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  • Ali, Ashfaq, et al. (författare)
  • Do Genetic Factors Modify the Relationship Between Obesity and Hypertriglyceridemia? : Findings From the GLACIER and the MDC Studies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Circulation : Cardiovascular Genetics. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 9:2, s. 162-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background Obesity is a major risk factor for dyslipidemia, but this relationship is highly variable. Recently published data from 2 Danish cohorts suggest that genetic factors may underlie some of this variability.</p><p>Methods and Results We tested whether established triglyceride-associated loci modify the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride concentrations in 2 Swedish cohorts (the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Complex Traits Involved in Elevated Disease Risk [GLACIER Study; N=4312] and the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study [N=5352]). The genetic loci were amalgamated into a weighted genetic risk score (WGRS(TG)) by summing the triglyceride-elevating alleles (weighted by their established marginal effects) for all loci. Both BMI and the WGRS(TG) were strongly associated with triglyceride concentrations in GLACIER, with each additional BMI unit (kg/m(2)) associated with 2.8% (P=8.4x10(-84)) higher triglyceride concentration and each additional WGRS(TG) unit with 2% (P=7.6x10(-48)) higher triglyceride concentration. Each unit of the WGRS(TG) was associated with 1.5% higher triglyceride concentrations in normal weight and 2.4% higher concentrations in overweight/obese participants (P-interaction=0.056). Meta-analyses of results from the Swedish cohorts yielded a statistically significant WGRS(TG)xBMI interaction effect (P-interaction=6.0x10(-4)), which was strengthened by including data from the Danish cohorts (P-interaction=6.5x10(-7)). In the meta-analysis of the Swedish cohorts, nominal evidence of a 3-way interaction (WGRS(TG)xBMIxsex) was observed (P-interaction=0.03), where the WGRS(TG)xBMI interaction was only statistically significant in females. Using protein-protein interaction network analyses, we identified molecular interactions and pathways elucidating the metabolic relationships between BMI and triglyceride-associated loci.</p><p>Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that body fatness accentuates the effects of genetic susceptibility variants in hypertriglyceridemia, effects that are most evident in females.</p>
  • Berg, Katarina E., et al. (författare)
  • Elevated CD14++CD16− Monocytes Predict Cardiovascular Events
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation : Cardiovascular Genetics. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 5:1, s. 122-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background—Although monocytes in peripheral blood are no longer considered to be a homogeneous population, associations between distinct monocyte subsets and cardiovascular disease have not been highlighted in large epidemiological studies. Methods and Results—The study included 700 randomly selected subjects from the cardiovascular arm of the Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Among these, 123 subjects experienced ischemic cardiovascular events during the follow-up until December 2008. Mononuclear leukocytes frozen at the baseline investigation in 1991 to 1994 were thawed and analyzed with flow cytometry to enumerate monocyte subsets, based on CD14 and CD16 expression. The percentage and number of classical CD14++CD16− monocytes were increased in the cardiovascular-event group compared with the event-free subjects (median, 69% [interquartile range, 62% to 76%] versus 67% [59% to 72%], P=0.017; 344 [251 to 419] cells/μL versus 297 [212 to 384] cells/μL, P=0.003). The hazard ratio was 1.66 for suffering a cardiovascular event in the highest tertile of the number of CD14++CD16− monocytes compared with the lowest tertile, even after adjustment for common risk factors (HR, 1.66; 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.72). CD14++CD16− monocytes did not, however, associate with the extent of atherosclerosis at baseline. In contrast, the percentage of monocytes expressing CD16 was negatively associated to the extent of carotid atherosclerosis measured as intima-media thickness at baseline. The chemokine receptors CCR2, CX3CR1, and CCR5 were not differentially expressed between cases and controls on any of the monocyte subsets, but CCR5 expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes was negatively associated to carotid intima-media thickness. Conclusions—This study shows that classical CD14++CD16− monocytes can predict future cardiovascular risk independently of other risk factors in a randomly selected population.</p>
  • Chu, A. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Differential Genetic Effects on Statin-Induced Changes Across Low-Density Lipoprotein-Related Measures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 8:5, s. 688-695
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Statin therapy influences not only low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels but also LDL-related biomarkers, including non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apolipoprotein B, total number of LDL particles, and mean LDL particle size. Recent studies have identified many genetic loci influencing circulating lipid levels and statin-induced LDL cholesterol reduction. However, it is unknown how these genetic variants influence statin-induced changes in LDL subfractions and non-HDL-C. Methods and Results-One hundred sixty candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms for effects on circulating lipid levels or statin-induced LDL-cholesterol lowering were tested for association with response of LDL subfractions and non-HDL-C to rosuvastatin or placebo for 1 year among 7046 participants from the Justification for Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial. Of the 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with statin response for ≥1 of the LDL subfractions or non-HDL-C, 20 single-nucleotide polymorphisms could be clustered according to effects predominantly on LDL particle size, predominantly on LDL particle number, and on apolipoprotein B but not on LDL cholesterol or non-HDL-C. Conclusions-These differential associations point to pathways of LDL response to statin therapy and possibly to mechanisms of statin-dependent cardiovascular disease risk reduction. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
  • Ekblom, Kim, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma Bilirubin and UGT1A1*28 Are Not Protective Factors Against First-Time Myocardial Infarction in a Prospective, Nested Case–Referent Setting
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Circulation : Cardiovascular Genetics. - Philadelphia, PA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; :3, s. 340-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Bilirubin, an effective antioxidant, shows a large variation in levels between individuals and has been positively associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. A major reason for the variability is a common promoter polymorphism, UGT1A1*28, which reduces the transcription of the enzyme that conjugates bilirubin, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible protective effect of plasma bilirubin and the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism against myocardial infarction in a prospective case-referent setting.</p><p>Methods and Results: 618 subjects with a first-ever myocardial infarction (median event age 60.5 years, median lag time 3.5 years) and 1184 matched referents were studied. Plasma bilirubin was lower in cases vs. referents. Despite a strong gene-dosage effect on bilirubin levels in both cases and referents, the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism did not influence the risk of myocardial infarction. Among multiple other variables, serum iron showed one of the strongest associations with bilirubin levels.</p><p>Conclusion: We found no evidence for a protective effect of the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism against myocardial infarction and consequently neither for bilirubin. The lower bilirubin levels in cases might be caused by decreased production, increased degradation or increased elimination.</p>
  • Folkersen, Lasse, et al. (författare)
  • Association of genetic risk variants with expression of proximal genes identifies novel susceptibility genes for cardiovascular disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Circulation : Cardiovascular Genetics. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 3:4, s. 365-373
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong></p> <p>Population-based genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cardiovascular disease or its risk factors. Genes in close proximity to these risk-SNPs are often thought to be pathogenetically important based on their location alone. However, the actual connections between SNPs and disease mechanisms remain largely unknown.</p> <p><strong>METHODS AND RESULTS: </strong></p> <p>To identify novel susceptibility genes, we investigated how 166 SNPs previously found to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk and/or predisposing metabolic traits relate to the expression of nearby genes. Gene expression in 577 samples of aorta, liver, mammary artery, and carotid atherosclerotic plaque was measured using expression arrays. For 47 SNPs, the expression levels of proximal genes (located within 200 kb) were affected (P&lt;0.005). More than 20 of these genes had not previously been identified as candidate genes for cardiovascular or related metabolic traits. SNP-associated gene effects were tissue-specific and the tissue specificity was phenotype-dependent.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong></p> <p>This study demonstrates several instances of association between risk-SNPs and genes immediately adjacent to them. It also demonstrates instances in which the associated gene is not the immediately proximal and obvious candidate gene for disease. This shows the necessity of careful studies of genetic marker data as a first step toward application of genome-wide association studies findings in a clinical setting.</p>
  • Gertow, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of the BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A Locus as a Determinant of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Coronary Artery Disease Risk
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation : Cardiovascular Genetics. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 5:6, s. 656-665
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong></p><p>Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a widely accepted marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. To date, large-scale investigations of genetic determinants of cIMT are sparse.</p><p><strong>Methods and Results</strong></p><p>To identify cIMT-associated genes and genetic variants, a discovery analysis using the Illumina 200K CardioMetabochip was conducted in 3430 subjects with detailed ultrasonographic determinations of cIMT from the IMPROVE (Carotid Intima Media Thickness [IMT] and IMT-Progression as Predictors of Vascular Events in a High Risk European Population) study. Segment-specific IMT measurements of common carotid, bifurcation, and internal carotid arteries, and composite IMT variables considering the whole carotid tree (IMT<sub>mean</sub>, IMT<sub>max</sub>, and IMT<sub>mean-max</sub>), were analyzed. A replication stage investigating 42 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with common carotid IMT was undertaken in 5 independent European cohorts (total n=11 590). A locus on chromosome 16 (lead single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4888378, intronic in <em>CFDP1</em>) was associated with cIMT at significance levels passing multiple testing correction at both stages (array-wide significant discovery <em>P</em>=6.75×10<sup>−7</sup> for IMT<sub>max</sub>; replication <em>P</em>=7.24×10<sup>−6</sup> for common cIMT; adjustments for sex, age, and population substructure where applicable; minor allele frequency 0.43 and 0.41, respectively). The protective minor allele was associated with lower carotid plaque score in a replication cohort (<em>P</em>=0.04, n=2120) and lower coronary artery disease risk in 2 case-control studies of subjects with European ancestry (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.83 [0.77–0.90], <em>P</em>=6.53×10<sup>−6</sup>, n=13 591; and 0.95 [0.92–0.98], <em>P</em>=1.83×10<sup>−4</sup>, n=82 297, respectively). Queries of human biobank data sets revealed associations of rs4888378 with nearby gene expression in vascular tissues (n=126–138).</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p><p>This study identified rs4888378 in the <em>BCAR1-CFDP1-TMEM170A</em> locus as a novel genetic determinant of cIMT and coronary artery disease risk in individuals of European descent.</p>
  • Gustavsson, Jaana, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • FTO Genotype, Physical Activity, and Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Swedish Men and Women
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 7:2, s. 171-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background—Variants in the fat mass– and obesity-associated gene (FTO) predisposing to obesity and diabetes mellitus have also been associated with cardiovascular disease. Physical activity has been suggested to attenuate the FTO effect on obesity, but it is unknown whether this is also true for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, we explored whether physical activity modifies the FTO association with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and Results—FTO rs9939609 (T>A) polymorphism was genotyped in 2 Swedish population–based case–control studies with 1743 CHD cases and 4402 population controls (25–74 years of age; 41% women). Leisure time physical activity was assessed by questionnaires, and 3 levels were defined: low, medium, and high. Overall, carriers of the FTO A allele had an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.37) adjusted for age, sex, study, and body mass index. Although A-allele carriers with low physical activity had the highest CHD risk (odds ratio, 3.30; 95% confidence interval, 2.44–4.46) compared with those with TT genotype and high activity, the effects of FTO genotype and physical activity on CHD risk were approximately additive, indicating the absence of additive interaction. The stratum-specific relative risks of CHD from the A allele in subjects with low, medium, and high physical activity were odds ratio 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.77–1.60), 1.22 (1.04–1.44), and 1.38 (1.06–1.80), respectively, but the suggested multiplicative interaction was not significant. Conclusions—FTO rs9939609 A-allele carriers have an increased CHD risk, and the association is not counteracted by increased physical activity. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2014;7:171-177.)
  • Johansson, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • NLRC4 Inflammasome Is an Important Regulator of Interleukin-18 Levels in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Genome-Wide Association Study in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes Trial (PLATO)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Circulation : Cardiovascular Genetics. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 8:3, s. 498-506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background Interleukin 18 (IL-18) promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation and is increased in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However the relative contribution of genetic variants to the IL-18 levels has not been fully determined. Methods and Results Baseline plasma IL-18 levels were measured in 16633 patients with acute coronary syndrome, of whom 9340 had genetic data that passed genotype quality control. A 2-stage genome-wide association study was performed, followed by combined analyses using &gt;10 million genotyped or imputed genetic markers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at 3 loci (IL18, NLRC4, and MROH6) were identified (P&lt;3.15x10(-8)) in the discovery cohort (n=3777) and replicated in the remaining patients (n=5563). In the pooled data (discovery+replication cohort), 7 independent associations, in 5 chromosomal regions, were associated with IL-18 levels (minimum P=6.99x10(-72)). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms are located in predicted promoter regions of which one disrupts a transcription factor binding site. One single nucleotide polymorphism in NLRC4 is a rare missense variant, predicted to be deleterious to the protein. Altogether, the identified genetic variants explained 8% of the total variation in IL-18 levels in the cohort. Conclusions Our results show that genetic variants play an important role in determining IL-18 levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome and we have identified genetic variants located in the IL-18 gene (IL18) or close to genes that are involved in procaspase-1 activation (NLRC4 and CARD16, CARD17, and CARD18). These associations also highlight the importance of the NLRC4 inflammasome for IL-18 production in acute coronary syndrome patients.</p>
  • Kasiman, Katherine, et al. (författare)
  • Familial effects on ischemic stroke : the role of sibling kinship, sex, and age of onset
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation : Cardiovascular Genetics. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 5:2, s. 226-233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Previous studies on familial risk of ischemic stroke have supported genetic influence on the disease incidence. This study aimed to characterize these familial effects in a nationwide population-based study by taking into account sibling relations, sex of siblings, and age of onset, with respect to ischemic stroke incidence.</p><p><strong>METHODS AND RESULTS:</strong> Incident ischemic stroke cases identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death Registers between 1987 and 2007 were linked to their stroke-free siblings (study participants), forming an exposed sib-pair. Each exposed sib-pair was matched up to 5 unexposed sib-pairs from the Multi-Generation Registry by birth and calendar years. Incident ischemic stroke risk was assessed using hazard estimates obtained from stratified Cox regression analyses. A total of 30 735 exposed and 152 391 unexposed study participants were included in the analyses. The overall risk of incident ischemic stroke when exposed was significantly increased (relative risk, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-1.75; P&lt;0.001). Familial risk was higher in full (relative risk, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-1.81; P&lt;0.001) than in half (relative risk, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.82; P=0.007) siblings. Familial risk of early ischemic stroke almost doubled when exposed to early ischemic stroke (relative risk, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-2.67; P&lt;0.001).</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> There was a 60% increased risk for ischemic stroke in individuals having a sibling with prior stroke. The familial effect was even higher for full-sibling relations. Familial effects were observed in both male and female individuals, and no differential effects depending on the sex of either of the siblings were found.</p>
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