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1.
  • Eriksson, Sophie E, et al. (författare)
  • Successful radioimmunotherapy of established syngeneic rat colon carcinoma with 211At-mAb.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2191-219X. ; 3:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Most carcinomas are prone to metastasize despite successful treatment of the primary tumor. One way to address this clinical challenge may be targeted therapy with alpha-emitting radionuclides such as astatine-211 (211At). Radioimmunotherapy utilizing alpha-particle emitting radionuclides is considered especially suitable for the treatment of small cell clusters and single cells, although lesions of different sizes may also be present in the patient. The aim of this study was primarily to evaluate the toxicity and secondarily in vivo efficacy of a 211At-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against colon carcinoma with tumor diameters of approximately 10 mm. METHODS: Eighteen rats with subperitoneal syngeneic colon carcinoma were allocated to three groups of six animals together with three healthy rats in each group. The groups were injected intravenously with either 150 mug of unlabeled mAbs (controls) or 2.5 or 5 MBq 211At-mAbs directed towards the Lewis Y antigen expressed on the cell membrane of several carcinomas. Tumor volume, body weight, and blood cell counts were monitored for 100 days after treatment. RESULTS: Local tumors were non-palpable in five out of six rats after treatment with both activities of 211At-mAbs, compared to one out of six in the control group. At the study end, half of the animals in each group given 211At-BR96 and one animal in the control group were free from disease. Radioimmunotherapy resulted in dose-dependent, transient weight loss and myelotoxicity. Survival was significantly better in the groups receiving targeted alpha therapy than in those receiving unlabeled mAbs. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the possibility of treating small, solid colon carcinoma tumors with alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 211At bound to mAbs, with tolerable toxicity.
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2.
  • Johansson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic evaluation of three cardiac software packages using a consecutive group of patients
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2191-219X. ; 1:1, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of the three software packages 4DMSPECT (4DM), Emory Cardiac Toolbox (ECTb), and Cedars Quantitative Perfusion SPECT (QPS) for quantification of myocardial perfusion scintigram (MPS) using a large group of consecutive patients. Methods: We studied 1,052 consecutive patients who underwent 2-day stress/rest 99mTc-sestamibi MPS studies. The reference/gold-standard classifications for the MPS studies were obtained from three physicians, with more than 25 years each of experience in nuclear cardiology, who re-evaluated all MPS images. Automatic processing was carried out using 4DM, ECTb, and QPS software packages. Total stress defect extent (TDE) and summed stress score (SSS) based on a 17-segment model were obtained from the software packages. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Results: A total of 734 patients were classified as normal and the remaining 318 were classified as having infarction and/or ischemia. The performance of the software packages calculated as the area under the SSS ROC curve were 0.87 for 4DM, 0.80 for QPS, and 0.76 for ECTb (QPS vs. ECTb p = 0.03; other differences p < 0.0001). The area under the TDE ROC curve were 0.87 for 4DM, 0.82 for QPS, and 0.76 for ECTb (QPS vs. ECTb p = 0.0005; other differences p < 0.0001). Conclusion: There are considerable differences in performance between the three software packages with 4DM showing the best performance and ECTb the worst. These differences in performance should be taken in consideration when software packages are used in clinical routine or in clinical studies.
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3.
  • Kaboteh, Reza, et al. (författare)
  • Bone Scan Index: a prognostic imaging biomarker for high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving primary hormonal therapy.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2191-219X. ; 3:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The objective of this study was to explore the prognostic value of the Bone Scan Index (BSI) obtained at the time of diagnosis in a group of high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving primary hormonal therapy. Methods: This was a retrospective study based on 130 consecutive prostate cancer patients at high risk, based on clinical stage (T2c/T3/T4), Gleason score (8 to 10) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (> 20 ng/mL), who had undergone whole-body bone scans < 3 months after diagnosis and who received primary hormonal therapy. BSI was calculated using an automated method. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between clinical stage, Gleason score, PSA, BSI and survival. Discrimination between prognostic models was assessed using the concordance index (C-index). Results: In a multivariate analysis, Gleason score (p = 0.01) and BSI (p < 0.001) were associated with survival, but clinical stage (p = 0.29) and PSA (p = 0.57) were not prognostic. The C-index increased from 0.66 to 0.71 when adding BSI to a model including clinical stage, Gleason score and PSA. The 5-year probability of survival was 55% for patients without metastases, 42% for patients with BSI < 1, 31% for patients with BSI = 1 to 5, and 0% for patients with BSI > 5. Conclusions: BSI can be used as a complement to PSA to risk-stratify high-risk prostate cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. This imaging biomarker, reflecting the extent of metastatic disease, can be of value both in clinical trials and in patient management when deciding on treatment.
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4.
  • Kaboteh, Reza, et al. (författare)
  • Progression of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer - automated detection of new lesions and calculation of bone scan index
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2191-219X. ; 3:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was firstly to develop and evaluate an automated method for the detection of new lesions and changes in bone scan index (BSI) in serial bone scans and secondly to evaluate the prognostic value of the method in a group of patients receiving chemotherapy.METHODS: The automated method for detection of new lesions was evaluated in a group of 266 patients using the classifications by three experienced bone scan readers as a gold standard. The prognostic value of the method was assessed in a group of 31 metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients who were receiving docetaxel. Cox proportional hazards were used to investigate the association between percentage change in BSI, number of new lesions and overall survival. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survival function were used to indicate a significant difference between patients with an increase/decrease in BSI or those with two or more new lesions or less than two new lesions.RESULTS: The automated method detected progression defined as two or more new lesions with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 87%. In the treatment group, both BSI changes and the number of new metastases were significantly associated with survival. Two-year survival for patients with increasing and decreasing BSI from baseline to follow-up scans were 18% and 57% (p = 0.03), respectively. Two-year survival for patients fulfilling and not fulfilling the criterion of two or more new lesions was 35% and 38% (n.s.), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: An automated method can be used to calculate the number of new lesions and changes in BSI in serial bone scans. These imaging biomarkers contained prognostic information in a small group of patients with prostate cancer receiving chemotherapy.
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5.
  • Tragardh, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Referring physicians underestimate the extent of abnormalities in final reports from myocardial perfusion imaging
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI Research. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 2191-219X. ; 2:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background It is important that referring physicians and other treating clinicians properly understand the final reports from diagnostic tests. The aim of the study was to investigate whether referring physicians interpret a final report for a myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) test in the same way that the reading nuclear medicine physician intended. Methods After viewing final reports containing only typical clinical verbiage and images, physicians in nuclear medicine and referring physicians (physicians in cardiology, internal medicine, and general practitioners) independently classified 60 MPS tests for the presence versus absence of ischemia/infarction according to objective grades of 1 to 5 (1 = no ischemia/infarction, 2 = probably no ischemia/infarction, 3 = equivocal, 4 = probable ischemia/infarction, and 5 = certain ischemia/infarction). When ischemia and/or infarction were thought to be present in the left ventricle, all physicians were also asked to mark the involved segments based on the 17-segment model. Results There was good diagnostic agreement between physicians in nuclear medicine and referring physicians when assessing the general presence versus absence of both ischemia and infarction (median squared kappa coefficient of 0.92 for both). However, when using the 17- segment model, compared to the physicians in nuclear medicine, 12 of 23 referring physicians underestimated the extent of ischemic area while 6 underestimated and 1 overestimated the extent of infarcted area. Conclusions Whereas referring physicians gain a good understanding of the general presence versus absence of ischemia and infarction from MPS test reports, they often underestimate the extent of any ischemic or infarcted areas. This may have adverse clinical consequences, and thus the language in final reports from MPS tests might be further improved and standardized.
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6.
  • Erlandsson, Ann, et al. (författare)
  • Binding of TS1, an anti-keratin 8 antibody, in small cell lung cancer after 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate treatment: a histological study in xenografted mice
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI Research. - 2191-219X. ; 1:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy characterised by an early relapse, a tendency towards drug resistance, and a high incidence of metastasis. SCLC cells are of neuroendocrine origin and express high levels of somatostatin receptors; therefore, future treatment might involve targeting tumours with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. This therapy induces abundant necrotic patches that contain exposed keratins; thus, keratin 8, which is one of the most abundant cytoskeletal proteins may represent an interesting secondary target for SCLC. This study aimed to investigate the effects of177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octerotate and the binding of the monoclonal anti-keratin 8 antibody, TS1, in vitro in treated SCLC- and midgut-xenografted mouse models. Methods NCI-H69- and GOT1-xenotransplanted mice were treated with three doses of 30 MBq177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate administered 24 h apart. Mice xenotransplanted with NCI-H69 were sacrificed 1, 5, 12, 20 and 150 days post-injection or when the tumour had regrown to its original size. GOT1-xenotransplanted mice were sacrificed 3 days post-injection. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate TS1 staining in tumours and in seven human biopsies of primary SCLC from pulmonary bronchi. Central cell density and nucleus size were determined in NCI-H69 sections. Results Twelve days after177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octerotate treatment, the SCLC xenograft response was extensive. Twenty days after treatment, one of three analysed tumours displayed complete remission. The other two tumours showed 1/4 the cell density of untreated controls and cell nuclei were about three times larger than those of untreated controls. At 150 days after treatment, one of four mice exhibited complete remission. Treated tumours displayed increased TS1 antibody accumulation and high TS1 binding in necrotic patches. All seven human SCLC biopsies displayed necrotic areas with TS1 staining. Conclusions Radiation treatment with three injections of 30 MBq177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate had pronounced effects on tumour cell density and cell nuclei, which indicated mitotic catastrophe. Despite these anti-tumour effects, two of three SCLC tumours recurred. Further studies should investigate the nature of tumour cell survival and develop more effective treatments. High TS1 accumulation in tumour sections in vitro after177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octerotate treatment indicated that TS1 might represent a promising secondary therapeutic strategy.
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7.
  • Froklage, Femke E, et al. (författare)
  • [11C]Flumazenil brain uptake is influenced by the blood-brain barrier efflux transporter P-glycoprotein.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI research. - 2191-219X. ; 2, s. 12-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: [11C]Flumazenil and positron emission tomography (PET) are used clinically to assess gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic function and to localize epileptic foci prior to resective surgery. Enhanced P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity has been reported in epilepsy and this may confound interpretation of clinical scans if [11C]flumazenil is a P-gp substrate. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether [11C]flumazenil is a P-gp substrate.METHODS: [11C]Flumazenil PET scans were performed in wild type (WT) (n = 9) and Mdr1a/1b, (the genes that encode for P-gp) double knockout (dKO) (n = 10) mice, and in naive rats (n = 10). In parallel to PET scanning, [11C]flumazenil plasma concentrations were measured in rats. For 6 of the WT and 6 of the dKO mice a second, [11C]flumazenil scan was acquired after administration of the P-gp inhibitor tariquidar. Cerebral [11C]flumazenil concentrations in WT and Mdr1a/1b dKO mice were compared (genetic disruption model). Furthermore, pre and post P-gp-blocking cerebral [11C]flumazenil concentrations were compared in all animals (pharmacological inhibition model).RESULTS: Mdr1a/1b dKO mice had approximately 70% higher [11C]flumazenil uptake in the brain than WT mice. After administration of tariquidar, cerebral [11C]flumazenil uptake in WT mice increased by about 80% in WT mice, while it remained the same in Mdr1a/1b dKO mice. In rats, cerebral [11C]flumazenil uptake increased by about 60% after tariquidar administration. Tariquidar had only a small effect on plasma clearance of flumazenil.CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that [11C]flumazenil is a P-gp substrate in rodents. Consequently, altered cerebral [11C]flumazenil uptake, as observed in epilepsy, may not reflect solely GABAA receptor density changes but also changes in P-gp activity.
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8.
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9.
  • Haylock, Anna-Karin, et al. (författare)
  • In vivo characterization of the novel CD44v6-targeting Fab fragment AbD15179 for molecular imaging of squamous cell carcinoma : a dual-isotope study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI Research. - 2191-219X .- 2191-219X. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region (HNSCC) offer a diagnostic challenge due to difficulties to detect small tumours and metastases. Imaging methods available are not sufficient, and radio-immunodiagnostics could increase specificity and sensitivity of diagnostics. The objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the in vivo properties of the radiolabelled CD44v6-targeting fragment AbD15179 and to assess its utility as a targeting agent for radio-immunodiagnostics of CD44v6-expressing tumours.METHODS: The fully human CD44v6-targeting Fab fragment AbD15179 was labelled with 111In or 125I, as models for radionuclides suitable for imaging with SPECT or PET. Species specificity, antigen specificity and internalization properties were first assessed in vitro. In vivo specificity and biodistribution were then evaluated in tumour-bearing mice using a dual-tumour and dual-isotope setup.RESULTS: Both species-specific and antigen-specific binding of the conjugates were demonstrated in vitro, with no detectable internalization. The in vivo studies demonstrated specific tumour binding and favourable tumour targeting properties for both conjugates, albeit with higher tumour uptake, slower tumour dissociation, higher tumour-to-blood ratio and higher CD44v6 sensitivity for the 111In-labelled fragment. In contrast, the 125I-Fab demonstrated more favourable tumour-to-organ ratios for liver, spleen and kidneys.CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that AbD15179 efficiently targets CD44v6-expressing squamous cell carcinoma xenografts, and particularly, the 111In-Fab displayed high and specific tumour uptake. CD44v6 emerges as a suitable target for radio-immunodiagnostics, and a fully human antibody fragment such as AbD15179 can enable further clinical imaging studies.
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10.
  • Jahan, Mahabuba, et al. (författare)
  • Decreased defluorination using the novel beta-cell imaging agent [18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 in pigs examined by PET
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI research. - 2191-219X. ; 1:1, s. 33-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundFluorine-18 dihydrotetrabenazine [DTBZ] analogues, which selectively target the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 [VMAT2], have been extensively studied for in vivo quantification of beta cell mass by positron-emission tomography [PET]. This study describes a novel deuterated radioligand [18F]fluoroethyl [FE]-DTBZ-d4, aimed to increase the stability against in vivo defluorination previously observed for [18F]FE-DTBZ.Methods[18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 was synthesized by alkylation of 9-O-desmethyl-(+)-DTBZ precursor with deuterated [18F]FE bromide ([18F]FCD2CD2Br). Radioligand binding potential [BP] was assessed by an in vitro saturation homogenate binding assay using human endocrine and exocrine pancreatic tissues. In vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics [PK/PD] was studied in a porcine model by PET/computed tomography, and the rate of defluorination was quantified by compartmental modeling.Results[18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 was produced in reproducible good radiochemical yield in 100 ± 20 min. Radiochemical purity of the formulated product was > 98% for up to 5 h with specific radioactivities that ranged from 192 to 529 GBq/μmol at the end of the synthesis. The in vitro BP for VMAT2 in the islet tissue was 27.0 ± 8.8, and for the exocrine tissue, 1.7 ± 1.0. The rate of in vivo defluorination was decreased significantly (kdefluorination = 0.0016 ± 0.0007 min-1) compared to the non-deuterated analogue (kdefluorination = 0.012 ± 0.002 min-1), resulting in a six fold increase in half-life stability.Conclusions[18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 has similar PK and PD properties for VMAT2 imaging as its non-deuterated analogue [18F]FE-DTBZ in addition to gaining significantly increased stability against defluorination. [18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 is a prime candidate for future preclinical and clinical studies on focal clusters of beta cells, such as in intramuscular islet grafts.
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