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  • Abadpour, Shadab, et al. (författare)
  • Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor protects human islets from nutrient deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced apoptosis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>One of the key limitations to successful human islet transplantation is loss of islets due to stress responses pre- and post-transplantation. Nutrient deprivation and ER stress have been identified as important mechanisms leading to apoptosis. Glial Cell-line Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) has recently been found to promote islet survival after isolation. However, whether GDNF could rescue human islets from nutrient deprivation and ER stress-mediated apoptosis is unknown. Herein, by mimicking those conditions in vitro, we have shown that GDNF significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion, reduced apoptosis and proinsulin: insulin ratio in nutrient deprived human islets. Furthermore, GDNF alleviated thapsigargin-induced ER stress evidenced by reduced expressions of IRE1 alpha and BiP and consequently apoptosis. Importantly, this was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and GSK3B signaling pathway. Transplantation of ER stressed human islets pre- treated with GDNF under kidney capsule of diabetic mice resulted in reduced expressions of IRE1 alpha and BiP in human islet grafts with improved grafts function shown by higher levels of human C-peptide post-transplantation. We suggest that GDNF has protective and anti-apoptotic effects on nutrient deprived and ER stress activated human islets and could play a significant role in rescuing human islets from stress responses.</p>
  • Abate Waktola, Ebba Abate, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in CARD8 and NLRP3 are associated with extrapulmonary TB and poor clinical outcome in active TB in Ethiopia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Innate immunity is a first line defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection where inflammasome activation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta, plays a major role. Thus, genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity-related genes such as CARD8 and NLRP3 may contribute to the understanding of why most exposed individuals do not develop infection. Our aim was to investigate the association between polymorphisms in CARD8 and NLRP3 and active tuberculosis (TB) as well as their relationship to treatment outcome in a high-endemic setting for TB. Polymorphisms in CARD8 (C10X) and NLRP3 (Q705K) were analysed in 1190 TB patients and 1990 healthy donors (HD). There was a significant association between homozygotes in the CARD8 polymorphism and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB), which was not the case for pulmonary TB or HDs. Among TB-patients, there was an association between poor treatment outcome and the NLRP3 (Q705K) polymorphism. Our study shows that inflammasome polymorphisms are associated with EPTB and poor clinical outcome in active TB in Ethiopia. The practical implications and determining causal relationships on a mechanistic level needs further study.</p>
  • Abbey-Lee, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • Experimental manipulation of monoamine levels alters personality in crickets
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Animal personality has been described in a range of species with ecological and evolutionary consequences. Factors shaping and maintaining variation in personality are not fully understood, but monoaminergic systems are consistently linked to personality variation. We experimentally explored how personality was influenced by alterations in two key monoamine systems: dopamine and serotonin. This was done using ropinirole and fluoxetine, two common human pharmaceuticals. Using the Mediterranean field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), we focused on the personality traits activity, exploration, and aggression, with confirmed repeatability in our study. Dopamine manipulations explained little variation in the personality traits investigated, while serotonin manipulation reduced both activity and aggression. Due to limited previous research, we created a dose-response curve for ropinirole, ranging from concentrations measured in surface waters to human therapeutic doses. No ropinirole dose level strongly influenced cricket personality, suggesting our results did not come from a dose mismatch. Our results indicate that the serotonergic system explains more variation in personality than manipulations of the dopaminergic system. Additionally, they suggest that monoamine systems differ across taxa, and confirm the importance of the mode of action of pharmaceuticals in determining their effects on behaviour.</p>
  • Abd El-Daim, Islam Ahmed Moustafa, et al. (författare)
  • Bacillus velezensis 5113 Induced Metabolic and Molecular Reprogramming during Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Wheat
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group: Open Access Journals - Option C / Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abiotic stresses are main limiting factors for agricultural production around the world. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been shown to improve abiotic stress tolerance in several plants. However, the molecular and physiological changes connected with PGPR priming of stress management are poorly understood. The present investigation aimed to explore major metabolic and molecular changes connected with the ability of Bacillus velezensis 5113 to mediate abiotic stress tolerance in wheat. Seedlings treated with Bacillus were exposed to heat, cold/freezing or drought stress. Bacillus improved wheat survival in all stress conditions. SPAD readings showed higher chlorophyll content in 5113-treated stressed seedlings. Metabolite profiling using NMR and ESI-MS provided evidences for metabolic reprograming in 5113-treated seedlings and showed that several common stress metabolites were significantly accumulated in stressed wheat. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of wheat leaves resolved more than 300 proteins of which several were differentially expressed between different treatments and that cold stress had a stronger impact on the protein pattern compared to heat and drought. Peptides maps or sequences were used for database searches which identified several homologs. The present study suggests that 5113 treatment provides systemic effects that involve metabolic and regulatory functions supporting both growth and stress management.
  • Abdalla Elsayed, Maram E.A., et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of Intraocular Lens Exchange after Cataract Surgery
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intraocular lens (IOL) exchange after cataract surgery is unusual but may be associated with suboptimal visual outcome. The incidence of IOL exchange has not been consistently estimated. Such information is invaluable when counseling patients prior to cataract surgery. We examined the incidence of, and indications and risk factors for, IOL exchange after cataract surgery. We also assessed visual outcome of eyes that had an IOL exchange. A cohort design was used to estimate the incidence of IOL exchange and a case-control design to identify factors associated with it. All phacoemulsification surgeries with IOL (n = 17415 eyes) during 2010-2017 and those that had a subsequent IOL removal or replacement during the same time period were identified (n = 34 eyes). The incidence of IOL exchange was 2 per 1000 surgeries (95% confidence interval [CI] 1 to 3) over 8 years. Eyes that underwent subsequent IOL removal or replacement were compared with eyes that had cataract surgery only (n = 47) across demographic and clinical characteristics. In a binary logistic regression analysis, two factors were significantly associated with IOL exchange/removal: an adverse event during cataract surgery (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 19.45; 95% CI 4.89-77.30, P < 0.001) and a pre-existing ocular comorbidity (aOR 10.70; 95% CI 1.69-67.63, P = 0.021). The effect of gender was marginally significant (P = 0.077). Eyes that underwent IOL exchange or explantation were nearly two and a half times more likely to have a final best-corrected visual acuity of <20/60 compared to those that had cataract surgery alone (adjusted RR 2.60 95% CI, 1.13-6.02; P = 0.025).
  • Abdalla, Hassan, et al. (författare)
  • Effective Temperature and Universal Conductivity Scaling in Organic Semiconductors
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We investigate the scalability of the temperature-and electric field-dependence of the conductivity of disordered organic semiconductors to universal curves by two different but commonly employed methods; by so-called universal scaling and by using the effective temperature concept. Experimentally both scaling methods were found to be equally applicable to the out-of-plane charge transport in PEDOT: PSS thin films of various compositions. Both methods are shown to be equivalent in terms of functional dependence and to have identical limiting behavior. The experimentally observed scaling behavior can be reproduced by a numerical nearest-neighbor hopping model, accounting for the Coulomb interaction, the high charge carrier concentration and the energetic disorder. The underlying physics can be captured in a simple empirical model, describing the effective temperature of the charge carrier distribution as the outcome of a heat balance between Joule heating and (effective) temperature-dependent energy loss to the lattice.</p>
  • Abdollahi Sani, Negar, et al. (författare)
  • Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 6:28921
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future "internet of things" viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-mu Ps) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-mu Ps and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-mu Ps. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm(2), a current rectification ratio up to 4 x 10(3) between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.</p>
  • Abolhalaj, Milad, et al. (författare)
  • Profiling dendritic cell subsets in head and neck squamous cell tonsillar cancer and benign tonsils.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 8:8030
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dendritic cells (DCs) have a key role in orchestrating immune responses and are considered important targets for immunotherapy against cancer. In order to develop effective cancer vaccines, detailed knowledge of the micromilieu in cancer lesions is warranted. In this study, flow cytometry and human transcriptome arrays were used to characterize subsets of DCs in head and neck squamous cell tonsillar cancer and compare them to their counterparts in benign tonsils to evaluate subset-selective biomarkers associated with tonsillar cancer. We describe, for the first time, four subsets of DCs in tonsillar cancer: CD123+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDC), CD1c+, CD141+, and CD1c-CD141- myeloid DCs (mDC). An increased frequency of DCs and an elevated mDC/pDC ratio were shown in malignant compared to benign tonsillar tissue. The microarray data demonstrates characteristics specific for tonsil cancer DC subsets, including expression of immunosuppressive molecules and lower expression levels of genes involved in development of effector immune responses in DCs in malignant tonsillar tissue, compared to their counterparts in benign tonsillar tissue. Finally, we present target candidates selectively expressed by different DC subsets in malignant tonsils and confirm expression of CD206/MRC1 and CD207/Langerin on CD1c+ DCs at protein level. This study descibes DC characteristics in the context of head and neck cancer and add valuable steps towards future DC-based therapies against tonsillar cancer.
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