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Sökning: L773:2397 3374

  • Resultat 1-10 av 12
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1.
  • Camerer, C. F., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating the replicability of social science experiments in Nature and Science between 2010 and 2015
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Human Behaviour. - 2397-3374. ; 2:9, s. 637-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being able to replicate scientific findings is crucial for scientific progress1-15. We replicate 21 systematically selected experimental studies in the social sciences published in Nature and Science between 2010 and 201516-36. The replications follow analysis plans reviewed by the original authors and pre-registered prior to the replications. The replications are high powered, with sample sizes on average about five times higher than in the original studies. We find a significant effect in the same direction as the original study for 13 (62%) studies, and the effect size of the replications is on average about 50% of the original effect size. Replicability varies between 12 (57%) and 14 (67%) studies for complementary replicability indicators. Consistent with these results, the estimated truepositive rate is 67% in a Bayesian analysis. The relative effect size of true positives is estimated to be 71%, suggesting that both false positives and inflated effect sizes of true positives contribute to imperfect reproducibility. Furthermore, we find that peer beliefs of replicability are strongly related to replicability, suggesting that the research community could predict which results would replicate and that failures to replicate were not the result of chance alone.
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2.
  • Cowen, Alan S. (författare)
  • The primacy of categories in the recognition of 12 emotions in speech prosody across two cultures
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Human Behaviour. - 2397-3374. ; 3:4, s. 369-382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Central to emotion science is the degree to which categories, such as Awe, or broader affective features, such as Valence, underlie the recognition of emotional expression. To explore the processes by which people recognize emotion from prosody, US and Indian participants were asked to judge the emotion categories or affective features communicated by 2,519 speech samples produced by 100 actors from 5 cultures. With large-scale statistical inference methods, we find that prosody can communicate at least 12 distinct kinds of emotion that are preserved across the 2 cultures. Analyses of the semantic and acoustic structure of the recognition of emotions reveal that emotion categories drive the recognition of emotions more so than affective features, including Valence. In contrast to discrete emotion theories, however, emotion categories are bridged by gradients representing blends of emotions. Our findings, visualized within an interactive map, reveal a complex, high-dimensional space of emotional states recognized cross-culturally in speech prosody.
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3.
  • Lakens, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Justify your alpha
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Human Behaviour. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2397-3374. ; 2:3, s. 168-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to P ≤ 0.005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level.
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5.
  • Orach, Kirill, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainable natural resource governance under interest group competition in policy-making
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Human Behaviour. - : Springer Nature. - 2397-3374. ; 4:9, s. 898-909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-state actors play an increasingly important role in environmental policy. Lobbying by interest groups has been associated with policy stagnation and environmental degradation as well as with sustainable governance. However, little is known about how competition between economic and environmental interests influences the ability of governance systems to avoid undesirable outcomes. We investigate how competing interest group behaviour affects sustainable resource management by tracing the policy change process in a case study of the European Union fisheries policy and analysing its dynamics with an agent-based model. We find that formation of interest group coalitions in response to a perceived crisis can delay or prevent collapses, even when the competing interests have unequal resources. We attribute such outcomes to the emergence and timing of a ‘tug of war’ mechanism between competing interest group coalitions. We argue that attempts to improve sustainable resource management must account for feedbacks from environmental change to behaviours of political actors.
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6.
  • Rahnev, D, et al. (författare)
  • The Confidence Database
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature human behaviour. - 2397-3374. ; 4:63, s. 317-325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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8.
  • Strimling, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Asymmetries in punishment propensity may drive the civilizing process
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Human Behaviour. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2397-3374. ; 2:2, s. 148-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Norms about hygiene and violence have both shown a tendency to become increasingly strict, in the sense that the handling of bodily fluids and the use of violence have become increasingly restricted. The generality of this directional change across a large number of societies has not been captured by previous explanations. We propose an explanation of the directional change that is based on the aggregation of everyday interactions. This theory posits that directional norm change can come about if there is an asymmetry in punishment propensity between the people who prefer stricter norms and those who prefer looser norms. Asymmetry in punishment can arise from underlying asymmetry in the threat perceived, where a stricter-than-preferred behaviour is perceived as inherently less threatening than a looser one. We demonstrate the logic of the theory using a formal model and test some of its assumptions through survey experiments. © 2017 The Author(s).
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9.
  • Strimling, P., et al. (författare)
  • The connection between moral positions and moral arguments drives opinion change
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature human behaviour. - : NLM (Medline). - 2397-3374. ; 3:9, s. 922-930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Liberals and conservatives often take opposing positions on moral issues. But what makes a moral position liberal or conservative? Why does public opinion tend to become more liberal over time? And why does public opinion change especially fast on certain issues, such as gay rights? We offer an explanation based on how different positions connect with different kinds of moral arguments. Based on a formal model of opinion dynamics, we predicted that positions better connected to harm and fairness arguments will be more popular among liberals and will become more popular over time among liberals and conservatives. Finally, the speed of this trend will be faster the better the position connects to harm and fairness arguments. These predictions all held with high accuracy in 44 years of polling on moral opinions. The model explains the connection between ideology and moral opinions, and generates precise predictions for future opinion change.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 12
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