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1.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical brain structure and sexual orientation in adult females with bipolar disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - 2162-3279 .- 2162-3279. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Nonheterosexual individuals have higher risk of psychiatric morbidity. Together with growing evidence for sexual orientation‐related brain differences, this raises the concern that sexual orientation may be an important factor to control for in neuroimaging studies of neuropsychiatric disorders.Methods: We studied sexual orientation in adult psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or ADHD in a large clinical cohort (N = 154). We compared cortical brain structure in exclusively heterosexual women (HEW, n = 29) with that of nonexclusively heterosexual women (nHEW, n = 37) using surface‐based reconstruction techniques provided by FreeSurfer.Results: The prevalence of nonheterosexual sexual orientation was tentatively higher than reported in general population samples. Consistent with previously reported cross‐sex shifted brain patterns among homosexual individuals, nHEW patients showed significantly larger cortical volumes than HEW in medial occipital brain regions.Conclusion: We found evidence for a sex‐reversed difference in cortical volume among nonheterosexual female patients, which provides insights into the neurobiology of sexual orientation, and may provide the first clues toward a better neurobiological understanding of the association between sexual orientation and mental health. We also suggest that sexual orientation is an important factor to consider in future neuroimaging studies of populations with certain mental health disorders.
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2.
  • Aesoy, M. S., et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology of persistent iatrogenic spinal cord injuries in Western Norway
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - 2162-3279. ; 6:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Iatrogenic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) caused by invasive procedures or surgical interventions have previously been reported as case studies. The primary objective of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence, etiology, and prognosis of iatrogenic SCI in Western Norway. Methods: Medical records of all 183 patients admitted to the SCU between 01.01.2004 and 31.12.2013 were reviewed. Gender, age, diagnosis, iatrogenic medical procedure, symptoms and findings before and after injury, mechanism of injury, level of injury, and ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) score prior iatrogenic SCI, at admittance and discharge were recorded, as were the length of the period prior to admittance and the length of stay. Results: Twenty-three (12.5%; 14 men, nine women) of 183 patients met the criteria for iatrogenic SCI. The annual incidence rate was estimated 2,3 per 1,000,000 (SD +/-1.0). Mean age at iatrogenic SCI was 55.5 years (range 16-79 years). Intervention for cervical spinal stenosis was the leading cause of iatrogenic SCI, followed by operations on the aorta and spine. Iatrogenic SCIs was most frequently located on the thoracic level. The patients suffered from clinical incomplete injuries (AIS score C and D) both at admittance and discharge from the SCU. Most patients improved, but no patient recovered completely after SCI. Conclusion: Although the annual incidence rate of iatrogenic SCI is low in Norway, individual consequences are serious. Increased awareness of the causes of SCI may decrease the risk of iatrogenic SCI.
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3.
  • Alghadir, Ahmad H., et al. (författare)
  • Can jaw position affect the fine motor activity of the hand during writing?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2162-3279 .- 2162-3279. ; 10:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Jaw and neck systems have been shown to be functionally related and changes in either system can modulate gross motor functions, such as posture control. It remains to be seen if any change in jaw position can affect fine motor skills. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of resting, open and clenched jaw positions on various handwriting parameters while standing on firm and unstable surfaces.Methods: Handwriting samples were collected from 36 healthy male participants (age, 15-35 years) using a digitizer tablet (WACOM Intuos 4) with noninking pen in the resting, open and clenched jaw positions while standing on firm and unstable surfaces. The measured handwriting parameters included duration, vertical size, horizontal size, absolute size, average absolute velocity, and absolute jerk. Recordings and analyses were performed using NeuroScript MovAlyzeR software.Results: All handwriting parameters varied among the resting, open, and clenched jaw positions on both the firm and unstable surfaces. However, based on statistical analyses, there were no significant differences in the handwriting parameters among three jaw positions on both surfaces (p > .05).Conclusion: This study revealed that all handwriting parameters varied among the resting, open, and clenched jaw positions on both the firm and unstable surfaces, showing that change in the jaw motor system may potentially affect the fine motor skills. However, on statistical analysis, there was no significant effect of 3 studied jaw positions on fine motor skills as seen on gross motor skills among healthy individuals.
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  • Alsholm, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • - Interrupted transport by the emergency medical service in stroke/transitory ischemic attack: A consequence of changed treatment routines in prehospital emergency care
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - 2162-3279. ; 9:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • - Background: The discovery that not all patients who call for the emergency medical service (EMS) require transport to hospital has changed the structure of prehospital emergency care. Today, the EMS clinician at the scene already distinguishes patients with a time-critical condition such as stroke/transitory ischemic attack (TIA) from patients without. This highlights the importance of the early identification of stroke/TIA. Aim: To describe patients with a final diagnosis of stroke/TIA whose transport to hospital was interrupted either due to a lack of suspicion of the disease by the EMS crew or due to refusal by the patient or a relative/friend. Methods: Data were obtained from a register in Gothenburg, covering patients hospitalised due to a final diagnosis of stroke/TIA. The inclusion criterion was that patients were assessed by the EMS but were not directly transported to hospital by the EMS. Results: Among all the patients who were assessed by the EMS nurse and subsequently diagnosed with stroke or TIA in 2015, the transport of 34 of 1,310 patients (2.6%) was interrupted. Twenty-five of these patients, of whom 20 had a stroke and five had a TIA, are described in terms of initial symptoms and outcome. The majority had residual symptoms at discharge from hospital. Initial symptoms were vertigo/disturbed balance in 11 of 25 cases. Another three had symptoms perceived as a change in personality and three had a headache. Conclusion: From this pilot study, we hypothesise that a fraction of patients with stroke/TIA who call for the EMS have their direct transport to hospital interrupted due to a lack of suspicion of the disease by the EMS nurse at the scene. These patients appear to have more vague symptoms including vertigo and disturbed balance. Instruments to identify these patients at the scene are warranted. © 2019 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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6.
  • Atalan, Pelin, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of mobility restrictions on post-stroke pain
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Brain and behavior. - 2162-3279. ; 11:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this study was to investigate the role of mobility limitations and vitality, as well as additional factors such as comorbidities, to predict post-stroke pain.This study included cross-sectional data from 214 participants living in varied settings in different parts of Sweden. Participants were asked to complete the Stroke Impact Scale, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, and Self-administered Comorbidity Questionnaire to evaluate mobility, vitality, comorbidities, and pain. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic and clinical characteristics. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the pain domain score on Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36.The mean age of all participants in the sample was 66 years (SD 14); 43.4% of the study population were women. After analyses, "standing without losing balance and vitality'' were found to be significant predictors in the model which explained the pain score on Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36.In conclusion, the results suggest that restrictions in mobility and low vitality have an important role on the occurrence of post-stroke pain. Having post-stroke pain could be due to not able to stand without losing balance and low vitality. Thus, rehabilitation professionals may consider the importance of these factors, especially mobility restrictions, in preventing post-stroke pain.
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7.
  • Bager, Johan-Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Acute blood pressure levels and long-term outcome in ischemic stroke.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain and behavior. - 2162-3279. ; 8:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated blood pressure (BP) is common in acute ischemic stroke, but its effect on outcome is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association of baseline BP and BP change within the first day after stroke with stroke severity, functional outcome, and mortality.Patients admitted to hospital with acute ischemic stroke (IS) from 15 February 2005 through 31 May 2009 were consecutively included. Acute stroke severity and functional outcome at three and twelve months were investigated using multivariate regression analysis; the association between BP and all-cause mortality at one, three, and twelve was investigated by Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier survival curves.A total of 799 patients (mean age 78.4 ± 8.0, 48% men) were included. Higher decreases in systolic and mean arterial blood pressure (ΔSBP and ΔMAP) were associated with decreased 1-month mortality (ΔSBP: hazard ratio, HR: 0.981; 95% CI: 0.968 - 0.994; p = .005), 3-month mortality (ΔSBP: HR 0.989; 95% CI 0.981 - 0.998; p-value .014), and twelve-month mortality (ΔSBP: HR 0.989; 95% CI 0.982 - 0.996; p-value .003). Stroke severity was associated with ΔMAP (B coefficient -.46, p-value .011). Higher SBP and MAP on admission were associated with better functional outcome at three (SBP: OR 0.987; 95% CI 0.978 - 0.997; p-value .008 - MAP: OR 0.985; 95% CI 0.971 - 1; p-value .046) and twelve (SBP: OR 0.988; 95% CI 0.979 - 0.998; p-value .015 - MAP: OR 0.983; 95% CI 0.968 - 0.997; p-value .02) months.In this elderly population, higher BP on arrival to the emergency room (ER) and decrease in BP after the patients' arrival to the ward were associated with improved functional outcome and reduced mortality, respectively. These results may reflect a regulatory situation in which elevated initial blood pressure indicates adequate response to cerebral tissue ischemia while subsequent blood pressure decrease instead may be a consequence of partial, successful reperfusion.
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9.
  • Bendt, Martina, et al. (författare)
  • Adults with spina bifida : A cross-sectional study of health issues and living conditions
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Brain and Behavior. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2162-3279 .- 2162-3279. ; 10:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To describe health issues and living conditions in a cohort of adults living with Spina bifida.MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team. Adults with spina bifida (n = 219) were invited to participate. One-hundred-and-ninety-six persons (104 women and 92 men; 18-73 years, median age 33 years) were included. Structured interviews, questionnaires, and clinical assessments for medical, social, physical, and cognitive functions were used.RESULTS: There was large variation among participants as regards the consequences of their spina bifida. Individuals < 46 years seemed to have more secondary conditions such as hydrocephalus, Chiari II malformation, tethered cord symptoms, and latex allergy. A higher proportion of the individuals >46 years and older was able to walk, and they had performed better in primary school and on tests of psychomotor speed and executive function.CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that adults with spina bifida have a complex set of physical, cognitive, and social needs that need to be addressed in order to improve their health issues and living conditions. The high prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence, pain, and overweight underline that these issues need much attention during follow-up. The future generations of older adults may need more attention in many ways, since they at a younger age do have more complex medical conditions, lower physical and cognitive functions, and lower prerequisites for independent living and participation in society than those > 46 years today. This elucidates that adults with spina bifida need systematic follow-up services and social support throughout life.
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