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11.
  • Bergman, Frida, Medicine doktor, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • The ability to benefit from an intervention to encourage use of treadmill workstations: Experiences of office workers with overweight or obesity
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - PLOS. - 1932-6203.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>One way to increase physical activity in offices is to install treadmill workstations, whereoffice workers can walk on a treadmill while performing their normal tasks. However, theexperiences of people using these treadmill workstations over a long period of time is notknown. In this 13-month study, we explored the experiences of office workers with treadmillworkstations available in their offices. After completing a larger randomized controlled trialwith 80 office workers ages 40 to 67 years with overweight or obesity, we interviewed 20 participantsfrom the intervention group, using a semi-structured interview guide. Data wereanalyzed using a grounded theory approach with constant comparison of emerging codes,subcategories, and categories, followed by connecting the categories to create a core category.The core category is described as the “Ability to benefit.” Although all participants hada rather high motivational level and pre-existing knowledge about the health benefits ofincreasing physical activity at work, they had different capacities for benefiting from the intervention.The categories are described as ideal types: the Convinced, the Competitive, theResponsible, and the Vacillating. These ideal types do not represent any single participantbut suggest generalized abstractions of experiences and strategies emerging from the codingof the interviews. One participant could easily have more than one ideal type. Becauseof differences in ideal type strategies and paths used throughout the course of the study,participants had different abilities to benefit from the intervention. Knowledge regarding theideal types may be applied to facilitate the use of the treadmill workstations. Because differentideal types might require different prompts for behavior change, tailored interventionstrategies directed towards specific ideal types could be necessary.</p>
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12.
  • Bergström, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • From carbohydrates to fat : Trends in food intake among Swedish nutrition students from 2002 to 2017
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:1, s. 1-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Earlier studies have implied a change in dietary habits of the Swedish population towards a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. Questions have been raised about the development in recent years and potential health effects. We have investigated the dietary intake of Swedish female students enrolled in a university nutrition course between 2002 and 2017. The students carried out self-reporting of all food and drink intake over one weekday and one weekend day. Intake of macronutrients (E%) and micronutrients were calculated for the whole period while statistical analysis was performed for changes between 2009 and 2017 (729 women). Results showed significant changes in carbohydrate intake (from 47.0 to 41.4 E%) and fat intake (from 31.7 to 37.5 E%). Carbohydrate intake was significantly lower than the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (45-60 E%). However, daily fiber intake remains high (3.0 g/MJ) in a national context, and intake of vitamin D and folate appears to increase during the period. The results suggest that the observed national transition from carbohydrate to fat intake persists, and that it might be especially evident among individuals interested in food and nutrition. Considering the fiber and micronutrient intake, the change is not necessarily unfavorable for this particular group.</p>
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13.
  • Bergström, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • From carbohydrates to fat : : Trends in food intake among Swedish nutrition students from 2002 to 2017
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:1, s. 0228200-0228200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Earlier studies have implied a change in dietary habits of the Swedish population towards a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. Questions have been raised about the development in recent years and potential health effects. We have investigated the dietary intake of Swedish female students enrolled in a university nutrition course between 2002 and 2017. The students carried out self-reporting of all food and drink intake over one weekday and one weekend day. Intake of macronutrients (E%) and micronutrients were calculated for the whole period while statistical analysis was performed for changes between 2009 and 2017 (729 women). Results showed significant changes in carbohydrate intake (from 47.0 to 41.4 E%) and fat intake (from 31.7 to 37.5 E%). Carbohydrate intake was significantly lower than the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (45-60 E%). However, daily fiber intake remains high (3.0 g/MJ) in a national context, and intake of vitamin D and folate appears to increase during the period. The results suggest that the observed national transition from carbohydrate to fat intake persists, and that it might be especially evident among individuals interested in food and nutrition. Considering the fiber and micronutrient intake, the change is not necessarily unfavorable for this particular group.
14.
  • Brännström, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Inequalities in educational outcomes in individuals with childhood experience of out-of-home care : What are driving the differences?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 15:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background</p><p>Prior research has shown that individuals with experience of out-of-home care (foster family care or residential care) in childhood are educationally disadvantaged compared to their peers. In order to be better equipped to design interventions aimed at improving the educational outcomes of children for whom society has assumed responsibility, this study seeks to further our understanding about which factors that contribute to the educational disparities throughout the life course.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Using longitudinal data from a cohort of more than 13,000 Swedes, of which around 7% have childhood experience of out-of-home care, Peters-Belson decomposition is utilized to quantify the extent to which the gap in educational achievement in school (age 16) and midlife educational attainment (age 50) captures differences in the prevalence of factors influencing educational outcomes, and differences in the impacts between these factors.</p><p>Results</p><p>We find that the achievement and the attainment gap was around 13% and 9% respectively. These gaps were to a large extent explained by differences in the distribution of predictors. The major explanatory factor for placed children’s lower achievement was a lower average cognitive ability. Yet there were some evidence that the rewards of cognitive ability in these children differed across the life course. While the lower returns of cognitive ability suggest that they were underperforming in compulsory school, the higher returns of cognitive ability on midlife attainment indicate that–given previous underperformance–their attainment at age 50 reflects their cognitive capacity more accurately than their achievement at age 16 do.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>The large influence of the unequal distribution of predictors suggests that policy efforts are needed to promote equity in the distribution of factors contributing to educational achievement and attainment. Since cognitive ability was found to be an important contributory factor, such efforts may include promoting cognitive and intellectual development among children in out-of-home care, preferably starting at a young age.</p>
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15.
  • Bustos, Atma-Sol, et al. (författare)
  • Interaction of quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) aggregates with pancreatic lipase under simplified intestinal conditions
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:4, s. 0224853-0224853
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diets rich in flavonoids have been related with low obesity rates, which could be related with their potential to inhibit pancreatic lipase, the main enzyme of fat assimilation. Some flavonoids can aggregate in aqueous medium suggesting that the inhibition mechanism could occur on both molecular and colloidal levels. This study investigates the interaction of two flavonoid aggregates, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), with pancreatic lipase under simplified intestinal conditions. The stability and the morphology of these flavonoid aggregates were studied in four different solutions: Control (water), salt, low lipase concentration and high lipase concentration. Particles were found by optical microscopy in almost all the solutions tested, except EGCG-control. The results show that the precipitation rate decreases for quercetin and increases for EGCG in salt solution and that lipase stabilize quercetin aggregates. In addition, both flavonoids were shown to precipitate together with pancreatic lipase resulting in a sequestering of the enzyme.
16.
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17.
  • Comendeiro-Maaløe, Micaela, et al. (författare)
  • Acknowledging the role of patient heterogeneity in hospital outcome reporting : Mortality after acute myocardial infarction in five European countries
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:2, s. 0228425-0228425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Hospital performance, presented as the comparison of average measurements, dismisses that hospital outcomes may vary across types of patients. We aim at drawing out the relevance of accounting for patient heterogeneity when reporting on hospital performance.METHODS: An observational study on administrative data from virtually all 2009 hospital admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) discharged in Denmark, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden. Hospital performance was proxied using in-hospital risk-adjusted mortality. Multilevel Regression Modelling (MLRM) was used to assess differences in hospital performance, comparing the estimates of random intercept modelling (capturing hospital general contextual effects (GCE)), and random slope modelling (capturing hospital contextual effects for patients with and without congestive heart failure -CHF). The weighted Kappa Index (KI) was used to assess the agreement between performance estimates.RESULTS: We analysed 46,875 admissions of AMI, 6,314 with coexistent CHF, discharged from 107 hospitals. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 5.2%, ranging from 4% in Sweden to 6.9% in Portugal. The MLRM with random slope outperformed the model with only random intercept, highlighting a much higher GCE in CHF patients [VPC = 8.34 (CI95% 4.94 to 13.03) and MOR = 1.69 (CI95% 1.62 to 2.21) vs. VPC = 3.9 (CI95% 2.4 to 5.9), MOR of 1.42 (CI95% 1.31 to 1.54) without CHF]. No agreement was observed between estimates [KI = -0,02 (CI95% -0,08 to 0.04].CONCLUSIONS: The different GCE in AMI patients with and without CHF, along with the lack of agreement in estimates, suggests that accounting for patient heterogeneity is required to adequately characterize and report on hospital performance.
18.
  • Costache, Mădălina Elena, et al. (författare)
  • Higher- and lower-order personality traits and cluster subtypes in social anxiety disorder.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 15:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.</p>
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19.
  • Costache, Madalina Elena, et al. (författare)
  • Higher- and lower-order personality traits and cluster subtypes in social anxiety disorder
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 15:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.</p>
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20.
  • Costache, Madalina Elena, et al. (författare)
  • Higher- and lower-order personality traits and cluster subtypes in social anxiety disorder
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 15:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.</p>
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