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  • Afari-Asiedu, Samuel, et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of Inappropriate Antibiotics Use in Rural Central Ghana Using a Mixed Methods Approach
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health. - 2296-2565. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The consequences of antibiotic resistance are projected to be most severe in low and middle income countries with high infectious disease burden. This study examined determinants of inappropriate antibiotic use at the community level in rural Ghana. Methods: An observational study involving qualitative and quantitative methods was conducted between July, 2016 and September, 2018 in Ghana. Two household surveys were conducted at two time points (2017 and 2018) among 1,100 randomly selected households over 1 year. The surveys focused on antibiotic use episodes in the past month. Four in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were performed to further explain the survey results. Determinants of inappropriate antibiotic use were assessed using a mixed effect logistic regression analysis (multilevel analysis) to account for the clustered nature of data. We defined inappropriate antibiotic use as either use without prescription, not completing treatment course or non-adherence to instruction for use. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed. Results: A total of 1,100 households was enrolled in which antibiotics were used in 585 (53.2%) households in the month prior to the surveys. A total of 676 (21.2%) participants out of 3,193 members from the 585 reportedly used antibiotics for 761 episodes of illness. Out of the 761 antibiotic use episodes, 659 (86.6%) were used inappropriately. Paying for healthcare without health insurance (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.10, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4, p-value: 0.026), not seeking healthcare from health centers (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-5.0, p-value: 0.018), or pharmacies (OR: 4.6, 95% CI: 1.7-13.0, p-value: 0.003) were significantly associated with inappropriate antibiotic use. Socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with inappropriate antibiotic use. However, the qualitative study described the influence of cost of medicines on inappropriate antibiotic use. It also revealed that antibiotic users with low socioeconomic status purchased antibiotics in installments which, could facilitate inappropriate use. Conclusion: Inappropriate antibiotic use was high and influenced by out-of-pocket payment for healthcare, seeking healthcare outside health centers, pharmacies, and buying antibiotics in installments due to cost. To improve appropriate antibiotic use, there is the need for ministry of health and healthcare agencies in Ghana to enhance healthcare access and healthcare insurance, and to provide affordable antibiotics.
  • Al-Tammemi, Ala'a B. (författare)
  • The Battle Against COVID-19 in Jordan : An Early Overview of the Jordanian Experience
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 2296-2565. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the initial spark of the COVID-19 outbreak in December 2019, which was later declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be a global pandemic, all affected countries are implementing various preventive and control measures to mitigate the spread of the disease. The newly emerging virus brings with it uncertainty-not only regarding its behavior and transmission dynamics but also regarding the current lack of approved antiviral therapy or vaccines-and this represents a major challenge for decision makers at various levels and sectors. This article aims to provide an early overview of the COVID-19 battle within the Jordanian context, including general reflections and conclusions on the value of collaborative efforts in crises management.
  • Ali, Iftikhar, et al. (författare)
  • Knowledge, Attitude, Awareness, and Barriers Toward Influenza Vaccination Among Medical Doctors at Tertiary Care Health Settings in Peshawar, Pakistan-A Cross-Sectional Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 2296-2565. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This study intends to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and awareness of medical doctors toward influenza vaccination and the reasons for not getting vaccinated. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among medical doctors in three major tertiary care health settings in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. A web-based, pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: A total of (n = 300) medical doctors were invited, however only (n = 215) participated in the study with a response rate of 71.7%. Among the participants, 95.3% (n = 205) were males with a mean age of 28.67 +/- 3.89 years. By designation, 121(56.3%) were trainee medical officers and 40 (18.6%) were house officers. The majority 102(47.4%) had a job experience of 1-2 years. Of the total sample, 38 (17.7%) doctors reported having received some kind of vaccination, whereas only 19 (8.84%) were vaccinated against influenza. The results identified that the major barriers toward influenza vaccinations included (1) Unfamiliarity with Influenza vaccination availability (Relative Importance Index RII = 0.830), (2) Unavailability of Influenza vaccines due to lack of proper storage area in the institution (RII = 0.634), (3) Cost of vaccine (RII = 0.608), and (4) insufficient staff to administer vaccine (RII = 0.589). Additionally, 156 (72.6%) of doctors were not aware of the influenza immunization recommendation and guidelines published by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Physicians obtained a high score (8.27 +/- 1.61) of knowledge and understanding regarding influenza and its vaccination followed by medical officers (8.06 +/- 1.37). Linear Regression analysis revealed that gender was significantly associated with the knowledge score with males having a higher score (8.0 +/- 1.39) than females (6.80 +/- 1.61 beta = -1.254 and CI [-2.152 to -0.355], p = 0.006). Conclusion: A very low proportion of doctors were vaccinated against influenza, despite the published guidelines and recommendations. Strategies that address multiple aspects like increasing awareness and the importance of the influenza vaccine, the international recommendations and enhancing access and availability of the vaccine are needed to improve its coverage and health outcomes.
  • Azfar, Hossain Syed, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular Disease and Mental Distress Among Ethnic Groups in Kyrgyzstan
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 2296-2565. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to characterize different ethnic groups in Kyrgyzstan regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mental distress, and to investigate the association between CVD and mental distress. The mental distress was measured in terms of sleep disturbance, burnout, and stress.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among six ethnic groups in Kyrgyzstan, aged 18 years and above. The sample was stratified for age, education, family status, and income. We used the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire to assess sleep disturbance, the physical and emotional subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire to assess burnout, and the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale to assess perceived stress.Results: The distribution of CVD differed significantly between the six ethnic groups, with higher prevalence among East Europeans, and Western Asians and lower among Other minorities and Central Asians. In all ethnic groups in Kyrgyzstan, individuals with CVD had increased odds of sleep disturbance and burnout. There was a significant difference in burnout and stress between persons with and without CVD in Kyrgyz and East European ethnic groups.Conclusion: There was a significant difference in burnout and stress between persons with and without CVD in Kyrgyz and East European ethnic groups. In addition to CVD prevention, mitigating sleep disturbance and preventing burnout in the general population should be aimed at in public health measures.
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