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  • Albouy, Camille, et al. (författare)
  • The marine fish food web is globally connected
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Ecology & Evolution. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2397-334X. ; 3:8, s. 1153-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The productivity of marine ecosystems and the services they provide to humans are largely dependent on complex interactions between prey and predators. These are embedded in a diverse network of trophic interactions, resulting in a cascade of events following perturbations such as species extinction. The sheer scale of oceans, however, precludes the characterization of marine feeding networks through de novo sampling. This effort ought instead to rely on a combination of extensive data and inference. Here we investigate how the distribution of trophic interactions at the global scale shapes the marine fish food web structure. We hypothesize that the heterogeneous distribution of species ranges in biogeographic regions should concentrate interactions in the warmest areas and within species groups. We find that the inferred global metaweb of marine fish-that is, all possible potential feeding links between co-occurring species-is highly connected geographically with a low degree of spatial modularity. Metrics of network structure correlate with sea surface temperature and tend to peak towards the tropics. In contrast to open-water communities, coastal food webs have greater interaction redundancy, which may confer robustness to species extinction. Our results suggest that marine ecosystems are connected yet display some resistance to perturbations because of high robustness at most locations.
  • Andersson, Leif (författare)
  • Female-biased gene flow between two species of Darwin's finches
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature ecology & evolution. - 2397-334X. ; 4, s. 979-986
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By analysing pooled whole-genome sequences from two species of Darwin's finches, both before and after interbreeding and back-crossing, the authors show that gene exchange between the two species is asymmetric and female biased.The mosaic nature of hybrid genomes is well recognized, but little is known of how they are shaped initially by patterns of breeding, selection, recombination and differential incompatibilities. On the small Galapagos island of Daphne Major, two species of Darwin's finches, Geospiza fortis and G. scandens, hybridize rarely and back-cross bidirectionally with little or no loss of fitness under conditions of plentiful food. We used whole-genome sequences to compare genomes from periods before and after successful interbreeding followed by back-crossing. We inferred extensive introgression from G. fortis to G. scandens on autosomes and mitochondria but not on the Z chromosome. The unique combination of long-term field observations and genomic data shows that the reduction of gene flow for Z-linked loci primarily reflects female-biased gene flow, arising from a hybrid-male disadvantage in competition for high-quality territories and mates, rather than from genetic incompatibilities at Z-linked loci.
  • Antonelli, Alexandre, 1978 (författare)
  • Drivers of bioregionalization
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Ecology and Evolution. - 2397-334X. ; 1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
  • Antonelli, Alexandre, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • The science and ethics of extinction
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Ecology and Evolution. - 2397-334X. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Barabas, György, et al. (författare)
  • Self-regulation and the stability of large ecological networks
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: NATURE ECOLOGY and EVOLUTION. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2397-334X. ; 1:12, s. 1870-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The stability of complex ecological networks depends both on the interactions between species and the direct effects of the species on themselves. These self-effects are known as self-regulation when an increase in a species abundance decreases its per-capita growth rate. Sources of self-regulation include intraspecific interference, cannibalism, time-scale separation between consumers and their resources, spatial heterogeneity and nonlinear functional responses coupling predators with their prey. The influence of self-regulation on network stability is understudied and in addition, the empirical estimation of self-effects poses a formidable challenge. Here, we show that empirical food web structures cannot be stabilized unless the majority of species exhibit substantially strong self-regulation. We also derive an analytical formula predicting the effect of self-regulation on network stability with high accuracy and show that even for random networks, as well as networks with a cascade structure, stability requires negative self-effects for a large proportion of species. These results suggest that the aforementioned potential mechanisms of self-regulation are probably more important in contributing to the stability of observed ecological networks than was previously thought.
  • Barabas, György (författare)
  • The coexistence problem revisited
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: NATURE ECOLOGY and EVOLUTION. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2397-334X. ; 1:10, s. 1425-1426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A new theoretical study warns against common misinterpretations of classical ideas on the limits to species diversity.
  • Barnes, Andrew D., et al. (författare)
  • Direct and cascading impacts of tropical land-use change on multi-trophic biodiversity
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Ecology and Evolution. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2397-334X. ; 1:10, s. 1511-1519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The conversion of tropical rainforest to agricultural systems such as oil palm alters biodiversity across a large range of interacting taxa and trophic levels. Yet, it remains unclear how direct and cascading effects of land-use change simultaneously drive ecological shifts. Combining data from a multi-taxon research initiative in Sumatra, Indonesia, we show that direct and cascading land-use effects alter biomass and species richness of taxa across trophic levels ranging from microorganisms to birds. Tropical land use resulted in increases in biomass and species richness via bottom-up cascading effects, but reductions via direct effects. When considering direct and cascading effects together, land use was found to reduce biomass and species richness, with increasing magnitude at higher trophic levels. Our analyses disentangle the multifaceted effects of land-use change on tropical ecosystems, revealing that biotic interactions on broad taxonomic scales influence the ecological outcome of anthropogenic perturbations to natural ecosystems.
  • Baur, Julian, et al. (författare)
  • Experimental evidence for effects of sexual selection on condition-dependent mutation rates
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Ecology & Evolution. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2397-334X. ; 4:5, s. 737-744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sexual selection depletes genetic variation but depleted genetic variation limits the efficacy of sexual selection-a long-standing enigma known as the lek paradox. Here we offer a twist to this paradox by showing that sexual selection and the generation of new genetic variation via mutation may be entangled in an evolutionary feedback loop. We induced DNA damage in the germline of male seed beetles evolved under regimes manipulating the opportunity for natural and sexual selection, and quantified de novo mutations in F2-F7 generations by measuring mutation load. Sexually selected males passed on smaller loads, suggesting that selection for male quality not only purges segregating deleterious alleles, but can also reduce the rate at which such alleles originate de novo. However, when engaging in socio-sexual interactions, males evolved exclusively under sexual selection transferred greater loads, suggesting that trade-offs between naturally and sexually selected fitness components can increase mutation rate. These results offer causality to the widely observed male mutation bias and have implications for the maintenance of genetic variation in fitness. Experimental evolution in male seed beetles subjected to different levels of natural and sexual selection reveals that trade-offs between naturally and sexually selected fitness components can increase mutation rate.
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