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1.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • Fasting Versus Postload Plasma Glucose Concentration and the Risk for Future Type 2 Diabetes Results from the Botnia Study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 32:2, s. 281-286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the postload plasma glucose concentration in predicting future risk of type 2 diabetes, compared with prediction models based oil measurement. of the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 2,442 subjects from the Botnia Study, who were free Of type 2 diabetes at baseline, received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 7-8 years of follow-up. Future risk for type 2 diabetes was assessed with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for prediction models based up measurement of the FPG concentration 1) with or without a 1-h plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT and 2) with or without the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS - Prediction models based on measurement of the FPG concentration were weak predictors for the risk of Future type 2 diabetes. Addition of a 1-h plasma glucose Concentration markedly enhanced prediction Of the risk of future type 2 diabetes. A cut point of 155 mg/dl for the 1-h plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT and presence Of the metabolic syndrome were used to Stratify subjects in each glucose tolerance group into low, intermediate, and high risk for future type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - The plasma glucose concentration at 1 h during the OGTT is a Strong predictor of future risk for type 2 diabetes and adds to the prediction power of models based on measurements made during the fasting state. A plasma glucose cut point of 155 mg/dl Plus the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome can be used to stratify nondiabetic subjects into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups.
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2.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • Minimal Contribution of Fasting Hyperglycemia to the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Subjects With Normal 2-h Plasma Glucose
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 33:3, s. 557-561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - To assess the relative contribution of increased fasting and postload plasma glucose concentrations to the incidence of type 2 diabetes in subjects with a normal 2-h plasma glucose concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 3,450 subjects with 2-h plasma glucose concentration < 140 mg/dl at baseline were followed up in the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) and the Botnia Study for 7-8 years. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was related to the fasting, 1-h, and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS - in subjects with 2-h plasma glucose < 140 mg/dl, the incidence of type 2 diabetes increased with increasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 1-h and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations. In a multivariate logistic analysis, after adjustment for all diabetes risk factors, the FPG concentration was a Strong predictor Of type 2 diabetes in both the SAHS and the Botnia Study (P < 0.0001). However, when the 1-h plasma glucose, but not 2-h plasma glucose, concentration was added to the model, FPG concentration was no longer a significant predictor of type 2 diabetes in both Studies (NS). When subjects were matched for the level of 1-h plasma glucose concentration, the incidence Of type 2 diabetes markedly increased with the increase in 1-h plasma glucose, but the increase in FPG was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - An increase in postload glycemia in the normal range is associated with an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. After controlling for 1-h plasma glucose concentration, the increase in FPG concentration is not associated with an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
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3.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • Two-Step Approach for the Prediction of Future Type 2 Diabetes Risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 34:9, s. 2108-2112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-To develop a model for the prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk on the basis of a multivariate logistic model and 1-h plasma glucose concentration (1-h PG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The model was developed in a cohort of 1,562 non-diabetic subjects from the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) and validated in 2,395 nondiabetic subjects in the Botnia Study. A risk score on the basis of anthropometric parameters, plasma glucose and lipid profile, and blood pressure was computed for each subject. Subjects with a risk score above a certain cut point were considered to represent high-risk individuals, and their 1-h PG concentration during the oral glucose tolerance test was used to further refine their future T2DM risk. RESULTS-We used the San Antonio Diabetes Prediction Model (SADPM) to generate the initial risk score. A risk-score value of 0.065 was found to be an optimal cut point for initial screening and selection of high-risk individuals. A 1-h PG concentration >140 mg/dL in high-risk individuals (whose risk score was >0.065) was the optimal cut point for identification of subjects at increased risk. The two cut points had 77.8, 77.4, and 44.8% (for the SAHS) and 75.8, 71.6, and 11.9% (for the Botnia Study) sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value, respectively, in the SAHS and Botnia Study. CONCLUSIONS-A two-step model, based on the combination of the SADPM and 1-h PG, is a useful tool for the identification of high-risk Mexican-American and Caucasian individuals. Diabetes Care 34:2108-2112, 2011
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4.
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5.
  • Aburawi, Elhadi, et al. (författare)
  • Acute respiratory viral infections aggravate arterial endothelial dysfunction in children with type 1 diabetes.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 27:11, s. 2733-2735
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite improvements in therapy for children with type 1 diabetes, the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood due to accelerated atherosclerosis remains significant (1). Similar to other cardiovascular risk factors, the diabetic state facilitates arterial endothelial injury, a primary event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (2). Although several pediatric studies have reported an association of diabetes with arterial endothelial dysfunction (3,4), pathogenic animal studies have suggested that even though this disease predisposes to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, it might not be sufficient to cause them (5). Notably, type 1 diabetes increases the propensity for both chronic and acute infections in part by weakening the immune mechanisms (6). The risk is particularly increased for respiratory tract infections, but other infections have also been associated with diabetes (7). Furthermore, diabetic patients are at greater risk for infection-related mortality (8), and the excess risk appears to be linked to cardiovascular diseases (9). In the present study, we investigated whether viral respiratory tract infections in children with type 1 diabetes might impose an additional burden on the arterial endothelial function.
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6.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Improvement of the plasma lipoprotein pattern after institution of insulin treatment in diabetes mellitus
  • 1982
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 5:3, s. 322-325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were studied in 26 nonobese diabetic patients, either newly diagnosed or unsatisfactorily controlled by oral antidiabetic treatment. Measurements were performed before and 3-4 mo after the institution of insulin treatment. In a subgroup of seven patients, the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) in postheparin plasma and the elimination rate of exogenous triglyceride were also monitored. After beginning insulin treatment, diabetic control was improved as demonstrated by decreasing levels of HbA1. Mean plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased by about 10% (P less than 0.01) and 40% (P less than 0.05), respectively. The decrease in plasma cholesterol was largely accounted for by a fall in LDL cholesterol levels (-8%, P less than 0.05), while plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations increased by about 12% (P less than 0.01). The elimination rate of exogenous triglycerides increased significantly. There was a suggestive, but not significant, increase in LPL activity while the HL activity remained unchanged. It is concluded that the improved diabetic control after institution of insulin treatment results in a significant improvement of the plasma lipoprotein profile. Since the improvement of the lipoprotein pattern is not strictly correlated to the amelioration of indices reflecting glucose transport, we suggest that the plasma lipoprotein pattern may provide an additional tool for monitoring the degree of control in diabetes mellitus.
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7.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity does not predict development of diabetic nephropathy
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 10:5, s. 604-606
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Urinary activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) has been suggested as a marker for diabetic nephropathy. In this study, urinary activity of NAG was measured with an interval of 5 yr in 36 insulin-dependent diabetic subjects to evaluate its predictive value for development of diabetic nephropathy. During the observation period, 9 patients developed detectable signs of diabetic nephropathy. In these patients, urinary albumin concentration had increased to 503 +/- 185 mg/L, compared to 16 +/- 1 mg/L in patients without nephropathy (P less than .01; means +/- SE), and the fractional albumin excretion rate was 0.21 +/- 0.07 X 10(-3), compared to 0.01 +/- 0.00 X 10(-3) (P less than .01). However, the activity of urinary NAG was not different in these patients compared with the patients without nephropathy (0.69 +/- 0.15 and 0.61 +/- 0.09 U/mmol creatinine, respectively). Furthermore, no increase in the activity of urinary NAG was seen during the observation period in either group. We concluded that the urinary activity of NAG is not related to the development of microalbuminuria and therefore cannot be used as a predictor for the development of diabetic nephropathy.
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8.
  • Agardh, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • Adopting 3-Year Screening Intervals for Sight-Threatening Retinal Vascular Lesions in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects Without Retinopathy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 34:6, s. 1318-1319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-To report the incidence of sight-threatening vascular lesions in type 2 diabetic subjects without retinopathy after adopting a 3-year interval screening program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In all, 1,691 type 2 diabetic subjects with no detectable retinopathy in two 50 degrees red-free fundus photographs were scheduled for follow-up with photography 3 years later. Age at diabetes diagnosis was 60 +/- 12 years, and known duration of diabetes was 6 +/- 6 years. Treatment consisted of diet only (26%), oral agents (54%), and oral agents and/or insulin (20%). Glycated hemoglobin A(1c) was 6.4 +/- 1.5%. RESULTS-Of the 1,322 subjects available for follow-up, 73% were still without retinopathy after 3 years, and 28% had developed mild or moderate retinopathy, but none developed severe nonproliferative or proliferative retinopathy. Macular edema requiring laser coagulation occurred in only one eye. CONCLUSIONS-Three-year retinal screening intervals can be recommended in subjects with mild type 2 diabetes and no retinopathy.
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9.
  • Agardh, Emilie E, et al. (författare)
  • Explanations of socioeconomic differences in excess risk of type 2 diabetes in Swedish men and women.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - 0149-5992 .- 1935-5548. ; 27:3, s. 716-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: We investigated to what extent socioeconomic differences in type 2 diabetes risk could be explained by established risk factors (obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and heredity) and psychosocial factors (low decision latitude at work and low sense of coherence). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 3,128 healthy Swedish men and 4,821 women, aged 35-56 years, living in the Stockholm area. An oral glucose tolerance test identified 55 men and 52 women with type 2 diabetes. The relative contribution of established and psychosocial factors to socioeconomic differences in diabetes risk was assessed by comparing analyses with adjustment for different sets of these factors. RESULTS: The relative risks (RRs) for type 2 diabetes in middle and low socioeconomic groups in men were 2.4 (95% CI 1.0-5.3) and 2.9 (1.5-5.7), respectively, and in women 3.2 (1.5-6.6) and 2.7 (1.3-5.9), respectively. In men, the RRs decreased to 1.9 (0.8-4.4) and 2.1 (1.0-4.2) after adjustment for established risk factors; no further change was found when psychosocial factors were included. In women, the RRs changed to 2.4 (1.1-5.2) and 1.6 (0.7-3.8) by including established risk factors and to 2.3 (1.0-5.1) and 1.9 (0.8-4.3) by inclusion of psychosocial factors. After adjustment for both established and psychosocial factors, the RRs were 1.4 (0.6-3.6) and 1.0 (0.4-2.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In men, the excess risk of type 2 diabetes was partly explained by established risk factors (36-42%), whereas psychosocial factors had no effect. In women, most of the socioeconomic differences in type 2 diabetes were explained by simultaneous adjustment for established risk factors and psychosocial factors (81-100%).
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10.
  • Agardh, Emilie E, et al. (författare)
  • Work stress and low sense of coherence is associated with type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Swedish women.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - 0149-5992 .- 1935-5548. ; 26:3, s. 719-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The risk of type 2 diabetes is suggested to be increased for individuals exposed to stress. We analyzed the association of work stress by high demands, low decision latitude, and job strain (combination of high demands and low decision latitude) with type 2 diabetes. We also studied low sense of coherence (SOC) (a factor for successful coping with stressors) in association with type 2 diabetes. Finally, we investigated the combination of SOC and demands or SOC and decision latitude in association with the disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 4821 healthy Swedish women (aged 35-56 years) residing in five municipalities in the Stockholm area. An oral glucose tolerance test identified 52 women with type 2 diabetes. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were estimated in a logistic multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: No association was found between high demands and type 2 diabetes (RR 1.1 [CI 0.5-2.2]). Low decision latitude was associated with type 2 diabetes with a RR of 2.2 (1.0-4.8). The RR of type 2 diabetes with low SOC was 3.7 (1.2-11.2). The combination of low SOC and low decision latitude was associated with type 2 diabetes with a RR of 2.6 (1.2-5.7). Homeostasis model assessment revealed an association of 4.2 (1.2-15.0) between low SOC and insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided new evidence that stress factors such as low decision latitude at work and low SOC were associated with type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Swedish women.
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