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  • Daskalakis, Kosmas, et al. (författare)
  • Association of a Prophylactic surgical approach to Stage IV Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors with Survival.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 4:2, s. 183-189
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Primary tumor resection and mesenteric lymph node dissection in asymptomatic patients with stage IV Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors (SI-NETs) is controversial.Objective:  To determine whether locoregional surgery performed at diagnosis in asymptomatic SI-NETs patients with distant metastases affects overall survival (OS), morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS) and re-operation rates.Design: This investigation was a cohort study of asymptomatic patients with stage IV SI-NET, diagnosed between 1985 and 2015, using the prospective Uppsala database of SI-NETs and the Swedish National Patient Register. Patients included were followed until May 2016 and divided to a first group, which underwent Prophylactic Upfront Surgery within six months from diagnosis Combined with Oncological treatment (PUSCO group) and a second group, which was either treated non-surgically or operated later (Delayed Surgery As Needed Combined with Oncological treatment [DSANCO group]).Setting: A tertiary referral center with follow-up data from the Swedish National Patient Register.Participants: We included 363 stage IV SI-NET patients without any abdominal symptoms within 6 months from diagnosis, treated either with PUSCO (n=161) or DSANCO (n=202).Exposure: PUSCO vs DSANCO.Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS), length of hospital stay (LOS), postoperative morbidity and mortality and re-operation rates measured from baseline. Propensity score match was performed between the two groups.Results: Two isonumerical groups (n=91) occurred after propensity score matching. There was no difference between groups in OS (PUSCO median 7.9 vs DSANCO 7.6 years; [hazard ratio] HR, 0.98; [95% CI, 0.70-1.37]; log-rank P=.93) and cancer-specific survival (median 7.7 vs 7.6 years, HR, 0.99; [95%CI, 0.71-1.40]; log-rank P=.99). There was no difference in 30-day mortality (0% in both matched groups) or postoperative morbidity (2% vs 1%; P>.99), LOS (median 73 vs 76 days; P=.64), LOS due to local tumor-related symptoms (median 7 vs 11.5 days; P=.81) or incisional hernia repairs (4% in both groups; P>.99).  Patients from the PUSCO group underwent more re-operative procedures (14%) compared to the DSANCO group (3%) due to intestinal obstruction (P< .001).Conclusion: Prophylactic upfront locoregional surgery confers no survival advantage in asymptomatic stage IV SI-NET patients. Delayed surgery as needed seems to be comparable in all examined outcomes, whilst offering the advantage of less re-operations for intestinal obstruction.  The value of a priori locoregional surgery in the presence of distant metastases is challenged and needs to be elucidated in a randomized controlled study. 
  • Joensuu, Heikki, et al. (författare)
  • Adjuvant Capecitabine in Combination With Docetaxel, Epirubicin, and Cyclophosphamide for Early Breast Cancer : The Randomized Clinical FinXX Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 3:6, s. 793-800
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Capecitabine is not considered a standard agent in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. The results of this study suggest that addition of adjuvant capecitabine to a regimen that contains docetaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide improves survival outcomes of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of capecitabine on long-term survival outcomes of patients with early breast cancer, particularly in subgroups defined by cancer estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) content, and HER2 content (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2).DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This is an exploratory analysis of the multicenter FinXX randomized clinical trial that accrued 1500 women in Finland and Sweden between January 27, 2004, and May 29, 2007. About half received 3 cycles of docetaxel followed by 3 cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil (T+CEF), while the other half received 3 cycles of docetaxel plus capecitabine followed by 3 cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and capecitabine (TX+CEX). Data analysis took place between January 27, 2004, and December 31, 2015.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Recurrence-free survival (RFS).RESULTS Following random allocation, 747 women received T+CEF, and 753 women received TX+CEX. Five patients were excluded from the intention-to-treat population (3 had overt distant metastases at the time of randomization; 2 withdrew consent). The median age of the remaining 1495 patients was 53 years at the time of study entry; 157 (11%) had axillary node-negative disease; 1142 (76%) had ER-positive cancer; and 282 (19%) had HER2-positive cancer. The median follow-up time after random allocation was 10.3 years. There was no significant difference in RFS or overall survival between the groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.71-1.08; P = .23; and HR, 0.84, 95% CI, 0.66-1.07; P = .15; respectively). Breast cancer-specific survival tended to favor the capecitabine group (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60-1.04; P = .10). When RFS and survival of the patients were compared within the subgroups defined by cancer steroid hormone receptor status (ER and/or PR positive vs ER and PR negative) and HER2 status (positive vs negative), TX+CEX was more effective than T+CEF in the subset of patients with TNBC (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.92; P = .02; and HR, 0.55, 95% CI, 0.31-0.96; P = .03; respectively).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Capecitabine administration with docetaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide did not prolong RFS or survival compared with a regimen that contained only standard agents. Patients with TNBC had favorable survival outcomes when treated with the capecitabine-containing regimen in an exploratory subgroup analysis.
  • Joensuu, Heikki, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Adjuvant Trastuzumab for a Duration of 9 Weeks vs 1 Year With Concomitant Chemotherapy for Early Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer The SOLD Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 4:9, s. 1199-1206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Trastuzumab plus chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant treatment for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. While the standard duration of trastuzumab treatment is 12 months, the benefits and harms of trastuzumab continued beyond the chemotherapy are unclear.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant trastuzumab continued beyond chemotherapy in women treated with up-front chemotherapy containing a taxane and trastuzumab.Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, randomized (1:1) clinical trial including women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Chemotherapy was identical in the 2 groups, consisting of 3 cycles of 3-weekly docetaxel (either 80 or 100 mg/m2) plus trastuzumab for 9 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide. Thereafter, no trastuzumab was administered in the 9-week group, whereas controls received trastuzumab to complete 1 year of administration. Disease-free survival (DFS) was compared between the groups using a Cox model and the noninferiority approach. The estimated sample size was 2168 patients (1-sided testing, with a relative noninferiority margin of 1.3). From January 3, 2008, to December 16, 2014, 2176 patients were accrued from 7 countries.Intervention: Docetaxel plus trastuzumab for 9 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide in both groups. Controls continued trastuzumab to 1 year.Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary objective was DFS; secondary objectives included distant disease–free survival, overall survival, cardiac DFS, and safety.Results: In the 2174 women analyzed, median age was 56 (interquartile range [IQR], 48-64) years. The median follow-up was 5.2 (IQR, 3.8-6.7) years. Noninferiority of the 9-week treatment could not be demonstrated for DFS (hazard ratio, 1.39; 2-sided 90% CI, 1.12-1.72). Distant disease–free survival and overall survival did not differ substantially between the groups. Thirty-six (3%) and 21 (2%) patients in the 1-year and the 9-week groups, respectively, had cardiac failure; the left ventricle ejection fraction was better maintained in the 9-week group. An interaction was detected between the docetaxel dose and DFS; patients in the 9-week group treated with 80 mg/m2 had inferior and those treated with 100 mg/m2 had similar DFS as patients in the 1-year group.Conclusions and Relevance: Nine weeks of trastuzumab was not noninferior to 1 year of trastuzumab when given with similar chemotherapy. Cardiac safety was better in the 9-week group. The docetaxel dosing with trastuzumab requires further study.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00593697
  • Sardanelli, Francesco, et al. (författare)
  • Expert Review of Breast Pathology in Borderline Lesions A Chance to Reduce Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 4:10, s. 1325-1326
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Breast cancer overdiagnosis from screening mammography has been debated for many years, with estimates of over 50% when unadjusted and estimates of 1% to 10% when adjusted for breast cancer risk and lead time.1 Importantly, overdiagnosis should be distinguished into 2 types.2 Type 1 (obligate) overdiagnosis occurs when progressive cancers are typically diagnosed in older women who die of other causes before the breast cancer becomes clinically evident. Type 1 overdiagnosis is intrinsically related to any program aimed at preclinical diagnosis of any disease, and its estimation is challenged by the continuous increase in life expectancy across all countries. In fact, the American Cancer Society takes into consideration life expectancy for the definition of the upper age limit for screening mammography.3 Neither radiologists nor pathologists can be in any way blamed for type 1 overdiagnosis and its related overtreatment.
  • Schoemaker, Minouk J, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Body Mass Index and Age With Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 4:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation.Objective: To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics.Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1, 1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1, 2013, through December 31, 2017.Exposures: Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34, 35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years.Main Outcomes and Measures: Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer.Results: Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m2 [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI≥35.0 vs <17.0) at ages 18 to 24 years (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.14-0.40). Hazard ratios did not appreciably vary by attained age or between strata of other breast cancer risk factors. Associations were stronger for estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive than for hormone receptor-negative breast cancer for BMI at every age group (eg, for BMI at age 18 to 24 years: HR per 5.0-U difference for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.70-0.81] vs hormone receptor-negative tumors, 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76-0.95]); BMI at ages 25 to 54 years was not consistently associated with triple-negative or hormone receptor-negative breast cancer overall.Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.
  • Armstrong, Andrew J., et al. (författare)
  • Phase 3 assessment of the automated bone scan index as a prognostic imaging biomarker of overall survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA oncology. - American Medical Association. - 2374-2437. ; 4:7, s. 944-951
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, and bone metastases are associated with pathologic fractures, pain, and reduced survival. Bone disease is routinely visualized using the technetium Tc 99m(99mTc) bone scan; however, the standard interpretation of bone scan data relies on subjective manual assessment of counting metastatic lesion numbers. There is an unmet need for an objective and fully quantitative assessment of bone scan data. OBJECTIVE To clinically assess in a prospectively defined analysis plan of a clinical trial the automated Bone Scan Index (aBSI) as an independent prognostic determinant of overall survival (OS) in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This investigationwas a prospectively planned analysis of the aBSI in a phase 3 multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of tasquinimod (10TASQ10). Men with bone metastatic chemotherapy-naïve CRPC were recruited at 241 sites in 37 countries between March 2011 and August 2015. The statistical analysis plan to clinically evaluate the aBSI was prospectively defined and locked before unmasking of the 10TASQ10 study. The analysis of aBSI was conducted between May 25, 2016, and June 3, 2017. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The associations of baseline aBSI with OS, radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), time to symptomatic progression, and time to opiate use for cancer pain. RESULTS Of the total 1245 men enrolled, 721 were evaluable for the aBSI. The mean (SD) age (available for 719 men) was 70.6 (8.0) years (age range, 47-90 years). The aBSI population was representative of the total study population based on baseline characteristics. The aBSI (median, 1.07; range, 0-32.60) was significantly associated with OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95%CI, 1.14-1.26; P < .001). The median OS by aBSI quartile (lowest to highest) was 34.7, 27.3, 21.7, and 13.3 months, respectively. The discriminative ability of the aBSI (C index, 0.63) in prognosticating OS was significantly higher than that of the manual lesion counting (C index, 0.60) (P = .03). In a multivariable survival model, a higher aBSI remained independently associated with OS (HR, 1.06; 95%CI, 1.01-1.11; P = .03). A higher aBSI was also independently associated with time to symptomatic progression (HR, 1.18; 95%CI, 1.13-1.23; P < .001) and time to opiate use for cancer pain (HR, 1.21; 95%CI, 1.14-1.30; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE To date, this investigation is the largest prospectively analyzed study to validate the aBSI as an independent prognostic imaging biomarker of survival in mCRPC. These data support the prognostic utility of the aBSI as an objective imaging biomarker in the design and eligibility of clinical trials of systemic therapies for patients with mCRPC.
  • Bausch, Birke, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical Characterization of the Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Susceptibility Genes SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 for Gene-Informed Prevention
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2374-2437. ; 3:9, s. 1204-1212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Effective cancer prevention is based on accurate molecular diagnosis and results of genetic family screening, genotype-informed risk assessment, and tailored strategies for early diagnosis. The expanding etiology for hereditary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas has recently included SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 as susceptibility genes. Clinical management guidelines for patients with germline mutations in these 4 newly included genes are lacking. OBJECTIVE To study the clinical spectra and age-related penetrance of individuals with mutations in the SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 genes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS This study analyzed the prospective, longitudinally followed up European-American-Asian Pheochromocytoma-Paraganglioma Registry for prevalence of SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 germline mutation carriers from 1993 to 2016. Genetic predictive testing and clinical investigation by imaging from neck to pelvis was offered to mutation-positive registrants and their relatives to clinically characterize the pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma diseases associated with mutations of the 4 new genes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence and spectra of germline mutations in the SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 genes were assessed. The clinical features of SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 disease were characterized. RESULTS Of 972 unrelated registrants without mutations in the classic pheochromocytoma- and paraganglioma-associated genes (632 female [65.0%] and 340 male [35.0%]; age range, 8-80; mean [SD] age, 41.0 [13.3] years), 58 (6.0%) carried germline mutations of interest, including 29 SDHA, 20 TMEM127, 8 MAX, and 1 SDHAF2. Fifty-three of 58 patients (91%) had familial, multiple, extra-adrenal, and/or malignant tumors and/or were younger than 40 years. Newly uncovered are 7 of 63 (11%) malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas in SDHA and TMEM127 disease. SDHA disease occurred as early as 8 years of age. Extra-adrenal tumors occurred in 28 mutation carriers (48%) and in 23 of 29 SDHA mutation carriers (79%), particularly with head and neck paraganglioma. MAX disease occurred almost exclusively in the adrenal glands with frequently bilateral tumors. Penetrance in the largest subset, SDHA carriers, was 39% at 40 years of age and is statistically different in index patients (45%) vs mutation-carrying relatives (13%; P amp;lt; .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 genes may contribute to hereditary pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Genetic testing is recommended in patients at clinically high risk if the classic genes are mutation negative. Gene-specific prevention and/or early detection requires regular, systematic whole-body investigation.
  • Cowan, Andrew J, et al. (författare)
  • Global Burden of Multiple Myeloma : : A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA oncology. - American Medical Association. - 2374-2437.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm with substantial morbidity and mortality. A comprehensive description of the global burden of MM is needed to help direct health policy, resource allocation, research, and patient care.Objective: To describe the burden of MM and the availability of effective therapies for 21 world regions and 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016.Design and Setting: We report incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 study. Data sources include vital registration system, cancer registry, drug availability, and survey data for stem cell transplant rates. We analyzed the contribution of aging, population growth, and changes in incidence rates to the overall change in incident cases from 1990 to 2016 globally, by sociodemographic index (SDI) and by region. We collected data on approval of lenalidomide and bortezomib worldwide.Main Outcomes and Measures: Multiple myeloma mortality; incidence; years lived with disabilities; years of life lost; and DALYs by age, sex, country, and year.Results: Worldwide in 2016 there were 138 509 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 121 000-155 480) incident cases of MM with an age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of 2.1 per 100 000 persons (95% UI, 1.8-2.3). Incident cases from 1990 to 2016 increased by 126% globally and by 106% to 192% for all SDI quintiles. The 3 world regions with the highest ASIR of MM were Australasia, North America, and Western Europe. Multiple myeloma caused 2.1 million (95% UI, 1.9-2.3 million) DALYs globally in 2016. Stem cell transplantation is routinely available in higher-income countries but is lacking in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of the Middle East. In 2016, lenalidomide and bortezomib had been approved in 73 and 103 countries, respectively.Conclusions and Relevance: Incidence of MM is highly variable among countries but has increased uniformly since 1990, with the largest increase in middle and low-middle SDI countries. Access to effective care is very limited in many countries of low socioeconomic development, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Global health policy priorities for MM are to improve diagnostic and treatment capacity in low and middle income countries and to ensure affordability of effective medications for every patient. Research priorities are to elucidate underlying etiological factors explaining the heterogeneity in myeloma incidence.
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