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  • Ek, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Relative Age Effect of Sport Academy Adolescents, a Physiological Evaluation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Sports. - Basel : MDPI. - 2075-4663. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationship between birth quarter distribution and physiological characteristics related to athletic skills, in adolescent sport academy students has not been fully investigated. In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 86 boys and 52 girls aged 12-14 years during their first term at a sport academy school. We measured body size, cardiac size, pulmonary function, body composition, lower body power, cardiorespiratory fitness parameters, and running endurance by standard methods and analyzed these estimates in relation to birth quarter by ANOVA. Birth quarter distribution in our cohort was compared with birth quarter distribution in the same ages in the whole of Sweden and analyzed by logistic regression. The academy had an overrepresentation of students born in the first quartile of the year compared to those born in the last quartile (odds ratio 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-4.7)). When comparing the physiological characteristics between birth quarters, uniformity is prominent since out of 26 performed physiological and anthropometric tests only four showed statistically significant group differences. We thus believe that the selection process to the sport academy favours athletes with higher chronological age, i.e., a so-called relative age effect is present. © 2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland).
  • Ekman, Elizabeth (författare)
  • Do athletes have more of a cognitive profile with ADHD criteria than non-athletes?
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Sports. - : MDPI. - 2075-4663. ; 9:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current study investigates the possibility that athletes have more parallel ADHD symptoms than non-athletes. High-level youth sport athletes were compared with non-athletes in leisure time (i.e., sport) and in the school in ADHD symptoms. Athletes and students were evaluated by a trained psychotherapist using Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) on activities at school and during activities in leisure/sports time. They also filled in the Autism Spectrum Questionnaire (AQ) as a self-report assessment. Results showed significant differences in ASRS-scores for athletes in school and in their sport, with high scores in school and low scores in sport. No differences were found in AQ between the groups. The findings indicate that many athletes might display a cognitive profile of parallel of ADHD criteria. Future research needs to further investigate potential benefits of the cognitive profile in athletes and how they handle different contexts including sport and school settings.
  • Gerdin, Göran, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Relative Age Effect in Swedish Male and Female Tennis Players Born in 1998–2001
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Sports. - Basel : MDPI. - 2075-4663. ; 6:2, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relative age effect (RAE) has been extensively debated and researched in both popularmedia and academic discourse. This study examined RAE in Swedish tennis players born in1998–2001. The study was conducted in 2015–2016 and includes all ranked Swedish tennis players(n = 1835) registered in the Swedish Tennis Association database from the year 2014. The resultsshow that when the birth dates of the corresponding Swedish population and all the ranked playersare compared, they show a moderate RAE; however, the higher up they are in the ranking system,the greater the RAE becomes. Top 10 players display an average of 64.1% being born in the firsthalf of the year. Some gender differences were also found, with a greater proportion of bothhigher and lower ranked females being born in the first half of the year. In our discussion ofthe findings we raise several issues that need to be addressed to provide more equal opportunitiesfor all junior players regardless of birth date. Resolving ongoing problems associated with RAEin competitive sports such as tennis is important both in term of prolonged participation in thesport and increased performance. Suggestions made in this article include recognising RAE whendesigning the format of competitions/tournaments, not using official rankings until the juniorsget older, addressing RAE in a “gender sensitive” way, and conducting further in-depth studiesin which RAE is understood/examined as being associated with environmental factors. Althoughthese findings show the RAE effect in Swedish tennis players, thus pointing at the need for furtherconsideration in terms of ranking and selection procedures to ensure equal opportunities for playerdevelopment, the study also concludes by reasserting an emphasis on a holistic approach to playerdevelopment in which coaches focus on the developmentally appropriate needs and potential of eachindividual player regardless of their biological age.
  • Haga, Monika, et al. (författare)
  • Visualizing Physical Activity Patterns among Community-Dwelling Older Adults : A Pilot Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Sports. - : MDPI. - 2075-4663. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Regular physical activity relates to physical and mental functioning in older people, and promoting physical activity has the potential to substantially reduce functional decline and improve well-being. Despite this, investigations of the physical activity quotient through participation in functional activities in everyday life have traditionally gained limited focus among older populations compared to leisure-time physical activity and exercise. Considering the accumulated evidence of the health benefits of low-intensity physical activity, exploring and measuring such activities in this population is highly relevant. The aim of this study was to visualize and describe older people’s physical activity patterns in daily life using a time-geographic approach in combination with the estimation of metabolic equivalents (METS). To exemplify the new method, a sample of nine retired men (65–82 years old, mean age 76.4 ± 5.8) with no homecare services from the municipality was recruited. In order to enable a visual analysis of the physical activity patterns in daily life, we developed the VISUAL-PA software, which is a visual analysis tool that includes METS to account for intensity and enables the analysis of distinct types and domains of physical activity. The VISUAL-PA software creates graphic outputs of physical activity patterns that enable the identification, visualization, and analysis of distinct types and intensities of physical activity in addition to sedentary behavior. The use of VISUAL-PA can contribute to a broader understanding of the complexity in physical activity patterns among older adults in terms of dimensions such as activity patterns and habits, domains, and intensity level. To strengthen the public health strategies that promote health and an active lifestyle, additional knowledge about physical activity patterns is necessary. Moreover, the visualization of physical activity can enable reflections on and awareness of activity habits and preferences, and thus facilitate behavior changes in older individuals.
  • Hertting, Krister, et al. (författare)
  • Perceptions of Stress of Swedish Volunteer Youth Soccer Coaches
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Sports. - Basel : MDPI. - 2075-4663. ; 8:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The work of a coach can be stressful, and little is known about how volunteercoaches in child and youth soccer perceive stress. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was toexplore perceptions of stress among Swedish volunteer youth soccer coaches. Methods: An onlinequestionnaire was distributed to 1514 soccer coaches of which 688 (78% men and 22% women; 4%< 30 years, 34% 31–40 years; 57% 41–50 years and 5% > 51 years) with non‐profit positionsresponded. Results: Findings indicate that participants in general do not feel excessively stressed bybeing a volunteer youth soccer coach (M = 2.20; SD = 0.93; Min = 1; Max = 5), and no significantdifferences in perceived stress level were found based on gender, age, ethnicity, educational levelor occupation. Multiple regression analysis showed that demands from employment (β = 0.24, p <0.001), difficulty catching up with the family (β = 0.22, p < 0.001), not having enough time to planactivities (β = 0.13, p < 0.001), feeling pressured when selecting the team (β = 0.09, p = 0.013) and owndemands to achieve good results (β = 0.07, p = 0.045), significantly contributed to perceptions ofstress among the investigated youth sport coaches. Conclusions: The results shed light on theimportant aim that sport clubs develop holistic strategies when recruiting and retaining coaches andfor other functions concerning child and youth soccer teams.
  • Jakobsson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Potential physiological and cellular mechanisms of exercise that decrease the risk of severe complications and mortality following sars-cov-2 infection
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Sports. - : MDPI. - 2075-4663. ; 9:9
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has unmasked mankind's vulnerability to biological threats. Although higher age is a major risk factor for disease severity in COVID-19, several predisposing risk factors for mortality are related to low cardiorespiratory and metabolic fitness, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Reaching physical activity (PA) guideline goals contribute to protect against numerous immune and inflammatory disorders, in addition to multi-morbidities and mortality. Elevated levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, being non-obese, and regular PA improves immunological function, mitigating sustained low-grade systemic inflammation and age-related deterioration of the immune system, or immunosenescence. Regular PA and being non-obese also improve the antibody response to vaccination. In this review, we highlight potential physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that are affected by regular PA, increase the host antiviral defense, and may determine the course and outcome of COVID-19. Not only are the immune system and regular PA in relation to COVID-19 discussed, but also the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and hormonal systems, as well as skeletal muscle, epigenetics, and mitochondrial function.
  • Johansson, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • An analysis of acceleration, deceleration and high-intensity skating during elite bandy match-play: A case study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Sports. - : MDPI. - 2075-4663. ; 9:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Profiles of physical workload in sports are useful to optimize performance and reduce the risk of injury. The aim of the study was to investigate physical workload in 10 elite bandy players by describing acceleration, deceleration, and high-intensity skating during bandy match-play. During 13 home matches, 10 male elite bandy players wore a GPS unit to measure changes in the total distance, total distance skating in two speed zones, and total distance of acceleration and deceleration. A within-subject design was used to measure changes over time during match-play by comparing first and second halves as well as comparisons for consecutive 15 min intervals. No significant differences were observed for high-intensity or very high-intensity acceleration and deceleration for comparisons by halves or for 15-min intervals. For comparisons by halves, a significant time-dependent effect was observed on very fast skating (1337.6 m vs. 1160.9 m), sprint skating (300.0 m vs. 272.0 m), low-intensity acceleration (342.7 m vs. 333.0 m), and total distance covered (10,916.9 m vs. 10,450.3 m). These variables, along with low-intensity deceleration, were also significant for the 15 min interval comparisons. The results show that there is no time-dependent reduction in high-intensity acceleration and deceleration in elite bandy match-play. However, elite bandy players do not maintain the distance of high-intensity skating throughout a whole match.
  • Khorram-Manesh, Amir, 1958, et al. (författare)
  • Profiling collapsing half-marathon runners- Emerging risk factors: Results from Gothenburg half marathon.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Sports. - : MDPI. - 2075-4663. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Among several serious medical conditions, arrhythmia and heat stroke are two important causes of death during endurance races. Clinically, collapsing might be the first sign of these serious conditions and may mimic the more common and benign exercise-associated collapse. Several risk factors have been reported in the literature. We aimed to conduct a qualitative study to find a perceived risk profile among runners who collapsed and who were transported by ambulances to the nearest hospital during Gothenburg’s half marathon (2010–2017). Collapsing runners seem to lack the ability to make a decision to withdraw from the contest despite being exhausted. They feel the pain, but are unable to put meaning to their feeling, to adjust their pacing, and to handle other influences. Consequently, they do not overcome the problem or assess the situation. These individual mental characteristics may indicate a unique profile for collapsing runners. Pre-race health control and educational initiatives aiming at mental preparedness and information before endurance races might be a necessary step to avoid life-threatening complications.
  • Lahti, Amanda, et al. (författare)
  • Daily School Physical Activity Is Associated with Higher Level of Physical Activity Independently of Other Socioecological Factors
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Sports. - 2075-4663. ; 8:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Only one fifth of children aged 11–17 years are physically active for 60 min (min)/day. As physical activity (PA) levels track from childhood to adulthood, it is important to establish healthy PA behavior early in life. This study aims to evaluate whether daily school PA is associated with objectively measured PA independently of other socioecological factors. This study includes 209 children (120 boys) aged 9.8 ± 0.6 (mean ± SD) years from four government-funded schools in Sweden. One school including 113 children (70 boys) had 40 min of daily school PA (intervention) and three schools including 96 children (50 boys) had 60 min of school PA/week (control). PA was measured during four serial days with accelerometers. General PA (GPA) was defined as mean counts per minute (cpm). Socioecological factors were collected by questionnaires, and anthropometric traits by measurements. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test whether sex, age, relative age, body height, fat mass, lean mass, screen time activity, parental educational level, parental attitude towards PA, parental PA, sibling(s)’ PA, living in a house or apartment, and whether the child was allocated to 40 min daily school PA or 60 min school PA/week, was independently associated with GPA. Daily GPA was found to be 686.9 ± 211.9 cpm. Independently of the other included factors, daily school PA was associated with +81.8 (15.7, 147.8) cpm compared with 60 min PA/week. This study infers that daily school PA is an appropriate strategy to promote PA in 10-year-old children, independently of different socioecological factors.
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