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  • Adel Fahmideh, Maral, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variations in cell cycle and DNA repair pathways associated with pediatric brain tumor susceptibility
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine. - 1949-2553.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Knowledge on the role of genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) is limited. Therefore, we investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identifid by candidate gene-association studies on adult brain tumors, and PBT risk. The study is based on the largest series of PBT cases to date. Saliva DNA from 245 cases and 489 controls, aged 7–19 years at diagnosis/reference date, was genotyped for 68 SNPs. Data were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The results showed EGFRrs730437 and EGFRrs11506105 may decrease susceptibility to PBTs, whereas ERCC1rs3212986 may increase risk of these tumors. Moreover, stratifid analyses indicated CHAF1Ars243341, CHAF1Ars2992, and XRCC1rs25487 were associated with a decreased risk of astrocytoma subtype. Furthermore, an increased risk of non-astrocytoma subtype associated with EGFRrs9642393, EME1rs12450550, ATMrs170548, and GLTSCRrs1035938 as well as a decreased risk of this subtype associated with XRCC4rs7721416 and XRCC4rs2662242 were detected. This study indicates SNPs in EGFR, ERCC1, CHAF1A, XRCC1, EME1, ATM, GLTSCR1, and XRCC4 may be associated with the risk of PBTs. Therefore, cell cycle and DNA repair pathways variations associated with susceptibility to adult brain tumors also seem to be associated with PBT risk, suggesting pediatric and adult brain tumors might share similar etiological pathways.
  • Kauppila, Joonas Henrikki, et al. (författare)
  • Tenascin-C and fibronectin in normal esophageal mucosa, Barrett's esophagus, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 1949-2553.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Tenascin-C and fibronectin are adhesive glycoproteins modulating the structure of the extracellular matrix and cellular functions. Their expression and function in esophageal adenocarcinoma is poorly known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of tenascin-C and fibronectin in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor stages. RESULTS: Stromal tenascin-C and fibronectin expression were found in all evaluated lesion types. Expression of both molecules increased from gastric metaplasia towards adenocarcinoma (p<0.05). In carcinomas, tenascin-C expression in the bulk was associated with T-stage (p=0.006), presence of lymph node (p=0.004) and distant organ metastases (p=0.007). Abundant tenascin-C expression associated with poor survival (p=0.034) in univariate analysis. Fibronectin expression associated to T-stage (p=0.030). Expression of tenascin-C or fibronectin in the tumor invasive front was not associated to clinicopathological variables or survival. No significant correlation with tumor/stroma percentage, cancer-associated fibroblasts or mean vascular density was observed with either tenascin-C or fibronectin. METHODS: Tenascin-C and fibronectin were stained immunohistochemically and assessed in esophageal specimens from patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (n=90) or dysplasia (n=30). Structures and lesion were evaluated including normal esophagus (n=77), gastric (n=61) or intestinal (n=51) metaplasia without dysplasia, and low-grade (n=42) or high-grade (n=34) dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (n=90). In carcinomas, both bulk and invasive front were separately evaluated. In addition, tumor/stroma percentage, cancer-associated fibroblasts and mean vascular density were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Tenascin-C and fibronectin are upregulated in esophageal adenocarcinoma when compared to Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia. Increased tenascin-C expression is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Kauppila, Joonas, et al. (författare)
  • Intratumoral lactate metabolism in Barrett’s esophagus and adenocarcinoma
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 1949-2553.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are cell membrane proteins which transport pyruvate, lactate and ketone bodies across the plasma membrane. MCTs are activated in various cancers, but their expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma is not known. The present study was conducted to elucidate the expression of MCTs in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions. Results: Cytoplasmic MCT1, MCT4 and MTCO1 expression linearly increased from normal epithelium to Barrett's mucosa to dysplasia and cancer. Low cytoplasmic MCT1 expression associated with high T-class (P < 0.01), positive lymph node metastases (P < 0.05), positive distant metastases (P < 0.01) and high tumor stage (P < 0.01). High cytoplasmic MCT4 expression correlated significantly with positive distant metastases (P < 0.05). Both low MCT1 and high MCT4 histoscore predicted survival in univariate analysis (P < 0.01). MCT4 histoscore predicted survival in multivariate analysis (P = 0.043; HR 1.8 95%CI 1.0–3.1). MTCO1 expression was not correlated to clinicopathological variables or survival. Materials and Methods: MCT1, MCT4 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (MTCO1) expression were determined with immunohistochemistry in esophageal specimens from 129 patients with columnar dysplasia or adenocarcinoma. Specimens including normal esophagus (n = 88), gastric (n = 67) or intestinal metaplasia (n = 51), low-grade (n = 42), high-grade dysplasia (n = 37) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 99) were evaluated. Conclusions: Major increase in markers of tumor metabolism occurs during carcinogenesis and progression of esophageal adenocarcinoma. MCT1 and MCT4 are prognostic factors in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Aaltonen, Kristina E., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells from patients with metastatic breast cancer reflects evolutionary changes in gene expression under the pressure of systemic therapy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - : Impact Journals, LLC. - 1949-2553. ; 8:28, s. 45544-45565
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Resistance to systemic therapy is a major problem in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) that can be explained by initial tumor heterogeneity as well as by evolutionary changes during therapy and tumor progression. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detected in a liquid biopsy can be sampled and characterized repeatedly during therapy in order to monitor treatment response and disease progression. Our aim was to investigate how CTC derived gene expression of treatment predictive markers (ESR1/HER2) and other cancer associated markers changed in patient blood samples during six months of first-line systemic treatment for MBC. CTCs from 36 patients were enriched using CellSearch (Janssen Diagnostics) and AdnaTest (QIAGEN) before gene expression analysis was performed with a customized gene panel (TATAA Biocenter). Our results show that antibodies against HER2 and EGFR were valuable to isolate CTCs unidentified by CellSearch and possibly lacking EpCAM expression. Evaluation of patients with clinically different breast cancer subgroups demonstrated that gene expression of treatment predictive markers changed over time. This change was especially prominent for HER2 expression. In conclusion, we found that changed gene expression during first-line systemic therapy for MBC could be a possible explanation for treatment resistance. Characterization of CTCs at several time-points during therapy could be informative for treatment selection.
  • Abrahamsson, Annelie, et al. (författare)
  • Downregulation of tumor suppressive microRNAs in vivo in dense breast tissue of postmenopausal women
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: OncoTarget. - : Impact Journals LCC. - 1949-2553 .- 1949-2553. ; 8:54, s. 92134-92142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Women with dense breast tissue on mammography are at higher risk of developing breast cancer but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. De-regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with the onset of breast cancer. miRNAs in the extracellular space participate in the regulation of the local tissue microenvironment. Here, we recruited 39 healthy postmenopausal women attending their mammography-screen that were assessed having extreme dense or entirely fatty breasts (nondense). Microdialysis was performed in breast tissue and a reference catheter was inserted in abdominal subcutaneous fat for local sampling of extracellular compounds. Three miRNAs, associated with tumor suppression, miR-193b, miR-365a, and miR-452 were significantly down-regulated in dense breast tissue compared with nondense breast tissue. In addition, miR-452 exhibited significant negative correlations with several pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo, which was confirmed in vitro by overexpression of miR-452 in breast cancer cells. No differences were found of miR-21, -29a, -30c, 146a, -148a, -203, or -451 in breast tissue and no miRs were different in plasma. Extracellular miRNAs may be among factors that should be included in studies of novel prevention strategies for breast cancer.
  • Abrahamsson, Annelie, et al. (författare)
  • Tissue specific expression of extracellular microRNA in human breast cancers and normal human breast tissue in vivo
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: OncoTarget. - Albany, NY, United States : Impact Journals LLC. - 1949-2553 .- 1949-2553. ; 6:26, s. 22959-22969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extracellular circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to be biomarkers for disease monitoring but data are inconsistent, one reason being that blood miRNA is of heterogeneous origin. Here, we sampled extracellular microRNAs locally in situ using microdialysis. Three different cohorts of women were included; postmenopausal women with ongoing breast cancer investigated within the cancer and in normal adjacent breast tissue, postmenopausal women investigated in their normal healthy breast and subcutaneous fat before and after six weeks of tamoxifen therapy, premenopausal women during the menstrual cycle. Samples were initially screened using TaqMan array cards with subsequently absolute quantification. 124 miRNA were expressed in microdialysates. After absolute quantifications extracellular miRNA-21 was found to be significantly increased in breast cancer. In addition, the levels were significantly higher in pre-menopausal breast tissue compared with postmenopausal. In breast tissue of pre-menopausal women miRNA-21 exhibited a cyclic variation during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women six weeks of tamoxifen treatment decreased miRNA-21 suggesting that this miRNA may be important for breast carcinogenesis. None of these changes were found in plasma or microdialysates from subcutaneous fat. Our data revealed tissue specific changes of extracellular circulating miRNAs that would be otherwise unraveled using blood samples.
  • Adingupu, D. D., et al. (författare)
  • Radial artery intima-media thickness regresses after secondary prevention interventions in patients' post-acute coronary syndrome and is associated with cardiac and kidney biomarkers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - 1949-2553. ; 8:32, s. 53419-53431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Radial artery intima-media thickness (rIMT) measured by ultra-high-resolution ultrasound is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and predicts outcomes. We performed non-invasive high-resolution ultrasound of the radial artery to investigate vascular changes in subjects presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Purpose: In the present work, we aimed to follow rIMT change over time post-acute coronary syndrome as a tool to monitor potential response to intensified medical therapy. Methods: We examined 256 subjects who underwent PCI due to ACS and healthy controls (n= 39) and we measured a number of biomarkers, which are known to be associated with cardiovascular disease. Images of radial artery were acquired bilaterally in the longitudinal view using a 50 MHz transducer (Vevo 2100 VisualSonics, Inc, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Carotid IMT (cIMT) and rIMT were measured at <1 month after index PCI followed by a repeated measurement of rIMT at 4 months from the ACS in a sub-set (n= 117). Results: rIMT measured within 1 month post ACS was significantly higher than rIMT after 4 months from ACS, (p < 0.0001), mean +/- SD (rIMT right 0.35 +/- 0.08; rIMT left 0.37 +/- 0.08) vs. (rIMT right 0.29 +/- 0.08; rIMT left 0.31 +/- 0.09) respectively. There was no statistically significant change in cIMT. In healthy controls there were no changes in rIMT or cIMT overtime. High levels of CX3CL1 and myeloperoxidase measured within one month post ACS are associated with increase of rIMT, r=0.38 (p< 0.0001) and r=0.41 (p< 0.0001) respectively. Conclusions: rIMT seem to decrease systemically after ACS and is accompanied with corresponding biomarker change. The cause and clinical implications of the observed decrement in rIMT after ACS need further studies.
  • Agarwal, Prasoon, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide profiling of histone H3 lysine 27 and lysine 4 trimethylation in multiple myeloma reveals the importance of Polycomb gene targeting and highlights EZH2 as a potential therapeutic target.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 7:6, s. 6809-6923
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of the antibody-producing plasma cells. MM is a highly heterogeneous disease, which has hampered the identification of a common underlying mechanism for disease establishment as well as the development of targeted therapy. Here we present the first genome-wide profiling of histone H3 lysine 27 and lysine 4 trimethylation in MM patient samples, defining a common set of active H3K4me3-enriched genes and silent genes marked by H3K27me3 (H3K27me3 alone or bivalent) unique to primary MM cells, when compared to normal bone marrow plasma cells. Using this epigenome profile, we found increased silencing of H3K27me3 targets in MM patients at advanced stages of the disease, and the expression pattern of H3K27me3-marked genes correlated with poor patient survival. We also demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 had anti-myeloma effects in both MM cell lines and CD138+ MM patient cells. In addition, EZH2 inhibition decreased the global H3K27 methylation and induced apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest an important role for the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in MM, and highlights the PRC2 component EZH2 as a potential therapeutic target in MM.
  • Ahlmanner, Filip, et al. (författare)
  • CD39+ regulatory T cells accumulate in colon adenocarcinomas and display markers of increased suppressive function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - 1949-2553. ; 9:97, s. 36993-37007
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing knowledge of the function and regulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has led to new insights in cancer immunotherapy. Regulatory T cells (Treg) accumulate in colon tumors, and we recently showed that CD39+ Treg from cancer patients inhibit transendothelial migration of conventional T cells. CD39 mediates the hydrolysis of ATP to immunosuppressive adenosine and adds to the immunosuppressive effects of Treg. Here, we further investigated the regulatory features of intratumoral CD39+ Treg in colon cancer. Using flow cytometry analyses of cells from 46 colon cancer patients, we confirm the accumulation of CD39+ Treg in the tumor tissue compared to unaffected colon tissue, and also show that tumor-infiltrating Treg express more CD39 and Foxp3 on a per cell basis. Furthermore, CD39+ Treg in tumors express markers indicating increased turnover and suppressive ability. In particular, tumor-infiltrating CD39+ Treg have high expression of surface molecules related to immunosuppression, such as ICOS, PD-L1 and CTLA-4. Functional suppression assays also indicate potent suppressive capacity of CD39+ Treg on proliferation and IFN-γ secretion by conventional T cells. In conclusion, our results identify tumor-infiltrating CD39+ Treg as a numerous and potentially important immunosuppressive subset, and suggest that immunotherapy aimed at reducing the activity of CD39+ Treg may be particularly useful in the setting of colon cancer. © 2018 Ahlmanner et al.
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