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Sökning: L773:2041 1723

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1.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross-section at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dependence of the rate of proton-proton interactions on the centre-of-mass collision energy, root s, is of fundamental importance for both hadron collider physics and particle astrophysics. The dependence cannot yet be calculated from first principles; therefore, experimental measurements are needed. Here we present the first measurement of the inelastic proton-proton interaction cross-section at a centre-of-mass energy, root s, of 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are selected by requiring hits on scintillation counters mounted in the forward region of the detector. An inelastic crosssection of 60.3 +/- 2.1 mb is measured for xi > 5x10(-6), where xi is calculated from the invariant mass, M-X, of hadrons selected using the largest rapidity gap in the event. For diffractive events, this corresponds to requiring at least one of the dissociation masses to be larger than 15.7 GeV.
2.
  • Abbey-Lee, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptive individual variation in phenological responses to perceived predation levels
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The adaptive evolution of timing of breeding (a component of phenology) in response to environmental change requires individual variation in phenotypic plasticity for selection to act upon. A major question is what processes generate this variation. Here we apply multi-year manipulations of perceived predation levels (PPL) in an avian predator-prey system, identifying phenotypic plasticity in phenology as a key component of alternative behavioral strategies with equal fitness payoffs. We show that under low-PPL, faster (versus slower) exploring birds breed late (versus early); the pattern is reversed under high-PPL, with breeding synchrony decreasing in conjunction. Timing of breeding affects reproductive success, yet behavioral types have equal fitness. The existence of alternative behavioral strategies thus explains variation in phenology and plasticity in reproductive behavior, which has implications for evolution in response to anthropogenic change.
3.
  • Aben, Ralf C. H., et al. (författare)
  • Cross continental increase in methane ebullition under climate change
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methane (CH4) strongly contributes to observed global warming. As natural CH4 emissions mainly originate from wet ecosystems, it is important to unravel how climate change may affect these emissions. This is especially true for ebullition (bubble flux from sediments), a pathway that has long been underestimated but generally dominates emissions. Here we show a remarkably strong relationship between CH4 ebullition and temperature across a wide range of freshwater ecosystems on different continents using multi-seasonal CH4 ebullition data from the literature. As these temperature-ebullition relationships may have been affected by seasonal variation in organic matter availability, we also conducted a controlled year-round mesocosm experiment. Here 4 degrees C warming led to 51% higher total annual CH4 ebullition, while diffusion was not affected. Our combined findings suggest that global warming will strongly enhance freshwater CH4 emissions through a disproportional increase in ebullition (6-20% per 1 degrees C increase), contributing to global warming.
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4.
  • Abrahamsson, Katarina, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Organic bromine compounds produced in sea ice in Antarctic winter
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During polar springtime, active bromine drives ozone, a greenhouse gas, to near-zero levels. Bromine production and emission in the polar regions have so far been assumed to require sunlight. Here, we report measurements of bromocarbons in sea ice, snow, and air during the Antarctic winter that reveal an unexpected new source of organic bromine to the atmosphere during periods of no sunlight. The results show that Antarctic winter sea ice provides 10 times more bromocarbons to the atmosphere than Southern Ocean waters, and substantially more than summer sea ice. The inclusion of these measurements in a global climate model indicates that the emitted bromocarbons will disperse throughout the troposphere in the southern hemisphere and through photochemical degradation to bromine atoms, contribute similar to 10% to the tropospheric reactive bromine budget. Combined together, our results suggest that winter sea ice could potentially be an important source of atmospheric bromine with implications for atmospheric chemistry and climate at a hemispheric scale.
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5.
  • Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo, et al. (författare)
  • Cidea improves the metabolic profile through expansion of adipose tissue
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In humans, Cidea (cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor alpha-like effector A) is highly but variably expressed in white fat, and expression correlates with metabolic health. Here we generate transgenic mice expressing human Cidea in adipose tissues (aP2-hCidea mice) and show that Cidea is mechanistically associated with a robust increase in adipose tissue expandability. Under humanized conditions (thermoneutrality, mature age and prolonged exposure to high-fat diet), aP2-hCidea mice develop a much more pronounced obesity than their wild-type littermates. Remarkably, the malfunctioning of visceral fat normally caused by massive obesity is fully overcome-perilipin 1 and Akt expression are preserved, tissue degradation is prevented, macrophage accumulation is decreased and adiponectin expression remains high. Importantly, the aP2-hCidea mice display enhanced insulin sensitivity. Our data establish a functional role for Cidea and suggest that, in humans, the association between Cidea levels in white fat and metabolic health is not only correlative but also causative.
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6.
  • Adamczyk, B., et al. (författare)
  • Plant roots increase both decomposition and stable organic matter formation in boreal forest soil
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Boreal forests are ecosystems with low nitrogen (N) availability that store globally significant amounts of carbon (C), mainly in plant biomass and soil organic matter (SOM). Although crucial for future climate change predictions, the mechanisms controlling boreal C and N pools are not well understood. Here, using a three-year field experiment, we compare SOM decomposition and stabilization in the presence of roots, with exclusion of roots but presence of fungal hyphae and with exclusion of both roots and fungal hyphae. Roots accelerate SOM decomposition compared to the root exclusion treatments, but also promote a different soil N economy with higher concentrations of organic soil N compared to inorganic soil N accompanied with the build-up of stable SOM-N. In contrast, root exclusion leads to an inorganic soil N economy (i.e., high level of inorganic N) with reduced stable SOM-N buildup. Based on our findings, we provide a framework on how plant roots affect SOM decomposition and stabilization.
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7.
  • Aghion, S., et al. (författare)
  • A moiré deflectometer for antimatter
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The precise measurement of forces is one way to obtain deep insight into the fundamental interactions present in nature. In the context of neutral antimatter, the gravitational interaction is of high interest, potentially revealing new forces that violate the weak equivalence principle. Here we report on a successful extension of a tool from atom optics—the moiré deflectometer—for a measurement of the acceleration of slow antiprotons. The setup consists of two identical transmission gratings and a spatially resolving emulsion detector for antiproton annihilations. Absolute referencing of the observed antimatter pattern with a photon pattern experiencing no deflection allows the direct inference of forces present. The concept is also straightforwardly applicable to antihydrogen measurements as pursued by the AEgIS collaboration. The combination of these very different techniques from high energy and atomic physics opens a very promising route to the direct detection of the gravitational acceleration of neutral antimatter.
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10.
  • Ahlström, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.
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