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Sökning: L773:2515 5091

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  • Gabrielson, Marike, et al. (författare)
  • Inclusion of Plasma Prolactin Levels in Current Risk Prediction Models of Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JNCI CANCER SPECTRUM. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 2515-5091. ; 2:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Circulating plasma prolactin is associated with breast cancer risk and may improve our ability to identify high-risk women. Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but the association with prolactin is unclear. We studied the association between breast cancer, established breast cancer risk factors and plasma prolactin, and improvement of risk prediction by adding prolactin. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study including 721 breast cancer patients and 1400 age-matched controls. Plasma prolactin levels were assayed using immunoassay and mammographic density measured by STRATUS. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by multivariable adjusted logistic regression, and improvement in the area under the curve for the risk of breast cancer by adding prolactin to established risk models. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results: In multivariable adjusted analyses, prolactin was associated with risk of premenopausal (OR, top vs bottom quintile = 1.9; 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 3.26) but not with postmenopausal breast cancer. In postmenopausal cases prolactin increased by 10.6% per cBIRADS category (P-trend = .03). In combined analyses of prolactin and mammographic density, ORs for women in the highest vs lowest tertile of both was 3.2 (95% CI = 1.3 to 7.7) for premenopausal women and 2.44 (95% CI = 1.44 to 4.14) for postmenopausal women. Adding prolactin to current risk models improved the area under the curve of the Gail model (+2.4 units, P = .02), Tyrer-Cuzick model (+3.8, P = .02), and the CAD2Y model (+1.7, P = .008) in premenopausal women. Conclusion: Circulating plasma prolactin and mammographic density appear independently associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women, and prolactin may improve risk prediction by current risk models.
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  • Gibbs, David Corley, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Circulating Vitamin D With Colorectal Cancer Depends on Vitamin D-Binding Protein Isoforms : A Pooled, Nested, Case-Control Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JNCI CANCER SPECTRUM. - : Oxford University Press. - 2515-5091. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH)D] concentrations are consistently inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in observational studies. However, it is unknown whether this association depends on the functional GC-rs4588*A (Thr436Lys) variant encoding the vitamin D-binding protein-2 (DBP2) isoform, which may affect vitamin D status and bioavailability. Methods: We analyzed data from 1710 incident CRC cases and 1649 incidence-density-matched controls nested within three prospective cohorts of mostly Caucasians. Study-specific incidence rate ratios (RRs) for associations of prediagnostic, seasonstandardized 25(OH)D concentrations according to DBP2 isoform with CRC were estimated using multivariable unconditional logistic regression and were pooled using fixed-effects models. All statistical significance tests were two-sided. Results: The odds of having 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L (considered insufficient by the Institute of Medicine) were 43% higher for each DBP2-encoding variant (rs4588*A) inherited (per DBP2 odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27 to 1.62, P-trend = 1.2 x 10(-8)). The association of 25(OH)D concentrations with CRC risk differed by DBP2: 25(OH)D concentrations considered sufficient (> 50 nmol/L), relative to deficient (< 30 nmol/L), were associated with a 53% lower CRC risk among individuals with the DBP2 isoform (RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.67), but with a non-statistically significant 12% lower risk among individuals without it (RR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.27) (P-heterogeneity = .01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the 25(OH)D-CRC association may differ by DBP isoform, and those with a DBP2-encoding genotype linked to vitamin D insufficiency may particularly benefit from adequate 25(OH)D for CRC prevention.
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  • Labadie, Julia D., et al. (författare)
  • Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Colorectal Cancer Risk by Molecularly Defined Subtypes and Tumor Location
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JNCI Cancer Spectrum. - : Oxford University Press. - 2515-5091. ; 4:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is associated with a decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. As CRC is a heterogeneous disease, we evaluated whether the association of HT and CRC differs across etiologically relevant, molecularly defined tumor subtypes and tumor location. Methods: We pooled data on tumor subtypes (microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype status, BRAF and KRAS mutations, pathway: adenoma-carcinoma, alternate, serrated), tumor location (proximal colon, distal colon, rectum), and HT use among 8220 postmenopausal women (3898 CRC cases and 4322 controls) from 8 observational studies. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of ever vs never HT use with each tumor subtype compared with controls. Models were adjusted for study, age, body mass index, smoking status, and CRC family history. All statistical tests were 2sided. Results: Among postmenopausal women, ever HT use was associated with a 38% reduction in overall CRC risk (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.69). This association was similar according to microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype and BRAF or KRAS status. However, the association was attenuated for tumors arising through the serrated pathway (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.01) compared with the adenoma-carcinoma pathway (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.73; P-het =.04) and alternate pathway (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.72). Additionally, proximal colon tumors had a weaker association (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.80) compared with rectal (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.63) and distal colon (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.66; P-het = .01) tumors. Conclusions: We observed a strong inverse association between HT use and overall CRC risk, which may predominantly reflect a benefit of HT use for tumors arising through the adenoma-carcinoma and alternate pathways as well as distal colon and rectal tumors.
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