercise with trainer supervision, rather than individual or unsupervised exercise. They also preferred high intensity exercise performed at least once or twice per week. The most popular types of incentive were exercise during working hours and a wellness allowance rather than coupons for sports goods. The results show that the relative value of some attribute levels differed between young adults (age &lt;= 44 years) and older adults (age &lt;= 45 years) in terms of the level of trainer supervision required, exercise intensity, travel time to exercise location and financial incentives. For active study participants, exercise frequency (i.e., twice per week, 1.15; CI: 0.25; 2.06) influenced choice of exercise. For individuals with more than one child, travel time (i.e., 20 minutes, - 0.55; CI: 0.65; 3.26) was also an influential attribute for choice of exercise, showing that people with children at home preferred to exercise close to home. Conclusions: This study adds to our knowledge about what types of exercise working adults with back pain are most likely to participate in. The exercise should be a cardiovascular type of training carried out in a group with trainer supervision. It should also be of high intensity and preferably performed twice per week during working hours. Coupons for sports goods do not appear to motivate physical activity among workers with LBP. The findings of the study could have a substantial impact on the planning and development of exercise provision and promotion strategies to improve non-specific LBP. Providers and employers may be able to improve participation in exercise programs for adults with non-specific LBP by focusing on the exercise components which are the most attractive. This in turn would improve satisfaction and adherence to exercise interventions aimed at preventing recurrent non-specific LBP.
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